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  • 1.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde.
    Lundgren, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.
    Revisiting information security risk management challenges: a practice perspective2019Inngår i: Information and Computer Security, ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 358-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The study aims to revisit six previously defined challenges in information security risk management to provide insights into new challenges based on current practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on an empirical study consisting of in-depth interviews with representatives from public sector organisations. The data were analysed by applying a practice-based view, i.e. the lens of knowing (or knowings). The results were validated by an expert panel.

    Findings – Managerial and organisational concerns that go beyond a technical perspective have been . found, which affect the ongoing social build-up of knowledge in everyday information security work.

    Research limitations/implications – The study has delimitation as it consists of data from four public sector organisations, i.e. statistical analyses have not been in focus, while implying a better understanding of what and why certain actions are practised in their security work.

    Practical implications – The new challenges that have been identified offer a refined set of actionable advice to practitioners, which, for example, can support cost-efficient decisions and avoid unnecessary security trade-offs.

    Originality/value – Information security is increasingly relevant for organisations, yet little is still known about how related risks are handled in practice. Recent studies have indicated a gap between the espoused and the actual actions. Insights from actual, situated enactment of practice can advise on process adaption and suggest more fit approaches.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Prototyping – a way to think together2009Inngår i: Research into Design: Supporting multiple facets of product development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2009, s. 450-457Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The descriptive study presented in this paper is based on the empirical data generated by observing a global student design team. Their prototyping process are described and discussed to feed input to the facilitation of team based innovation. The emerging of a shared design vision as early as possible is vital for the subsequent design activities, in particular for innovation projects. Every day items, body language and simple rough prototypes are used by the student team to communicate their ideas, to generate feedback on the ideas and to put forward new ideas. The study indicates that the process of doing rough prototypes enables designers to make their implicit understandings visible in such cases when the development starts from scratch, e.g., innovations. Thus, prototyping, i.e., the use of rough prototypes and body language etc, assist designers to collaborate and share experiences in early phases when no agreed upon design vision exists.

  • 3.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Madelene
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Renström, Boo
    Voxit.
    Needs as a basis for design rationale2008Inngår i: Design 2008: 10th International Design Conference, May 19-22, 2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nenad Bojcetic, Zagreb: University of Zagreb , 2008, s. 281-288Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on data from a Swedish real-life industrial product development project for e-health care of elderly. The purpose in the paper is to discuss identification of user needs. Information about the elderly is transferred in recurrent meetings. Besides the perception that these meetings occupy time which could be spent giving care, the nurses find it problematic to convey such information to substitutes, as well as they have to rely on their memory. In this case, a Dictaphone device was a solution. Reports on practical activities of identifying user needs and how they affect decisions in product development are limited; one contribution of this paper is insights into such a case

  • 4.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Matzen, Detlef
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Tan, Adrian
    Technical University of Denmark, Engineering Design and Product Development.
    Educating engineering designers for a multidisciplinary future2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary companies on a global market are experiencing constantly changing business demands and increased competition. Increasing focus in product development is now put on issues like understanding users and their needs, the context where users’ activities take place and creating sustainable solutions (McAloone, et.al., 2007). In manufacturing companies, engineering designers play a significant role in realising what is captured in these words.Future engineering designers will hold wider responsibilities for such tasks (McAloone, et.al., 2007; Larsson, et.al., 2005), thus challenging current engineering design education. Educating engineering designers today significantly differs from traditional engineering education (McAloone, et.al., 2007). However, a broader view of design activities gains little attention. The project course Product/Service-Systems, which is coupled to the lecture based course Product life and Environmental issues at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the master programme in Product Development at the Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Sweden, are both curriculums with a broader view than traditional (mechanical) engineering design. Based on these two representatives of a Scandinavian approach, the purpose in this presentation is to describe two ways of educating engineering designers to enable them to develop these broader competencies of socio-technical aspects of engineering design. Product Development at LTU A process, called Participatory Product Innovation (P2I) underpins the master programme Product Development and originates from the Design for Wellbeing (DfW) framework (Larsson, et.al., 2005). This is an inclusive framework which seeks to bring together business, human issues and technology in a comprehensive approach to support the creation of tomorrow’s innovations. A main principle is that many different disciplines should contribute to spur innovation by collaboration across disciplines (Larsson, et.al., 2007). The P2I process starting position is in Needfinding (Patnaik and Becker, 1999), were the students conduct observations and interviews to gain access to ualities in the users’ context. An identified challenge here is to keep people in view and not jump into conclusions, i.e., to understand a situation perceived by its actors as problematic and to widen the design space. Product/Service-Systems at DTU Besides the teaching of traditional engineering skills, the curriculum for the project course aims to build up multidisciplinary competences such as understanding the socio technical aspects of product design and synthesis of products and delivery systems. The students are assigned to redesign an existing physical product, such as a washing machine, and turn it into a product/service-system. The main objective for the project is that the resulting solution should have a substantially lower environmental impact whilst maintaining a similar functional performance as the initial product. The student teams are first guided through an analysis of the initial product’s product life cycle, yielding insights into four aspects of product design:1. indentification of current environmental impacts, 2. life phase systems the product encounters, 3. activities that involve the human actor (i.e. customer) and the product, 4. actor-network that support and supply these activities throughout the product’s life. Based on the analysis, goals are set for the improved solution and concepts are developed for a new product/service-system. This way the students are lead through engineering and socio-technical analysis tasks and thereby laying the foundation for their synthesis work in the concept development phase of the project. Concluding Remark By emphasising socio technical aspects in a process model or in a project course, the students are more likely to consider users, their context and sustainable solutions. This we see as essential competencies in product/service-system design and functional product development. References Larsson, A., Larsson, T., Leifer, L., Van der Loos, M., Feland, J. (2005), Design for Wellbeing: Innovations for People, In proceedings of 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 05, August 15-18, Melbourne, Australia.McAloone, T.C., Andreasen, M.M., Boelskifte, P. (2007), A Scandinavian Model of Innovative Product Development, In Proccedings of the 17th CIRP Design Conference, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Patnaik, D., Becker, R. (1999), Needfinding: The Why and How of Uncovering People’s Needs, Design Management Journal, 10 (2), 37-43.

