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  • 1.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Advancing CSR in the mining industry: A stakeholder and management system approach2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is often defined as the integration of social and environmental concerns in a company’s operations and in its interactions with stakeholders on a voluntary basis. It is commonly accepted that extractive industries are at the cutting edge when it comes topractising CSR and that CSR is especially important in the mining sector. CSR needs to be implemented at every level of an organization if it is to have any meaningful impact. In this respect, scholars call for research on the practical rather than the policy level of CSR and for research viewed from an internalrather than an external standpoint. Established management systems are claimed to be useful for CSR practice and frameworks are based on various standards. The benefits of integrating all the aspects of CSR into one sustainability management system (SMS) are often highlighted. However, critical researchersbelieve that SMS would benefit from an externally focused stakeholder-driven and value-based approach, and that instead of ‘doing things right’ the focus should be on ‘doing the right things’, in that companies are often confronted with a range of stakeholders. In line with the call for practical research, thisthesis focuses on stakeholder management within the context of management system thinking. The purpose of this thesis is to explore how the extractive industry in general and companies in the metal and mining industry in particular practise CSR and how this management can be developed. The case study method was chosen as the research strategy and two single case studies in the mining industry were designed. The research began with a literature review and the collection of case study data consisting of documentation, interviews and interactive workshops. The most comprehensive and applied CSR practice is found in the oil industry. The forestry sector mainly seems to practise CSR through environmental issues, while mining companies focus primarily on community involvement and development and environmental issues.Both the case companies have comprehensive policy frameworks in place for CSR and well implemented work systems for labour practices and the environment. This indicates that certified management systems are effective tools for CSR. However, other important CSR issues, such as fair operating practices and community involvement and development, fall outside the scopeof the adopted management system. Therefore, management systems need to be supplemented in order to integrate sustainable development more fully. Both case studies show that ISO 26000 is useful for evaluating and improving a company’s CSR practice. Case study II demonstrates that stakeholder theory iseasily practised and contributes to the development of CSR practice, at least in the planning phase of the PDCA methodology, i.e. the identification of stakeholders and stakes, the estimation of ‘who and what really counts’ and the development of effective strategies to best manage stakeholders. The path from theory to practice also generates interesting discussions when a company looksat stakeholders from different perspectives.

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  • 2.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Corporate Social Responsibility practice in the mining industry2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has frequently been discussed throughout the years. However, in the 1990s criticism of multinational companies and their production in developing countries resulted in new and more demanding requirements from society. Research within CSR has increased over time but scholars are now demanding research efforts on the practical rather that the policy level of CSR and in this thesis CSR practice is defined as the “ongoing, regular, daily activities of the organization”.It is commonly accepted that extractive industries are in the forefront of practicing CSR and CSR is significantly important in the mining sector. The research purpose is to explore how the extractive industry in general, and the mining industry in particular, is practicing CSR. A comprehensive literature review gave an overview of how CSR is put into practice in the extractive industry and two case studies gave more profound knowledge of the practical level of CSR in the mining industry. The ISO 26000 standard has been used as a framework consistently throughout the research process.The case studies gave information about the practical level of CSR in the mining industry and interesting similarities have been found. Both case companies have comprehensive policy frameworks on CSR. They also have standardized management systems according to OHSAS 18001 for occupational health and safety and ISO 14001 for the environment in order to fulfill legal requirements. When standardized management system standards, like ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, and ISO 50001 for energy, have been implemented, the requirements within these areas in ISO 26000 are fulfilled. In other words, there is an overlap between the content in ISO 26000 and other system standards. A structured way of working towards continual improvements is missing for the core subjects: community involvement and development; and fair operating practices. It is also within these subjects that the majority of the potential improvements for enhancing CSR performance have been identified. Stakeholder management is an important part of CSR theory. If all core subjects are integrated into a sustainability management system that has adopted the structured way of working toward continual improvements, the system can be used as a basis for stakeholder management. The study has identified two areas of special interest for further research: stakeholder management related to standardized management systems and community involvement and development.

