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  • 1.
    Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland, P.O.Box 96, 02151 Espoo.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dawood, Anwaer
    Koya University.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Trace elements in water and sediments of the Tigris river, Baghdad City, Iraq2014In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 22, p. 1-17, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial, agricultural and rural activities may result in pollution of watercourses with elevated trace metal concentrations and implications for water supply and ecosystem functioning. The concentration of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Pb, Cu, and Cd in the water and clay fractions (<2μm) of the bank sediments of River Tigris in Baghdad city were determined. Dissolved trace metals concentrations were far below the upper permissible limits during 2012-2013. There was no consistent pattern between element concentrations and river discharge. Seasonal interrelations between water and sediments were most obvious for Fe that decreased in both environments with rising flows during autumn. Although independent of discharge, Mn in water and sediments often followed each other at all stations. Zinc, however, increased in the sediments and decreased in the water with discharge. The clay fractions were slightly to strongly enriched in trace metals with the gradient Co > Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu suggesting absorption of the metals on sediment substrate.

  • 2.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Aldardor, Wafa
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of treated wastewater irrigation on vegetables2013In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 21, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated waste water is normally used for irrigation purposes in countries suffering from water shortages to narrow the gap between supply and demand. The concept behind this is to save water consumed for agricultural activities, which consumes most of the water, for municipal and industrial uses. The Alsukhna area in Jordan is used to grow vegetables which are irrigated by treated wastewater. Surface and groundwater samples from the Zarqa region were analyzed for their major cations, anions and heavy metals. The impact of the treated waste water on the chemical components of vegetables was studied using Zn, Mn, Fe, Pb and Ni in sweet and hot pepper, tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, squash, cucumber and eggplant which were compared with similar vegetables irrigated by natural unpolluted water from the Mafraq region. The four metals, namely Zn, Fe, Pb, and Ni, had concentrations higher than in the reference vegetables by 3423%, 155%, 397%, 2949% and 289%, 187%, 211%, 214% fortomato and cauliflower, respectively. Sweet pepper was mainly influenced by an increased content of Fe, which was almost 180% higher than that in sweet pepper from the Mafraq region. Hot pepper had highly elevated concentrations of Ni (6980%) and Zn (419%), while squash demonstrated high Zn (207%) and Pb (666%). When all the heavy metals are considered, the most affected vegetable is the hot pepper with an average percent of heavy metals accumulation of 1559% while the least effected is cabbage at 116%.

  • 3.
    Bertrand, G.
    et al.
    Instituto de Geociências, CEPAS (Groundwater Research Center), University of São Paulo.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ala-Aho, P.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Rossi, P.M.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Environmental tracers and indicators bringing together groundwater, surface water and groundwater-dependent ecosystems: importance of scale in choosing relevant tools2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 813-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions cover a broad range of hydrogeological and biological processes and are controlled by natural and anthropogenic factors at various spatio-temporal scales, from watershed to hyporheic/hypolentic zone. Understanding these processes is vital in the protection of groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) increasingly required in water resources legislation across the world. The use of environmental tracers and indicators that are relevant simultaneously for groundwater, surface water and biocenoses-biotope interactions constitutes a powerful tool to succeed in the management task. However, tracer type must be chosen according to the scale of interest and tracer use thus requires a good conceptual understanding of the processes to be evaluated. This paper reviews various GW-SW interaction processes and their drivers and, based on available knowledge, systemises application of conservative tracers and semi-conservative and reactive environmental indicators at different spatial scales. Biocenoses-biotopes relationships are viewed as a possible transition tool between scales. Relation between principal application of the environmental tracers and indicators, examples and guidelines are further proposed for examining GW-SW interactions from a hydrogeological and biological point of view by demonstrating the usability of the tracers/indicators and providing recommendations for the scientific community and decision makers.