  • 5.
    Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Törlind, Peter
    4I4I : Four I:s for Innovation: a book with easy to use methods and ideas to foster innovative product development2010Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    A book with easy to use methods and ideas to foster innovative product development.

  • 6.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Enhancing intra-cognitive communication in product design with color-coded CAD models: a visualization approach2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications: CogInfoCom 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 487-492Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical investigation in the European aerospace industry has shown major drawbacks in the way design teams share information about the value contribution of a solution during early design stages. Across functions and organizations, design teams collaborate mainly using the contractual requirements as a basis, lacking of recording and communicating the contextual knowledge and the overall intent of product and service development projects. The paper proposes an approach that uses color-coded 3D CAD models for intra-cognitive communication of such value-related information to enhance the decision-making process in design. The paper first introduces the concept of product service systems and the benefits provided by visualization, afterwards it describes how value visualization can be implemented in a CAD 3D environment. A case study derived from the aerospace industry is presented to provide an example of application of the approach in a real industrial environment.

  • 7.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Introducing PSS thinking in product-based organizations: a case study in the Swedish manufacturing industry2010Inngår i: Industrial product-service systems (IPS²): proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference [2010, Linköping, 14-15 April] / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For traditional product-based companies PSSs represent a huge jump in the dark. Thus the introduction of PSS-like features, aiming to extend the artefact-based offering, is done gradually in the earliest stages, focusing on some value-adding aspects while excluding others. The main aim of this paper is to understand how the transition to PSS is initiated from a company perspective and how these PSS embryos are supported in everyday design activities. The authors have conducted a case study in the Swedish manufacturing industry to collect issues, challenges and opportunities related to the development of service-based offering in their early beginning. As a result they introduce the concept of knowledge-intensive products, seen as an intermediate step towards the full integration of products, software and services, and discuss their implication from a product development point of view.

  • 8.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Tobias
    Needs and requirements: how TRIZ may be applied in product-service development2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management - NordPLM'09 / [ed] Johan Malmqvist; Göran Gustafsson, Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola. Institutionen för produkt- och produktionsutveckling , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Product-Service Systems development, understanding of the customers' use of goods seems vital, since the product per se is not sold but rather the performance it brings to the customers' processes in terms of added value. This changed business scenario insists on an integration of a service and a product perspectives in early design phases. However, the approaches to understand customers diverge. In this paper, a need matrix, from the economic theory of needs, and a requirement matrix, from the TRIZ methodology, are used to elaborate on integration aspects to understand customer statements. The comparison of these matrixes made the distinct logics apparent, and gave an indication for the necessity of another type of specification for PSS products. Also, the knowledge base for PSS methodologies has to be extended to encompass a part that visualizes non measurable aspects such as needs.

  • 9.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Larsson, Tobias
    Isaksson, Ola
    Randall, Dave
    Department of Sociology, Manchester Metropolitan University.
    The rise of social product development2012Inngår i: International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, ISSN 1470-9503, E-ISSN 1741-5225, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 188-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to discuss the rising potential of social software to increase the knowledge management capabilities of virtual product development teams. It presents six fundamental transitions, elaborated from the empirical findings, which justify the rise of a more bottom-up, social creation and sharing of engineering knowledge in the virtual organisation. The study suggests that traditional engineering knowledge management approaches alone are not sufficient to support development activities in the virtual organisation, and that such teams display an increasing demand for social, comparatively lightweight and remixable platforms for bottom-up, social creation and sharing of knowledge.

  • 10.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Knowledge-sharing network for product-service system development: is it atypical?2012Inngår i: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th-9th, 2012 / [ed] Yoshiki Shimomura; Koji Kimita, Berlin Heidelberg: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, s. 109-114Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The move towards offering product-service systems (PSS) requires the involvement of stakeholders from heterogeneous functions or companies with knowledge of the different product lifecycle stages. Knowledge sharing across supply network is, therefore, considered as a key enabler for the successful development of PSS. The existing literature, however, overlooks knowledge sharing network in a PSS context. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible knowledge-sharing network for PSS development using social network-tie theory—in order to map the relationships, interactions and knowledge to be shared between actors, and eventually discuss the PSS impact on their relationships in the network.

  • 11. Cox, Charles
    et al.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tendencies toward Problem-Setting and Problem-Solving: A Study of Operations Derived from Motivation Strategies2014Inngår i: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 10, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals’ design models are oriented toward pursuing either goals or insights, and these orientations play an important role in how individuals work as a team. We have in this paper elaborated on how those orientations are interpreted as operations in design prototyping for the purpose of understanding how the individual’s orientation might affect early planning and design activities. Our study followed students as design learners working in teams for a studio course. Each team was composed of individuals having similar design model orientations. For the design exercise observed, the insight-oriented team employed a more user oriented design model. Although, the study was limited, its results indicate considerations for both industry (because conflicts among individual members’ fundamental orientations can cause costly delays in design projects) and for design education (how to facilitate understanding of and reflection about one’s own model as well as that of someone else). Also, this paper makes a suggestion for future studies.