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  • 3.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Making stakeholder management theories useful in a Swedish mining company2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Stakeholder management in reality: Moving from conceptual frameworks to operational strategies and interactions2015In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 3, p. 21-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Established management systems are believed to be useful for CSR practise and in this context the benefits of integrating all aspects of CSR into one sustainability management system (SMS) are often highlighted. Stakeholder management is a managerial framework for dealing with CSR by interacting with stakeholders in order to create value. Although efforts have been made to integrate stakeholder management and SMS, the resulting frameworks are almost always conceptual and seldom describe how stakeholder management can be performed.This is an important empirical addition, in that it describes how a company reacts to and adopts stakeholder management theory. The focus is on the practical rather than theoretical implications. The paper provides practitioners with a stakeholder management theory that can be purposefully applied within a management system approach and offers a way of working that categorizes, systematizes and makes stakeholder management more effective. A case study based on interactive workshops shows how the planning phase in the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) methodology, i.e. the identification of stakes and the development of effective strategies to best manage stakeholders, can be performed. The stakes and strategies thus constitute the primary base on which SMS is built. The study shows how these stakes and strategies can be translated into objectives, targets, programmes, procedures and practises for the implementation of CSR in ongoing everyday activities. It also demonstrates that theory can easily be practised and can generate interesting discussions when a company is forced to look at stakeholders from different perspectives.

  • 5.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Stakeholder management theory meets CSR practice in Swedish mining2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 15-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CSR needs to be implemented into every level of an organization to have a meaningful impact, and management systems are proven useful for CSR practice. Benefits of integrating all CSR aspects into a sustainability management system are often claimed. Stakeholder theory can advance CSR practice. This case study explores how a company reacts to and appropriates stakeholder theory through interviews and workshops with the top management of corporate responsibility. This is an empirical addition to the dominant conceptual contributions to stakeholder management framed within the concept of management system thinking. The focus is on identification of stakeholders and the estimation of “who and what really counts”. This study support conceptual papers and suggest Mitchell and colleagues’ model for the initial step of SMS. It shows that theory easily can be practised and that it works well. The company highlighted the discussions where it had to look at stakeholders from different perspectives.

  • 6.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Quality Sciences, Uppsala Universit.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    From global goals and planetary boundaries to public governance: A framework for prioritizing organizational sustainability activities2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A particular challenge in the work to realize the global goals for sustainable development is to find ways for organizations to identify and prioritize organizational activities that address these goals. There are also several sustainability initiatives, guidelines and tools to consider when planning, working with and reporting on sustainable development. Although progress has been made, little has been written about how organizations rise to and manage the challenge. The paper explores how organizations address sustainable development, which sustainability aspects they prioritize and whether previous research can improve the priority process by using materiality analysis approach. Methods: A case study approach was chosen. Data was collected by interactive workshops and documentation. The participating organizations were two Swedish municipalities; Results: The municipalities have introduced a number of sustainability aspects into their organizational governance, especially in terms of society, human rights and the environment. A materiality analysis was conducted to determine the relevance and significance of sustainability aspects. The result shows that climate action, biodiversity and freshwater use are aspects that should be prioritized; Conclusion: The materiality analysis methodology chosen for prioritizing of sustainability aspects was useful and easy to work with. However, the sustainability aspect matrix and the risk assessment have to be updated regularly in order to form an effective base for the materiality analysis.

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  • 7.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A path towards sustainability for the Nordic mining industry2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 151, p. 43-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry has a major impact on society - from an economic, environmental and social perspective and due to a vast number of criteria. Which criteria should be given priority depends on where the mining operations take place. This paper’s focus on the Nordic mining industry is partly due to the positive economic trend that the industry is currently experiencing and partly because very little research has been conducted on how the European mining industry addresses sustainability. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the Nordic mining industry’s sustainability practices and to develop guidelines for such efforts.