  • 4.
    Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Husson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Modelling nitrogen transformations in waters receiving mine effluents2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 21, p. 4585-4595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a biogeochemical model developed for a clarification pond receiving ammonium nitrogen rich discharge water from the Boliden concentration plant located in northern Sweden. Present knowledge about nitrogen (N) transformations in lakes is compiled in a dynamic model that calculates concentrations of the six N species (state variables) ammonium-N (Nam), nitrate-N (Nox), dissolved organic N in water (Norg), N in phytoplankton (Npp), in macrophytes (Nmp) and in sediment (Nsed). It also simulates the rate of 16 N transformation processes occurring in the water column and sediment as well as water–sediment and water–atmosphere interactions. The model was programmed in the software Powersim using 2008 data, whilst validation was performed using data from 2006 to 2007. The sensitivity analysis showed that the state variables are most sensitive to changes in the coefficients related to the temperature dependence of the transformation processes. A six-year simulation of Nam showed stable behaviour over time. The calibrated model rendered coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.93, 0.79 and 0.86 for Nam, Nox and Norg, respectively. Performance measures quantitatively expressing the deviation between modelled and measured data resulted in values close to zero, indicating a stable model structure. The simulated denitrification rate was on average five times higher than the ammonia volatilisation rate and about three times higher than the permanent burial of Nsed and, hence, the most important process for the permanent removal of N. The model can be used to simulate possible measures to reduce the nitrogen load and, after some modification and recalibration, it can be applied at other mine sites affected by N rich effluents.

  • 5.
    Kløve, Bjørn
    et al.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Ala-Aho, Pertti
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Bertrand, Guillaume
    University of Neuchâtel.
    Boukalova, Zuzana
    GIS-Geoindustry s.r.o..
    Ertürk, Ali
    Istanbul Technical University.
    Goldscheider, Nico
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Geosciences, Department of Hydrogeology.
    Ilmonen, Jari
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Karakaya, Nusret
    Abant Izzet Baysal University.
    Kupfersberger, Hans
    Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH Elisabethsr.
    Kvœrner, Jens
    Bioforsk - Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mileusnić, Marta
    University of Zagreb.
    Moszczynska, Agnieszka
    Universita Cattolica del SacroCuore.
    Muotka, Timo
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Preda, Elena
    University of Bucharest.
    Rossi, Pekka
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Šimek, Josef
    GIS-Geoindustry s.r.o..
    Wachniew, Przemysław
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza.
    Angheluta, Vadineanu
    University of Bucharest.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Groundwater dependent ecosystems: Part I: Hydroecological status and trends2011In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 770-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) include valuable ecosystems such as springs, wetlands, rivers, lakes and lagoons. The protection of these systems and services they provide is highlighted by international agreements, i.e. Ramsar convention on wetlands, and regional legislation, i.e. the European Water Framework Directive. Groundwater provides water, nutrients and a relatively stable temperature. However, the role of groundwater in surface ecosystems is not fully understood. The ecosystem can depend on groundwater directly or indirectly, and the reliance can be continuous, seasonal or occasional. This has implications for the vulnerability of ecosystems, as some may be easily affected by external pressure. Conceptual models and quantitative assessments of how groundwater interacts with the environment are needed. GDEs are also threatened by different land use activities and climate change. Hence, we need to understand how GDEs are affected by changes in groundwater quantity and quality, as severe groundwater changes have been observed in many regions. This study examines key aspects of GDEs (hydrogeology, geochemistry and biodiversity) in order to improve conceptual understanding of the role of groundwater in such ecosystems. The status and baseline of different types of GDEs are discussed, with particular emphasis on past evidence of environmental change and potential thresholds and threats in GDEs in various parts of Europe with different land use, climate and geology

  • 6.
    Kløve, Bjørn
    et al.
    Bioforsk, UOULU.
    Kværner, Jens
    Bioforsk.
    Kupfersberger, Hans
    JR.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gemitzi, Alexandra
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Hendry, Sarah
    UNIDUN.
    Balderacchi, Matteo
    UCSC.
    Preda, Elena
    University of Bucharest.
    Schmidt, Marie
    UFZ.
    Protection of GDE related ecosystem services in future groundwater resources management: current policies, methods and future recommendations2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater dependent ecosystems have a high biodiversity and many ecosystem services and their future protection is important. At present, little information is available on the role of groundwater in ecosystems let alone criteria for ecosystem protection. This report makes a critical analysis of present knowledge and seeks for new ways to understand and manage these systems. This is needed to manage groundwater bodies as intended in the European water directives (GWD and WFD) that strive to improve the status of groundwater and surface water. The report includes issues such as sustainability, legal issues, conceptual models, risk valuation and impact assessment methods.