  • 12.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A need-based approach to product development2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In manufacturing industry, a developing view of life-cycle commitments has in turn triggered an interest in development processes for incorporated physical artefacts. In fact, this new scenario is an expansion of the core manufacturing business such that not only the manufactured artefact but also its functionality can be contracted for. Thus, an emphasis on development of goods becomes an emphasis on development of goods and services combined - a functional product. Such development process is not straightforward since goods and services might otherwise be developed in distinct ways. A service, for instance, is performed as an activity and is partly co- produced with the user and/or customer. Based on this it can be argued that a service is also oftentimes partly customized in some sense. A core competence within the strand of service development would therefore have to be an understanding of customers needs. In contrast, within the strand of product development a core competence is to transform a market opportunity into an engineered physical product ready to launch. Each of these strands builds on different logics in the development processes. Within a Functional Product Development process an integration of these two worlds - the understanding of needs and the development of a physical product - is expected to support the design of physical artefacts aimed for life-cycle commitments. Embarking from an assumption that an understanding of customers', users' and/or peoples' needs is likely to provide useful insights into Functional Product Development processes, this thesis aims to shed light on input into early phases of product development. Previous studies, presented in the appended papers, indicate that ‘needs' - which people cannot readily articulate - are not fully recognized in product development literature or explicitly managed in industry. Thus, building on the results from these studies, the work in this thesis elaborates essentially on two theoretical knowledge domains, i.e., product development and Needfinding. In Needfinding, a main principle is to look for needs, not for solutions. To do so, the methods to generate customer information are focused on data related to what people actually are striving to achieve when taking actions. Hence, goals, contexts, actions and behaviours matter and are probed for by the Needfinding team. A common approach is a combination of methods relying on observations and interviews. In practice, the way in which the study is undertaken will be context dependent. The search for data should be performed by a multidisciplinary team, in which the idea is that designers should participate. In view of the identified differences it can be concluded that the input from a needs-based approach differs in terms of the kind of data that would result in a need statement. Such an approach provides rich and contextual information about people's activities and goals, while a typical product development approach provides rich and detailed information about the products that customers use. Thus, a need-based approach supports innovative and new products and traditional product development seems to support improvement of existing products. Yet both are important to develop functional products. The challenge of integrating the two stances is identified as related to cultural and historical formative issues. Designers are well acquainted with product improvement from a technical point of view, but needs identification is likely to require a non-trivial shift in perspective and in particular will rely on a broadly sociological ability - the ability to observe human beings.

  • 13.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Functional product development: an explorative view2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied in the concept of functional products is a shift in view for manufacturing companies as providers of physical artefacts to service providers. Furthermore, differentiation by offering added value, increased commitment towards customers, life-cycle commitment for the physical artefact and close collaboration between manufacturing companies are characteristics of the concept of functional products. On a business level, the concept of functional products are expressed as total offers, integrated solutions and/or functional sales. On a product development level, the integration of hardware, software and service aspects is identified. Accordingly, from one viewpoint the concept of functional products leads to a transition view and from another viewpoint the concept of functional products leads to an integration view. A shift in view and integration seem to be in opposition to each other. The purpose of this thesis is to explore what new approaches in product development are motivated by the concept of functional products. To understand the concept of functional products, the differences between hardware and service aspects have to be understood. A knowledge perspective frames the study. The focus is upon hardware and service knowledge. The work in this thesis approaches the concept of functional products from a product development perspective i.e. a development of physical artefacts viewpoint, bringing in service management literature. The studies are delimited to manufacturing companies acting in a business-to-business environment. The research strategy used encompasses an interpretive approach and qualitative material is generated in both interviews and meetings with industry people. Two perspectives emerge in the theoretical framework, a hardware perspective and a service perspective. A transition or a shift in view from a hardware perspective to a service perspective can take place on a business level, whereas on a product development level an integration view is necessary. The ability to alternate between a service perspective including needs analysis and a hardware perspective including solutions has been presented. Thus, the importance of understanding needs is recognised for functional product development. New approaches for product development are found concerning integration of knowledge, collaboration and reflective approach to services. An open-minded approach to products where new products and offerings can emerge has also been discussed.

  • 14.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Product-Service Systems: en teoretisk referensram för produktutveckling2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    On the way to knowledge awareness in early design2007Inngår i: The future of product development: proceeding of the 17th CIRP design conference / [ed] Frank-Lothar Krause, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2007, s. 607-616Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is part of a study where a descriptive and a prescriptive approach have been used. This paper deals with the descriptive part and discusses views on decision support in product development to identify factors of relevance to con-sider when designing computer-based decision support for total offers. Providing services in form of physical artefacts offered as ‘functions per unit’ is at the heart of total offers. The intention is to provide customers with functions in time and place ‘as-needed’, based on a life-cycle commitment. This new scenario is found in manufacturing industry in addition to a traditional view on selling hardware and providing aftermarket activities. Total offers gain access to possibilities to ‘design in’ value added characteristics into the physical artefact, e.g., maintenance, moni-toring, training and abilities to upgrade and/or remanufacture. Computer tools is commonly used to supply design teams with information which is relevant, correct and in time to support resolutions, yet to support a GO/NO GO decision for total offers contemporary tools seems to be insufficient. Relevant factors to take into consideration are to support learning and provide the decision makers with insights in a number of plausible ‘what-if’ scenarios to im-prove the solution space.

  • 16.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Larsson, Andreas
    Törlind, Peter
    Design thinking challenges in education2009Inngår i: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2009, s. 89-100Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development processes are commonly represented in sequential models covering the necessary stages from planning to product rollout, while processes to take needs into the development activities show other aspects, namely that understanding needs requires, for a product developer, additional skills. In our curricula for engineering design education we apply some aspects of design thinking to bring together (a) business savvy, in terms of understanding people’s needs as market opportunities, and (b) product development process, in terms of team-based creativity and collaborative skills, with (c) the basic engineering knowledge. This is a demanding aim, much because the approaches, methods and mindsets differ widely from what the students are used to. Hence, in this paper we elaborate on our efforts to educate engineers in design thinking to provide insights into some challenges for engineering design.  Three key challenges are identified, (1) integrative approaches are not straightforwardly implemented, (2) training of ‘soft’ capabilities to provide a change in thinking, and (3) social competence to make use of design thinking.