    The research methods used in the study include a literature review, a content analysis of sustainability reports, a review of existing sustainability initiatives, guidelines and tools, a stakeholder survey and interviews with mining company officials. Based on the findings, sustainability criteria guidelines for the Nordic mining industry are suggested in the areas of corporate governance, fair operating practices, economic aspects, human rights, labour practices, society and the environment. The content of the guidelines is discussed in the light of the sustainability practices performed by the studied mining companies

  • 8.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Exploring corporate social responsibility practice versus stakeholder interests in Nordic mining2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, no Part-1, p. 668-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth, the speed of urbanization in Asia and the more sophisticated requirements of the developed world have led to an increased demand for metals. Sweden is currently one of the EU's leading producers of ores and metals and major investments have been made regarding exploration. Although mining activities may be good for the local economy, mining can also have a negative impact both on the local environment and society which have generated a significantly increased stakeholder pressure over the last twenty years. As a consequence, the mining industry wants to be in fore front when it comes to practicing corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO). The concept SLO is based on the idea that mining companies need not only government permission (or permits) but also "social permission" to conduct their business. The social license consists of different parts, depending on the conditions in place.This paper is focusing on the Nordic mining industry and its stakeholders with the purpose to explore if CSR practice actually complies with stakeholder interests. This study, based on a content analysis of sustainability reports and a stakeholder survey, indicates that the CSR practice do comply to some extent with stakeholder interests but that there are room for improvement regarding the respect for laws and regulations, anti-corruption, sustainable resource use and energy in particular, sustainable land use, sustainable transports and the recycling of metals.

  • 9.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Towards sustainability in Nordic Mining: A path towards sustainability for the Nordic mining industry2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid global development has led to an increased demand for raw materials such as minerals and metals – a trend that has also benefited the Nordic mining industry. However, as there are economic, environmental and social challenges related to the extraction of minerals and metals, it is important to know which aspects to prioritise for sustainability purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project is to examine the Nordic mining industry’s sustainability practices and develop guidelines for its sustainability efforts. The analysed data includes a literature review, a review of mining company websites, an analysis of sustainability reports, a review of existing sustainability initiatives, a stakeholder survey and interviews with company officials. The study has resulted in sustainability criteria guidelines for the Nordic mining industry. The guidelines are divided into the following seven core subjects: corporate governance, fair operating practices, economic aspects, human rights, labour practices, society and the environment. Corporate governance is the framework for decision making within the company, the most important aspects of which are stakeholder management, respect for the rule of law, risk management and self-regulatory practices and management systems. Fair operating practices concern ethical conduct in a company’s relationships with other organisations, where anti-corruption, responsible political involvement, fair competition and responsible supply chain management should be prioritised. The economic dimension of sustainability concerns a company’s impact on the economic conditions of its stakeholders and economic systems at local, national and global levels. Economic performance includes direct economic value for society. In contrast, indirect economic values relate to investments and services that can have an impact on communities. Local procurement practices mean the purchase of local products and services. Human rights are the basic rights to which all human beings are entitled. The suggested sustainability criteria are non-discrimination, freedom of association and collective bargaining and indigenous rights. The labour practices of a company include all the policies and practices that relate to the work that is performed within, by or on behalf of the company, including sub-contract work. Here, the sustainability criteria to be given precedence are employment, training and education, occupational health and safety, diversity and equal opportunity, conditions of work and social protection and work-life balance.

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  • 10.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Exploring the path from management systems to stakeholder management in Swedish mining industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, p. 128-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    is often conceptually suggested that frameworks for the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) that take all the needs of a company’s stakeholders into consideration can emanate from management systems based on international standards. This study addresses the research question of whether the adoption of established management systems is useful for putting stakeholder management into practice. It takes the form of an in-depth case study of a Swedish mining and metals company and employs an analytical framework based on the ISO 26000 CSR standard. The company in question has well-integrated and implemented work systems regarding both labor practices and the environment. This indicates that certified management systems are effective tools for CSR and can be used rather effectively as a means of stakeholder management in practice. However, analysis also shows that such management systems contribute neither to the use of more renewable energy resources nor to a systematic reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, important CSR issues, such as fair operating practices and community involvement and development, fall outside the scope of the adopted management system.