  • 7.
    Kløve, Bjørn
    et al.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, University of Oulu, Bioforsk, UOULU.
    Ala-Aho, Pertti
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Bertrand, Guillaume
    University of Neuchâtel.
    Ertürk, Ali
    Istanbul Technical University, IGEM.
    Gemitzi, Alexandra
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Gönec, E.
    Moszczynska, Agnieszka
    Universita Cattolica del SacroCuore.
    Mileusnic, M.
    Kupfersberger, Hans
    Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, JR.
    Kværner, J.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Haro, S Peña
    Rossi, Pekka
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wachniew, Przemysław
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza.
    Wolak, A
    Groundwater surface water interaction in GDE2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report reviews and discussed the interaction of groundwaterin GDEs. The report presents and integrates past and new results.Different methods used to measure groundwater interaction withecosystems are presented. Various GENESIS case studies acrossEurope to demonstrate the variable and complex role ofgroundwater in GDEs. The basis for developing conceptual for GDEsis presented. Various methods to model GDEs are discussed.

  • 8.
    Preda, Elena
    et al.
    University of Bucharest.
    Kløve, Bjorn
    Bioforsk, UOULU.
    Kværner, Jens
    Bioforsk.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Boukalova, Zuzana
    GIS.
    Postawa, Adam
    AGH.
    Witczak, Stanislaw
    AGH.
    Balderacchi, Matteo
    UCSC.
    Trevisan, Marco
    UCSC.
    Ertürk, Ali
    IGEM.
    Gonenc, Ethem
    IGEM.
    Rossi, Pekka
    University of Oulu.
    Muotka, Timo
    University of Oulu.
    Ilmonen, Jari
    University of Oulu.
    Stefanopoulos, Kyriakos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Vadineanu, Angheluta
    University of Bucharest.
    New indicators for assessing GDE vulnerability2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Watershed Ecology and Biogeochemistry2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical effects of hydropower regulation on river-aquifer continuum in boreal rivers2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower infrastructure affects many large rivers worldwide, threatening riverine and coastal ecosystems by fragmenting flow, disturbing landscapes and water retention and altering sedimentation and primary production. This thesis investigated major impacts of hydropower regulation on hydrological and geochemical processes in large boreal rivers. Geochemical river transport, sediment composition and hydrogeochemical functioning of the river-aquifer interface were studied in the regulated Lule River and the unregulated, otherwise similar, Kalix River in Northern Sweden.Regulation halved mean maximum runoff and tripled minimum runoff and winter transport of total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, Si, suspended Mn and P compared with the unregulated river. Summer suspended C/N ratio was 10-20 and <10 in the regulated and unregulated river, respectively, indicating organic matter decay during long residence times in Lule River reservoirs. Suspended P/Fe ratio varied little annually in the regulated river, indicating low abundance of phytoplankton. Sediment cores from the headwater reservoir revealed simultaneous Fe and P sequestration under a Mn-oxyhydroxide layer on the sediment surface. Reservoirs also enhanced diatom production and sedimentation of non-detrital Si, decreasing Si transport to the sea. Retention of total Fe, Si and P was 15%, 7% and 25% of the total river transport, respectively.The river-aquifer interface (hyporheic zone) functioned differently in the two rivers. Daily oscillating discharge in the regulated river and reduced spring peaks caused riverbed colmation, impairing river-aquifer exchange and forming stagnant subsurface areas. The hyporheic zone functioned as a source/sink of Fe, Mn, dissolved OC and NH4 in the regulated/unregulated river. Regulation also altered temporal hydraulic gradients dynamics between river and aquifer favouring solute pulses and presumably causing irregular TOC patterns at the river mouth.Hydrological modelling of river-aquifer interactions indicated that short-term regulation diminished orthogonal fluxes. Prolonged river flow peaks increased bank storage, favouring a release of nutrients and major/trace elements into the river during return flows. Colmation restricted water movement across the river-aquifer interface, increasing residence time and favouring suboxic conditions. Gently sloping river banks (former floodplains) of the regulated river facilitated river water entry to subsurface layers, potentially increasing solute export.Overall, modified river discharge altered river-aquifer spatial and temporal connectivity and interface biogeochemistry. Longitudinal connectivity was disrupted by long-term regulation, while lateral and vertical connectivity and hyporheic exchange were reduced by oscillating river water levels and clogging. These novel findings on post-regulation riverine hydrological pathways and geochemical fluxes can help sustain riverine ecosystems.