  • 17. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Andreas
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Prompting innovation: dedicated places2008Inngår i: Proceedings: 2nd Conference on Nordic Innovation Research, December 3-4 2007; Luleå University of Technology / [ed] Håkan Ylinenpää, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008, s. 161-173Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In our view, close collaboration in joint work meetings has gained limited attention from universities. Our vision for promoting innovative forms of academia-industry collaboration is to bridging meeting content, goal and physical domains to facilitate the meetings and everyday interactions of creative and innovative teams. This paper provides an outline of how an emerging approach for team innovation encourages a reorganization of research and development work, as well as provides a new rational for the design and use of collaborative work spaces. The opportunity to dedicate a room, i.e., a boiler room, for creative collaborative meetings occurred when our offices was going to be refurbished. The space, i.e., the physical constraints of the room, was given. Structurally, it is a typical squared room, nothing remarkable about that. However, by observing and talking about our own collaboration and meetings a set of needs was identified. For the boiler room these needs was captured in the words static and flexible. On the foundation of these words the boiler room has been furnish. A furniture FocIn-FocOut was designed to guide people into different modes. The rationale for the boiler room has been made visible and thereby, also the notion of place as a cultural phenomena.

  • 18.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Advanced engineering: How to sustain the ability for innovation operations2016Inngår i: Advanced Manufacturing and Automation V / [ed] Y. Wang; T. Yu; J.O. Strandhagen; K. Wang, Southhampton: WIT Press, 2016, s. 304-311Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Developing innovation for change: Enablers for sustainability2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Meeting sustainability challenges: soft systems thinking as an enabler for change2015Inngår i: The 20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED15): 27th-30th July 2015, Politecnico di Milano, Italy : proceedings of ICED15 / [ed] Christian Weber; Stephan Husung; Gaetano Gascini; Marco Cantamessa ; D. Marjanović, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2015, Vol. 1 : Design for life, s. 209-216Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are three dimensions of sustainability: environmental, economic, and social. One important task is to integrate them so as to identify how more sustainable paths can be identified, assessed, and decided upon. Previous research has identified systems thinking as a key to achieving this. The purpose of the paper is to build on these ideas and to propose an initial framework that demonstrates the potential of incorporating soft systems methodology and a theory of modalities, introducing aspects in addition to environmental, economic, and social ones. Moreover, theoretical exploration shows that understanding different predispositions, or worldviews, are vital to creating shared and purposeful actions. This paper expresses the intentions of a pre-study, and the ideas are far from mature; however, the importance of collaboration in shared and more sustainable actions is the basis for an industry-wide initiative called the Construction Climate Challenge (CCC).

  • 21.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A quest for knowledge?2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, a new knowledge economy and more service-based offerings are commonly mentioned as a challenge for manufacturing companies. This challenge addresses the companies’ knowledge base and the traditional engineering expertise areas. The report starts from an assumption that there are differences in how knowledge is managed, as well as differences in the intentions to why it is managed. Based on this assumption, the purpose in the report is two-folded. First, the purpose is to conceptualize different facets of knowledge within a framework of technical product development. Second, the purpose is that the report serves as a trigger for discussions and reflections on existing practices in industrial workshops. So, despite that the report does not provide the “right” answers to these questions; they still guide the work in our research:• What is actually managed in every-day engineering project work?• And, for what purposes?The work accounted for in the report comes from a literature review and our jointefforts in understanding the research area from a theoretical perspective. First general views on knowledge is presented, including its classification in different ways, compared to information and data, as well as its division into tacit and explicit knowledge, or practical skills and theoretical knowledge. Human factors, including how people search for information, is also presented. Then a more explicit focus on technical knowledge is presented, showing the shift from knowledge as an artefact to a social and personal perspective in recent years. This also encompasses discussing the capabilities and knowledge of an engineer. A contribution of this report is the conceptualization of different facets of engineering knowledge; especially the more social aspects of engineering knowledge have been highlighted.

  • 22.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Place innovation: using design thinking in live cases2016Inngår i: Proceedings of NordDesign 2016 / [ed] Boks, C; Sigurjonsson, J; Steinert, M; Vis, C; Wulvik, A, 2016, Vol. 2, s. 398-317Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a study based on two views, i.e. innovation in teams of non-designers and live case interactions. This means that a diverse set of roles are involved in the innovation activities that originate from real regional situations. The application area relates to design and development of destinations, e.g. regions, tourism and attractive places. This study focuses on two main issues, namely (a) is it possible to make non-designers momentarily become design thinkers, and (b) is it possible to produce ideas and 'out-of-the-box' views in groups consisting of non-designers within a short timeframe? The purpose of this paper is thus to illustrate and explain these issues in order to contribute to a live case platform for collaborative innovation among society, trade and industry, and universities. The empirical data from four workshops, in total engaging 179 participants, shows that there are several challenges related to the efforts to transfer techniques and methods for design thinking and innovation into the heads and hands of non-designers. For example, trade and business can rarely allocate regular working hours for participatory design thinking, so they act based on traditional professional roles. Also, sessions turn into (unproductive) discussions if the participants are not firmly facilitated and encouraged. Bringing in live cases through the participation of mixed teams places additional requirements on innovation research in respect of implementation and packaging for practical uses.