  • 11.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Exploring the practical implementation of corporate social responsibility in the mining industry2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Revisiting the ‘how’ of corporate social responsibility in extractive industries and forestry: present situation, industry differences and knowledge gaps2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, p. 299-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extractive industries such as mining and oil, as well as the forestry industry, are in the forefront concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The research body concerning CSR in these industries is substantial. The purpose of this study is to review the part of the research in this field that primarily focuses on the ‘how’ issues of CSR in order to provide valuable information concerning which subareas of CSR that have been addressed and the characteristics of those areas. The identified research concerning extractive industries is focused mainly on CSR practices in Africa, Oceania and South America. Even if research concerning forestry to a large extent includes European activities there seem to be a lack of knowledge regarding CSR development in Europe. Several differences and similarities have been identified in how the industry sectors are practicing CSR. Forestry seems to be practicing CSR mainly through environmental issues and mining companies are focusing primarily on community involvement and development as well as environment issues. The most comprehensive and applied CSR practice is found in the oil industry. Despite the fact that most of the literature claimed to address the practical side of CSR, it still remains unknown how some CSR issues are practiced in real company life

  • 13.
    Ranängen, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bergström, Andrea
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The merits of ISO 26000 for CSR development in the mining industry: a case study in the Zambian Copperbelt2014In: Social Responsibility Journal, ISSN 1747-1117, E-ISSN 1758-857X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 500-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to design a case study to explore how a mining and construction company, located in the Zambian Copperbelt, practices corporate social responsibility (CSR), which has a vital role to play in the mining industry because of its importance in a range of areas including: the local economy, avoiding a negative impact on the environment and society and occupational safety. This is especially true in the developing parts of the world. Numerous initiatives, guidelines and tools have been made available for CSR practice but very little is known about the usefulness of the new CSR-standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 26000. Design/methodology/approach– A case study was designed to explore how a mining and construction company, located in the Zambian Copperbelt, practices CSR within the health area and to discuss the possible merits of ISO 26000 for CSR development in the mining industry in the developing world. Findings– Our findings show that, despite the fact that ISO 26000 is primarily a series of guidelines, it can be used to evaluate and improve a company’s CSR practice even if that company is already considered as a frontrunner within CSR. The standard can give valuable advice when designing community development programs and allocating the use of charity donations. Further, our study has shown that traditional management systems based on occupational health and safety standard 18001 and ISO 14001 can rather effectively support actions and expectations in ISO 26000. Research limitations/implications– The research context is Zambia, so there might be limitations when applying the results to other cultural and geographical settings. Practical implications– The paper is a useful source of information about the practical implementation of CSR within the health area. Originality/value– Much of the literature within the field of practical implementation of CSR is focusing on the philanthropic activities. This paper brings more information about practical implementation of CSR in core corporate business.

  • 14.
    Thorén Hedin, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Community involvement and development in Swedish mining2017In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 630-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community involvement and development is a major component of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It can be achieved through philanthropy, as well as development projects and social investments. The mining industry is at the cutting edge when it comes to CSR. However, research in this area has largely focused on the strategic level and corporate intentions, rather than practical implementation, and mostly from a non-European and community-focused perspective. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to reflect critically on why and how a Swedish mining company and their representatives are committed to community involvement and development and how this can be furthered. A case study method was selected, with data being collected via interviews and documentation. The results show that the mining industry needs to develop an improved understanding of the community’s expectations and allow citizens to become more involved in decision-making processes. The use of objectives and key performance indicators to monitor and continuously improve these efforts is of great importance, for example by evaluating donations and sponsorships. Community involvement and development can be improved by paying attention to research on the social licence to operate and by adopting a more proactive approach.

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