  • 11.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Impact of hydropower regulation on river water geochemistry and hyporheic exchange2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower regulation of rivers exhibits a threat to the riverine ecosystems. Fragmentation of flow, landscape disturbances, and water retention are key features of regulated catchments, resulting in reduced floods and geochemical tr¬ansport, non-natural water level fluctuations, and thus disturbed exchange between the river and the aquifer. Storing of water in reservoirs reduces peak flow and turbidity, which increases particle settling and sometimes favours enhanced primary production and formation of a clogging layer. This in turn alters the interaction between surface water and groundwater, with potential secondary effects on the entire watershed. In Scandinavia, only eight large rivers (16%) remain entirely unregulated. The Lule River, the primary focus of this study, belongs to the most regulated rivers of Eurasia with a degree of regulation (i.e. the volume of water that can be stored in the reservoirs and used for regulation) of 72%, and is exposed to both seasonal and short-time regulation.Using hydrogeochemical analysis of two adjacent boreal rivers (pristine Kalix and regulated Lule River) discharging into the Gulf of Bothnia, the effects of regulation on river geochemistry were investigated. For the Lule River, the average maximum runoff was almost halved while the average minimum runoff was tripled as a result of the regulation. The winter transport fraction of total organic carbon, Fe, Si, suspended Mn and P in the Lule River was at least two to three times higher than in the pristine river. During summer, the suspended C/N ratio in the regulated river was 10-20, compared to <10 for the pristine river, suggesting a presence of predominantly decaying organic material due to longer residence times for the regulated river. This was supported by a virtually constant suspended P/Fe ratio throughout the year in the Lule River, indicating low abundance of phytoplankton. Hence, a pronounced impact on the ecosystem of the river, the hyporheic/riparian zone, and the Gulf of Bothnia is expected.In spite of vast anthropogenic pressure on riverine ecosystems, the knowledge regarding the hyporheic zone (the interface between rivers and aquifers where exchange between surface water and groundwater occurs) is limited for regulated rivers. Therefore, this study was extended to also cover the hyporheic exchange along the Lule River. Temporal changes in hyporheic fluxes across the river channel (rates and directions) were determined using seepage measurements and continuous observations of water stages, temperatures, and electrical conductivity for both the river and the groundwater. While the river water level changed frequently (typically twice a day with up to ± 0.5 m), the river remained gaining 90% of the time, and the largest number of observed changes in flow direction (observed at 5 m orthogonal distance from the river) was six times per week. Flow velocities ≤10-4 m d-1 ( zero flow) constituted 1.5% of the total observation time.Although no changes in water temperature were observed for the hyporheic zone, effects of river level variations were detected up to 5 m inland, where electrical conductivity occasionally decreased to surface water levels indicating infiltration of river water into the aquifer (negative fluxes). River discharge regulation may therefore have severe implications on biogeochemical processes and deteriorate the hydroecological functions of the hyporheic zone.

  • 12.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Groundwater and Dependent Ecosystems: New Scientific and Technological Basis for Assessing Climate Change and Land-use Impacts on Groundwater2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ehlert, L.
    Faculty of Science, Institute for Groundwater Management, Dresden.
    Reimann, Thomas
    Faculty of Science, Institute for Groundwater Management, Dresden.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Liedl, Rudolf
    Faculty of Science, Institute for Groundwater Management, Dresden.
    Modelling hyporheic processes for regulated rivers under transient hydrological and hydrogeological conditions2015In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 329-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the effects of major hydrogeological controls on hyporheic exchange and bank storage is essential for river water management, groundwater abstraction, restoration and ecosystem sustainability. Analytical models cannot adequately represent complex settings with, for example, transient boundary conditions, varying geometry of surface water-groundwater interface, unsaturated and overland flow, etc. To understand the influence of parameters such as (1) sloping river banks, (2) varying hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed and (3) different river discharge wave scenarios on hyporheic exchange characteristics such as (a) bank storage, (b) return flows and (c) residence time, a 2-D hydrogeological conceptual model and, subsequently, an adequate numerical model were developed. The numerical model was calibrated against observations in the aquifer adjacent to the hydropower-regulated Lule River, northern Sweden, which has predominantly diurnal discharge fluctuations during summer and long-lasting discharge peaks during autumn and winter. Modelling results revealed that bank storage increased with river wave amplitude, wave duration and smaller slope of the river bank, while maximum exchange flux decreased with wave duration. When a homogeneous clogging layer covered the entire river-aquifer interface, hydraulic conductivity positively affected bank storage. The presence of a clogging layer with hydraulic conductivity < 0.001 m dg'1 significantly reduced the exchange flows and virtually eliminated bank storage. The bank storage return/fill time ratio was positively related to wave amplitude and the hydraulic conductivity of the interface and negatively to wave duration and bank slope. Discharge oscillations with short duration and small amplitude decreased bank storage and, therefore, the hyporheic exchange, which has implications for solute fluxes, redox conditions and the potential of riverbeds as fish-spawning locations. Based on these results, river regulation strategies can be improved by considering the effect of certain wave event configurations on hyporheic exchange to ensure harmonious hydrogeochemical functioning of the river-aquifer interfaces and related ecosystems.