  • 23.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kaartinen, Heidi
    Centria Research & Development, Ylivieska.
    Solvang, Wei Deng
    Narvik University College, Industrial Engineering.
    SMEs’ challenges and needs in relation to innovation agendas and strategies2016Inngår i: 1st International Symposium on Small-scale Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (SIMS 2016: 21 – 24 June 2016, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Narvik, Norway, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 13-7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional research project are, as is also regional industry, highly need-based. That is, understanding the stakeholders' (or customers') real challenges and related needs is important. This study is based on interviews with SMEs in the Northern parts of Finland, Norway and Sweden, but also on available innovation agendas and strategies for each country. The differences among the companies in those regions bring forward distinct needs, while many experience similar challenges, for example low population density, long distances and a high dependency on basic industries. Innovation is identified as a key driver of regional growth and competitiveness. SMEs rarely employ the term innovation to describe their activities, but rather stress 'knowing the customer' as important. This indicates one of the challenges to implement innovation strategy as a driver for growth and competitiveness

  • 24.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Öhrling, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Revisiting prototyping: learning in early design2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the the 12th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2012: May 21-24 2012, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nevad Bojcetic, Design Research Society, 2012, s. 2045-2052Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision for manufacturing firms to provide more services certainly include more intangible and tacit parameters for engineers to handle. Hence, the early development stages describe a learning process where knowledge and solution progress in parallel.

  • 25.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Nergård, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Manufacturing knowledge: going from production of things to designing value in use2015Inngår i: International Journal of Intelligent Decision Technologies, ISSN 1872-4981, E-ISSN 1875-8843, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 79-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new vision in manufacturing is to develop product-service integrated value solutions. Today, few firms have fully realized this vision because they are not able to support the reasoning in the early stages of design. The purpose of this paper is to discuss engineers' cognitive challenge when replacing the core product rationale with value logic. The paper problematizes engineering design by dividing knowledge into the categories technically constructed (explicit) and socially constructed (tacit). In doing so, this study contributes the assumed effects of a perspective shift that could guide the development of computational tools.

  • 26. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Wenngren, Johan
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Where do innovations come from?2010Inngår i: Design 2010: 11th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 17 - 20, 2010 / [ed] D. Marjanovic; M. Storga; N. Pavkovic; N. Bojcetic, Zagreb: Design Research Society, 2010, s. 545-554Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a descriptive study of two types of innovation awards within a manufacturing company. The purpose is to identify sources and understand the background of these awarded innovations. An industrial view of the concept innovation is of importance in order to support future product development processes. Based on the interviews of several team members in awarded innovation projects, some aspects can be emphasized: the importance of the exploration and knowledge acquisition phase, importance of external triggers and that innovation is not a linear process.

  • 27.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Exploit and explore: two ways of categorizing innovation projects2011Inngår i: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark ; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve Culley; Ben Hicks; Tim McAloone; T.J. Howard, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 3 : Design organisation and management, s. 284-293Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is vital to companies, but also difficult to perform since there are many ways to approach the subject. Typically, a balance between all issues related to innovation is suggested in literature. The empirical study presented in this paper elaborates on two strategies for innovation projects, namely to exploit existing solutions and to explore a market to develop breakthrough solutions. This is done for the purpose to discuss management implications, and thereby also make those transparent for innovation projects. The result indicates that managerial implications for radical innovation projects are to provide internal legitimacy for the projects intentions, to provide for a clear view of balancing aspects by using concepts that fit into opposite ends on a continuum, and to preserve a rich information base about users.

  • 28.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Learning for product innovation engineering2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2014: May 19-22 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanović; Mario Štorga; Neven Pavković; Nenad Bojčetić, Zagreb: Design Research Society, 2014, s. 1371-1380Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A service perspective on product development: towards functional products2005Inngår i: Proceedings of 12th International Product Development Conference: IPDM, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional products are understood as a combination of hardware, software and services. Based on interviews with employees in manufacturing firms the notion of functional product development is described. The purpose has been to explore the differences between a service perspective and a core product perspective and highlight changes in the management of product development processes that are motivated by the notion of functional products. Exploring the differences between the two perspectives has identified a gap of how the product is viewed at the business level and technical development levels. The integration of services into the hardware development process in the form of a customised product or product life cycle has been highlighted. Internal and external communication about needs has been identified as useful.

  • 30.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    People, product and process perspectives on product/service-system development2009Inngår i: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design, London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, s. 219-236Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptation of Product/Service-System calls for new development models. On one side this businesses give the manufacturing firm possibilities to redesign, upgrade and replace the discrete device that provides the performance their customers are asking for. On the other side, this new situation has to address aspects that are normally not addressed in early product development, i.e., services. In this chapter, we will elaborate on product and service development processes models, as well as system models to propose a frame of reference for multiple perspectives on PSS development. These perspectives are people, product and process. Also, this chapter puts forward implications for the development of PSS models.

  • 31.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias C.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Lund University.
    Revisiting the research field of product-service systems development2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: IDETC/CI, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2012, Vol. 3, s. 1043-1049Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) has now for more than a decade been a research interest in Europe and Japan. The research aims to support manufacturing industries’ ability to provide value in terms of a service offer to its customers, simultaneously taking a more holistic approach to eco-sustainability. The idea of providing customer benefits in parallel with robust products is not new, yet equipping engineers to integrate a radical innovation and service perspective in the early design stages is received as fairly radical. Prevailing methods, tools and design thinking are barriers that prevents approaching PSS by the necessary integration of several, but distinct, logics.Due to the inclusion of both product development and service development in development of PSS, at least, two schools of thoughts exist within the research field of PSS development. Namely, one based on product development rationality and one based on service provision reasoning. In general, such a situation would be a base for a conflict where the debate focuses, which strand that should be more valid than the other. However, if so, this would certainly not benefit the need for cross-disciplinarily research of PSS. The purpose in this paper is two-fold; first, to describe PSS research efforts by acknowledging both the product and the service perspective, second to explore and discuss future directions and by that identify “white spots” on the map which may be seen as relevant to bridge the integration gap.