  • 14.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water - groundwater interaction: model development2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Surface water - groundwater interaction: hyporheic processes of a regulated river2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades large attention has been paid to the interface between rivers and groundwaters. Previous studies mainly focused on pristine streams with minimal human impact on the flow pattern (e.g (Triska et al., 1989). Nowadays, attention is drawn towards large regulated river systems that comprise 58% of the large world’s rivers (Nilsson et al., 2005). Therefore, research on hyporheic processes in such rivers is vital. Studies performed in large regulated rivers show an impact on hyporheic variables such as pressure, temperature, water chemistry and spatial extent of the hyporheic zone. The goal of this study is to extend the knowledge regarding geochemical processes in the hyporheic water by performing comprehensive analyses of hyporheic zone water chemistry of a large regulated boreal river.The hyporheic zone processes together with the river water were studied during a one year period in the regulated Lule River, Northern Sweden. Major features and variations were compared to the pristine settings of the neighboring Kalix River. A monitoring program included continuous measurements of water levels, electrical conductivity and water temperature, with occasional sampling of water chemistry that comprised filtered (<0.45 µm) concentrations of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Fe, Mn, Al and organic carbon. The key difference in hydrological regime between regulated and pristine conditions was the absence of a spring peak, and overall reduced water discharge variations throughout the year in the regulated river. As a result, a fine-grained clogging layer forms on the regulated river bed, which restricts surface water-groundwater exchange. Presence of the clogging layer causes a longer residence time of the groundwater resulting in with higher filtered concentrations in the hyporheic zone. As a result of the short time regulation, frequent oxygenation of the subsurface by infiltration of the surface waters induced lower pH, higher DOC content, and increased filtered Fe, Mn, Si, K, Na, and Al concentrations. Enrichment of the hyporheic water in K and DOC occurs during water level fluctuations, when these elements are leached from the upper soil layer rich in decomposing organic matter.Changes in river stages due to river regulation also reach groundwater up to 50 m away from the river, thus initiating water table variations in the aquifer. It is hypothesized that in the studied area these water level variations induced a decrease in groundwater pH (up to one pH unit lower than the reference groundwater a few hundred meters uphill). Finally, possible acidification of soils and groundwater adjacent to the Lule River groundwater may in turn affect the riparian and riverine ecosystems negatively.

  • 16.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hyporheic water exchange in a large hydropower regulated boreal river: directions and rates2014In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 334-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread river regulation is known to modify river-aquifer interactions, influencing entire watersheds, but knowledge of the hyporheic flowpath along regulated rivers is limited. This study measured the hydraulic conductivity of the river bed and the aquifer, water levels and seepage fluxes in the heavily regulated Lule River in Northern Sweden, with the aim of characterising water exchange across the river-aquifer interface. While pristine rivers in the area are gaining, the Lule River was recharging the aquifer during 10% of the time. Daily river level fluctuations (typically ±0.25 m) directed ~3% of the total orthogonal flux across the river bed towards the aquifer, while during ~2% of the time the orthogonal fluxes were negligible (≤10–4 m d–1). A clogging layer on the river bed, most likely formed due to the modified river discharge, restricted river-aquifer exchange. The hyporheic zone had higher electrical conductivity than the river and the aquifer and electrical conductivity occasionally decreased following rising river water levels, with 3–5 hours delay. Overall, hydropower regulation has severely altered the hydrological regime of the hyporheic zone in the Lule River.

  • 17.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    “Clogging layer” at regulated river beds - implications for river-groundwater exchange2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EU-project GENESIS (2013), aiming to provide scientific basis and technical guidance for the update of the EU Groundwater Directive, Luleå University of Technology is investigating possible effects of hydropower regulation on surface water (SW)- groundwater (GW) exchange. The study compares SW, GW and hyporheic processes for the unregulated Kalix River and the regulated Lule River. Hydropower has long been regarded a fairly green energy source but today negative effects have become obvious (Renöfält et al. 2010).The hyporheic zone (HZ) accommodates most of the SW-GW exchange of solutes just beneath and along a river, dampens heat fluxes, processes pollutants and is essential for ecosystems.The study observes SW and GW (in wells orthogonal to the river) at one site in each river. In these, hydrological (water level, hydraulic conductivity, tracer test) and geochemical (temperature, electrical conductivity, water/soil chemistry) measurements were performed during several seasons.The presence of natural high-flow events in the Kalix River removes fines from the river bed, maintaining good SW-GW connectivity that favours hyporheic exchange (Brunke and Gonser 1997). Altered discharge of the regulated river (reduced flow peaks and velocity, daily discharge fluctuations) facilitated deposition of fine sediments at the river bed forming a “clogging layer” (Blaschke et al. 2003). The bed in the regulated river has two orders of magnitude lower hydraulic conductivity than that at the unregulated site and restricts the SW-GW exchange.Reduced hydraulic connectivity between SW and GW at the regulated Lule River site suggests decreased fluxes across the river-aquifer interface (Siergieiev et al. 2013), and thus reduced size of the HZ which is not always the case in regulated rivers (Sawyer et al. 2009).Decreased hyporheic velocities led to increased residence time and favored prolonged contact between water and soil matrix that stimulated biogeochemical transformations. As a result, the electrical conductivity of hyporheic water of the Lule River was higher than that of the surrounding water.Deteriorated connectivity and extended travel time reduced the dissolved oxygen concentration, which is functionally ecologically essential for hyporheic habitat. In addition, complete consumption of nitrate found at the regulated site, suggests formation of a suboxic zone extending several meters inland which promotes metals release reflected in high dissolved Fe and Mn in the HZ. The conditions of SW-GW exchange control nutrients processing and their export to SW. Thus, the HZ in the Lule River acts as a source of dissolved metals, while in the Kalix River much of the metals are removed by hyporheic processes due to good SW-GW connectivity.SW-GW connectivity plays an important role for hyporheic exchange and hyporheic water quality. Hydropower regulation in the Lule River has altered this connectivity, which may have far reaching implications for biogeochemical processes in the river.

  • 18.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wang, Zhiqing
    Hydropower regulation impact on river-groundwater interaction and the riparian zone: a geochemical approach2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural rivers, including their riparian zones, belong to the most diverse, dynamic, and complex ecosystems on the world’s continents, and they play key roles in the regulation and maintenance of biodiversity in the landscape (Dynesius and Nilsson, 1994). Hydropower has a major macro-economic impact since it supplies more than 50% of national electricity production in 65 countries (Koch, 2002). Today about two-thirds of the fresh water flowing to the oceans is obstructed by approximately 40,000 large dams and more than 900,000 smaller ones (Petts, 1984; McCully, 1996). Hydropower regulation of river bodies was for a long time considered to be an environmentally friendly source of energy (Renöfält et al., 2009). However, damming of rivers has later been recognized as one of the most dramatic anthropogenic impacts on the natural environment (Petts, 1984). A comparison between one regulated and one pristine river with similar features, both located in Northern Sweden, has been conducted (Collomp 2001). The Luleå River comprises 15 reservoirs and has been regulated for almost a century (72 % of the annual river runoff can be stored in its reservoirs) (Dynesius and Nilsson, 1994). The Kalix River, the last major unregulated river in Europe, is used as a reference for geochemical conditions in a pristine river.Water storage in reservoirs affects seasonal water discharge, water temperature, conductivity and concentrations of nutrients, dissolved oxygen, organic matter and metals. Spring peaks are truncated and postponed and average base flow is higher than that under pristine conditions. Due to increased sedimentation in the reservoirs, the transport of Fe, Si, Al, Mn, DOC, P and N has decreased (Drugge, 2003). The aim of the outlined study is to increase knowledge regarding the effect of river regulation on riparian groundwater geochemistry by:a) analysing river water measurements with respect to river-groundwater exchangeb) measuring riparian groundwater quality at one site in each of the two riversIn both rivers, sampling sites were chosen approximately 100 km upstream of the river mouth. The geological settings and climatic conditions are similar in the two chosen areas, with precipitation rates of about 400 mm/year. In the regulated Luleå River, frequent water level fluctuations cause continuous mixing of river water and groundwater. Land use in both areas is equally non-intensive, and hydropower exploitation of the Luleå River is the only notable difference in land use in the two areas. The monitoring program at each site includes installation of 2-3 groundwater wells, with data loggers continuously recording groundwater levels, temperature, pH, conductivity, DO and ORP. Water samples will be taken weekly or bi-weekly for metal and nutrient analyses, and the hydraulic conductivities at the sites will be determined in soil samples. Expected outcome: Improved knowledge regarding river regulation impact on riparian groundwater, based on comparison of a one-year cycle of seasonal variations in groundwater flow and quality in a heavily regulated and a nearby pristine river.