  • 32.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Expanding the social dimension: Towards a knowledge base for radical product innovation2011Inngår i: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark ; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve J. Culley; Ben Hicks; Tim McAloone; T.J. Howard, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 3 : Design organisation and management, s. 143-152Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The extension of businesses to incorporate the provision of function as a service in supplement to standalone products is an ongoing movement in manufacturing industry. In short, this means that the development intent should be guided by the need of ‘performance in use’ that the customer wants, e.g. thrust rather than an engine. By this, the established knowledge base challenges the development team.This paper embarks from the assumption that there are three main challenges, i.e. (1) innovation activities, (2) customer data acquisition and (3) the transformation of data into design information. The purpose is to discuss knowledge sharing activities to contribute to product-service innovation. In this study it has been found that contemporary data acquisition activities filter out important dimensions of knowledge. Thus, does not provide a sound base for service provisions.

  • 33. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    In search of what is missing: needfinding the SIRIUS way2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fourth IASTED International Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering: November 29 - December 1, 2006, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands / [ed] M. Boumedine; C. Touzet, Anaheim: ACTA Press, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    “Listen closely to your customers, and you are more likely to design products that actually meet or even exceed their needs.”: Such statements have come to dominate company innovation strategies in the last decade, but in reality involving customers in product development is not as straightforward as it sounds. Customers, it is becoming clear, cannot always express their needs adequately. Especially, in the case of innovative products where the starting position by definition includes no existing solution, applying a user-orientated approach is paramount. We argue that techniques for ‘needfinding’ must be the point of departure. This has importance both in terms of methodological issues – how to find customer needs? – and for organizational work – who should be engaged in finding customer needs? In our view, engineers must be involved in identifying and understanding those needs. We have learnt through a series of studies, that structured needfinding by engineers during the earliest phases of product development could better support the process of identifying needs and thereby guide design projects. In this way, two basic problems are overcome. Firstly, identifying needs which are otherwise difficult to articulate becomes possible. Secondly, translation difficulties between customers and engineers are eradicated

  • 34.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Larsson, Andreas
    Larsson, Madelene
    Need driven product development in team-based projects2007Inngår i: Design for society: knowledge, innovation and sustainability ; ICED '07 - Paris, 16th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 28 - 30 August 2007, Paris, France ; conference proceedings, Paris, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, practical activities of needfinding - an intertwined approach to identifying needs and to visualizing idea concepts in early design - are described and discussed. This is done primarily to gain an increased understanding of the various representations of user needs that are fed into the fuzzy front-end activities of team-based product innovation projects. The empirical basis comes from a study of an eight-month collaborative product development project, performed under realistic conditions by MSc students in close collaboration with their client.Focusing closely on customers and their needs is encouraged within the conceptual framework of Integrated Product Development and is increasingly highlighted as a key enabler in the design of truly innovative products. Despite the fact that identified customer needs are considered as the initial and primary input into such an innovation process, it can be argued that the design teams do not commonly have a sufficient understanding of customer needs and they do not normally interact with customers in their environment. Besides focusing on measurable aspects of user behaviour and requirements, a traditional approach to identifying and managing customer needs usually includes several interpretive stages before being handed over to the design team. In the context of innovative products, the identification and definition of customers and their needs is a non-trivial and difficult exercise. It involves, we suggest, not only needfinding but also the definition of ‘those who might need the product’, users and customers to co-evolve iteratively in the early phases of design.

  • 35.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Åström, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Functional product innovation: reaping the benefits of simulation driven design2007Inngår i: Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering: Proceedings of Fourth IASTED International Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering, KSCE 2006 / [ed] M. Boumedine; C. Touzet, ACTA Press, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a tradition in selling and developing physical artefacts while viewing services as add-ons, the view on products in Swedish industry extends to include total offers, i.e., service provision. The service providing companies take extended long-term responsibilities regarding the physical artefact and the agreed upon functions. The changed business scenario affects product development, in particular the early phases. A life-cycle perspective, cross-company collaboration and customer needs are issues to take into consideration early on in product development. An extended enterprise business model is presented in this paper to give a notion of the changed input for product development. This is done for the purpose of discussing a simulation driven design approach in relation to a vision for functional product innovation. In an engineering design environment, computational support is commonly used to provide a basis for decisions in product development. In this paper we suggest a new, and additional, way to think about design and to use simulations. We suggest that simulations should be used to drive, and not only verify, the design of a product, and thereby also nurture innovations.

  • 36.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Engineering design research methodologies in Product-Service Systems: when the complex gets tough2017Inngår i: The 21th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17): 21-25 August 2017, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada : proceedings of ICED17 / [ed] Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Fadel G.,Van der Loos M.,Skec S.,Oehmen J.,Maier A.M.,Salustri F., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 3, s. 351-258Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The research field of Product-Service Systems (PSS) emerged within the engineering design field to address sustainability and radically lower environmental impact from production and product use stages. PSS research has progressed insights of the industrial phenomena, but are often grounded in either product or service development, and the sustainability perspective had diminished over time. The deviation from what was intended might depend on research methodologies that do not meet the requirements of PSS multidisciplinary research. Some reflections of our research and craftsmanship are thus needed, which is also the purpose of this paper. PSS are used in the paper as a framework to highlight some of the facets of engineering design research activities. The paper suggests that multidisciplinary research has to manage different methodologies and different theories, this can be achieved if underlying assumptions are made transparent and if contradictions between those and the conclusions are discussed. Finally, the paper make an effort to encourage discussions about research methodologies to improve not only research but also implementation in industry.

  • 37.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kaartinen, Heidi
    Centria university of applied sciences.
    Online innovation supports2018Inngår i: SIMS 2018: Symposium on Small-scale Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, New York: IEEE, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from interactions with SMEs from a number of different areas, this short paper addresses the challenges of turning hands-on practice into an online supports tool for innovation. The SMEs are found in the North of Finland and the North of Sweden, thus already facing challenges related to the sparsely populated areas. Yet, digitalization and online support may become one way to bridge distances as well as filling knowledge gaps between different domains. Nevertheless, the suggestion to transform practical know-how into an online tool that can be globally accessed and used is non-trivial. Thus, problematizing such ideas could progress these efforts.

  • 38.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kaartinen, Heidi
    Centria University of Applied Sciences .
    Pieskä, Sakari
    Centria University of Applied Sciences.
    Deng Solvang, Wei
    The Arctic University of Norway.
    Sziebig, Gabor
    The Arctic University of Norway.
    Innovations & industrial internet: research for regional growth and competitiveness2018Inngår i: SIMS 2018: Symposium on Small-scale Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, New York: IEEE, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is a source for Industrial Internet, which solutions influence businesses and everyday life in many different ways. The digital transformation calls for understanding, not only about your customers, but also your whole organization. A digital business world opens up for seamless and borderless collaborations in product, service and production development, yet such a visionary future need both systematic and systemic changes in companies. As such open innovation approaches including participatory research studies could support regional growth and increase competitiveness among SMEs. This article describes how these issues have been managed in a transnational project for the Northern Nordics.

  • 39.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Puig Cortegoso, Mayte
    Spanien.
    Project: Developing Innovation for Change – Enablers for Sustainability2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    De tre delarna i hållbarhetsperspektivet, dvs. ekologiska, ekonomiska och sociala, bör ses som en integrerad helhet, men det är också det som är utmaningen. Projektet söker undersöka och exemplifiera olika intressenters perspektiv och därmed den kunskapsbas de tar med sig in i en produktutvecklingsprocess. Projektet syftar till att demonstrera hur olika intressenters värden stödjer eller inte stödjer en hållbar utveckling.

  • 40. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Müller, Patrick
    Technische Universität Berlin.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Rainer, Stark
    Technische Universität Berlin.
    Product-service systems: from customer needs to requirements in early development phases2009Inngår i: Industrial product-service systems (IPS2): proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS2 Conference ; [01 - 02 April 2009, Cranfield University, UK] / [ed] Rajkumar Roy, Cranfield: Cranfield University Press , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Knowledge exchange challenges within the extended enterprise2005Inngår i: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of functional products changes the existing relationship between manufacturing companies. The integration of hardware, software and services in functional products calls for close collaboration with companies having complementary skills. When employees from different companies are involved, strategic resources such as knowledge are shared. From an engineering design perspective, knowledge sharing supported by software systems are useful, though it seems like functional product development insists on integrating multifunctional skills and this is likely to affect the design of software systems. The objective in this paper is to explore knowledge sharing challenges between manufacturing companies, striving to create close functional product collaboration, and hence understand aspects in the design of software systems. In this paper the focus is on Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) systems, these are considered to be internal engineering specific tools, while collaboration and need for knowledge sharing calls for coupled KBE systems between partners. In this context, knowledge sharing challenges within the extended enterprise are recognised to issues about who to trust and what and how to share. This affects how tightly coupled KBE systems can be. In general, this paper contributes to the ongoing discussion concerning collaboration issues in concurrent engineering design, but especially to the overall understanding of what new demands on KBE systems that are motivated by functional product collaboration.

  • 42.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    In search of innovation: grasping the concept of needs2006Inngår i: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 35-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting position for this paper is experiences in identifying needs. The paper discusses the concept of needs and seeks to explore whether needs, as a concept, can be identified and understood in the relevant literature. The discussion is inspired by both an engineering design perspective and an interaction design perspective of needs. The discussion highlights a duality of needs, needs are partly easy to express and partly difficult, even impossible, to express. Thus, to grasp the concept as a whole, it is necessary to adapt different approaches. Needs that are difficult to express are situated in the user's context and are experienced by the user as a perceived lack of satisfying solutions. The solution is not understood or known by the user. Therefore, needs cannot be easily expressed by the user; such needs have to be found. An interpretive approach adapted by the design team and/or the needfinder to understand the user's situation and to identify such needs is suggested.

  • 43.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A deep dive into creative thinking: the now-wow-how framework2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13), Design for Harmonies: Human Behaviour in Design / [ed] U. Linderman; S Venkataraman; YS Kim; SW Lee; P. Badke-Schaub; K. Sato, Design Research Society, 2013, Vol. 7, s. 337-346Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation strategies are becoming even more vital for manufacturers that wish to turn their business into a service based one. Integration of product and service aspects in early design stages insists on approaches where all competences are used for to provide the foundation for new solutions. Often such creative work is expected to randomly come from ordinary work tasks or from passionate geniuses. Few companies apply an intentional and coherent process for bringing together mixed teams to create ideas for radically new product and services.Besides describing the background for the development of a radical innovation workshop format, this article presents a three-step framework for a collaborative process in which the participants diverse competences and skills are seen as the source of creativity. The framework, called now-wow-how, allows a workshop to be planned, designed and conducted in order to analyze an existing situation (now), a preferred alternative future (wow) and elaborate on how these two can be bridged (how). The paper provides examples of creative methods that can be used to conduct each stage, and also a guide for how to facilitate a creative workshop.