  • 19.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Flow regulation effects on the hydrogeochemistry of the hyporheic zone in boreal rivers2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 499, p. 424-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River-aquifer interfaces are essential for ecosystem functioning in terms of nutrient exchange and biological habitat, but are greatly threatened world-wide. This study examined geochemical aspects of river-aquifer interaction in one regulated and one unregulated boreal river in Northern Sweden to determine whether the geochemical functioning of the hyporheic zone is affected by hydrological alterations, e.g. regulated river discharge and river-aquifer connectivity. In the unregulated Kalix River, the hyporheic pore water was well-oxygenated with orthogonal fluxes (≈0.6-0.7 m d-1) and acted as a sink for Fe, Mn, Al, NH4, and Ca, with fractional losses of 95%, 92%, 45%, 31%, and 15%, respectively. A corresponding elevation in the concentrations of these elements in the hyporheic sediment was observed, with higher saturation indices of Fe-, Mn-, and Al-bearing secondary minerals in hyporheic waters. In the regulated Lule River, hydraulic connectivity at the river-aquifer interface was altered by the presence of a clogging layer (0.04 m d–1). In addition, the river discharge oscillated daily, severely reducing exchange flows across the riverbed (<0.01 m d-1). As a result, the hyporheic pore water was suboxic, with elevated concentrations of filtered Fe and Mn (fractional increase of ≈3700% and ≈2500%, respectively) and other solutes (NH4, Si, S, Ca). A conceptual model revealed functional differences between geochemical features of the hyporheic zone of regulated and unregulated rivers. Overall, the results showed that hyporheic processes are altered along regulated rivers, with resulting impacts on the geochemistry of riverine, riparian and related marine ecosystems.

  • 20.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Drugge, Lisbeth
    Collomp, Magali
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Impact of Hydropower Regulation on River Water Composition in Northern Sweden2014In: Aquatic geochemistry, ISSN 1380-6165, E-ISSN 1573-1421, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 59-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using hydrogeochemical analysis of two large boreal rivers (pristine Kalix and hydropower regulated Lule) discharging into the Gulf of Bothnia, the major impacts of regulation on water discharge, element transport, and their seasonal redistribution have been assessed. The pre-regulation hydrogeochemical features were assumed to be similar for the two rivers. For the Lule River, the average maximum runoff was almost halved, while the average minimum was tripled as a result of the regulation. The fraction of winter transport of total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, Si, suspended Mn and P in the Lule River was, according to a conservative estimate, two to three times higher than in the pristine river. Longer residence time in the Lule River delayed arrival of the suspended Mn peak and dissolved Si decline to the river mouth. During summer, the suspended C/N ratio in the regulated river was 10-20 compared to <10 for the pristine, suggesting presence of predominantly old organic material. This was supported by a virtually constant suspended P/Fe ratio throughout the year in the Lule River, indicating low abundance of phytoplankton. TOC varied irregularly in the Lule River suggesting temporal disconnection between the river and the upper riparian zone. The disappearance of the spring flow maximum, a shift of element transport from spring to winter, and supply of mainly old organic material during the vegetation growth season may have a pronounced impact on the ecosystem of the Gulf of Bothnia and the river itself.

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