  • 44.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Bergström, Mattias
    Future ideation: creating ideas despite distance2010Inngår i: International Reports on Socio-Informatics (IRSI), ISSN 1861-4280, E-ISSN 1861-4280, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 264-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Team-based innovation, which builds on the true collaboration and thinking together strategy are at the heart for most manufacturing companies today. This strategy builds on a multifunctional team to increase the innovation potential. Diversity builds up the multifunctionality within the team and is a prerequisite for coming up with new innovations. Efficient idea generation demands facilitation, one example is brainstorming, which is easily performed. However, brainstorming is often misused, as it is not applied properly. A successful brainstorm seems chaotic, team members use Post-It notes and/or a whiteboard to write and sketch down ideas. In engineering design, computer tools support many of the development team's tasks, but an interactive computer support for idea generation is not commonly used. Also, existing tools do not support the "physical" activities found in classical brainstorming, they are commonly based on the logics of documentation than actual facilitation of a creative process. The study in this paper is based on observations of design teams and the purpose is to set up and present a specification for an idea generation tool that is both facilitated and mimics the best aspects of physical brainstorming.

  • 45.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A change in design knowledge: from stand-alone products to service offerings2012Inngår i: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 51-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the manufacturing industry, offering services as the value carrier of the product is becoming a key interest. In short, the product concept changes from something engineered to providing “performance in use” in order to fulfill customer needs. This change of paradigm, from an established view of products as nothing else than physical artefacts to the idea of products as service offerings, is commonly described in the research field called Product ServiceSystems (PSS). Examples of expected benefits of PSS for manufacturing companies are that they can: (1) meet the sustainability challenges, (2) manage competition, and (3) provide added value to their customers. The knowledge base in manufacturing companies is firmly based in engineering activities and computer support for the design of artefacts is well developed (e.g., Computer Aided Design). However, it can be argued that the guiding principles, or the technological support, for PSS cannot be built upon the idea of products as engineered. A central message of this conceptual paper is that the introduction of PSS may challenge not only companies, but also design engineer education. The paper investigates the challenges and proposes activities that could bridge the gap between developing stand-alone products and service offerings.

  • 46.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Hammarberg, Kristin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Extern, LTU Business AB. Swedish ICT Interactive Institute, Piteå.
    The case of an innovation contest: Participatory design in a social context2016Inngår i: Proceedings of International Design Conference - Design 2016 / [ed] N. Bojcetic; D. Marjanovic; N. Pavkovic; M. Storga; S. Skec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture , 2016, s. 967-974Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents measures for collaborative design in a social context. A number of challenges and implications are identified, and changes done to increase the innovativeness in the outcome are discussed and exemplified. The context is an innovation contest in which students, inhabitants, people in common and so on, freely signs up for participation. The competition's theme comes from a client, e.g. a company, organization or municipality. Besides a research approach originating from 2002, fourteen innovation competitions during 2014-2015 are the specific basis for the empirical data.

  • 47.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Project: Innovations & Industrial Internet2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Interreg Nord

  • 48.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Project: Making Regional Manufacturing Globally Competitive and Innovative2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    NPA – Target (Making Regional Manufacturing Globally Competitive and Innovative)This project will develop tools to enhance capacity of manufacturing companies in the NPA region to adapt and embrace new technologies and innovation. The toolbox developed will consist of subsets such as Digital manufacturing (robotics and simulation), New ideas and thinking (human centred and environmental thinking, competitiveness), Business models and modern Product innovation.

  • 49.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kaartinen, Heidi
    Centria Research & Development.
    Pieskä, Sakari
    Centria Research & Development.
    Vähäsöyrinki, Jouni
    Centria Research & Development.
    Deng Solvang, Wei
    The arctic university of Norway.
    Sziebig, Gabor
    The arctic university of Norway.
    Yu, Hao
    The arctic university of Norway.
    Björk, Erlend
    The arctic university of Norway.
    Innovations & Industrial Internet2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Innovations and Industrial Internet project was formed with partners from Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, Centria University of Applied Sciences, Finland, and University of Tromsø, campus Narvik, Norway. The work has addressed an increase in small and medium sized enterprises’ competences of applying modern digital technology to benefit product- and service development in the region. Almost 40 companies have been keenly involved in the project’s activities, which have included, for example, case studies, demonstrations, workshops and seminars. The close academia and company collaborations has resulted in SMEs’ test and evaluation of new technologies, in turn leading to the implementation of new methods that were new to 16 of those companies.

    The project collaborations have resulted in 9 products and services that were new to the companies. A number of cross-border collaborations among companies and universities across the program region have been finalized, for example a case on 3D printing and boat production which involved all partners competences. The cross-border added value does not only encompass the open accessible milieu bringing all partners expertise together to benefit SMEs in the region, but it also identified and mitigated barriers between knowledge domains, like the ones occurring in value chain collaborations where digital solutions often dissolve some aspects of a problem while simultaneously cause new ones.

    The project has had a fairly good representation of females in leading positions since the project leader and one country’s leader are females, but also the female representation in activities has been good.

    The project has been nominated to the Regio Stars Award 2017.

  • 50.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Nilsdotter, Karin
    Spaceport Sweden.
    Commercial space tourism: a case of applied product-service systems networks2013Inngår i: Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions: Proceedings of the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Bochum, Germany, March 14th - 15th, 2013 / [ed] Horst Meier, Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, s. 85-94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the vision of Product-Service Systems (PSS) there is anticipation on stakeholders to develop sound networks to enable and support innovative product and service solutions. As such PSS business relationships could be viewed as innovation systems. The challenge to find appropriate and relevant stakeholders is commonly mentioned in manufacturing industry as a difficult task. This paper elaborates on such a challenge, but has put an emerging industry as a frame of interest in order to discuss the progress of a innovation system which has the purpose to inspire product and service development based on commercial human space flights. Some managerial implications for PSS innovation system development are made, for example it is suggested to implement a learning environment as a “demonstrator” from which an innovation system can evolve.

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