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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hanna, Kaasalainen
    Sweco.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nyström, Elsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    StopOx: Utilization Of Industrial Residuals For Prevention Of Sulfide Oxidation In Mine Waste2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the outcome of the SIP STRIM project

    StopOx-Utilization of industrial residuals for prevention of sulfide oxidation in mine waste implemented at Applied geochemistry, Luleå University of Technology running from 2015 to 2018. Boliden Mineral has been partner and co-funder of the project. Other partners in the project were Cementa, Dragon Mining, MEROX, Nordkalk, and SP Processum. The overall aim of the project was to develop prevention technologies to reduce the sulfide oxidation in mine waste, during and after operation, and thereby reduce the generation of acid mine drainage. The StopOx project has been focusing on sulfidic mine waste from the Boliden area which were disposed of and are causing acid mine drainage or have the potential. Industrial residues/products were supplied by BillerudKorsnäs, Cementa, MEROX, and Nordkalk. The report consists of chapters based on three subprojects.

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    Chapter 2. Inhibition technology with aim to minimize waste rock oxidation during operations by using residues from other industries (passivation of sulfidic surfaces by the formation of secondary minerals)

    Chapter 3. The suitability of green liquor dregs as substitutes for or additives to till in a sealing layer as part of a cover system

    Chapter 4. Weathering of waste rock under changing chemical conditions

    The research described in chapters 2 and 3 was performed by Ph.D. students and will continue until 2021, while the subproject in chapter 2 ended in 2018.

  • 2.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Projekt: Användning av restprodukter för förhindrande sulfid oxidation i reaktivt gruvavfall- en förstudie2014Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    En inventering av lämpliga restmaterial för efterbehandling och behandling av gruvavfall har genomförts och resulterat i en rapport

  • 3.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Macsik, Josef
    Strategic services & Sustainable Development at Ecoloop.
    Nyström, Elsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sandström, Nadia
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andersson-Wikström, Alexandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hällström, Lina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kartläggning av restprodukter för efterbehandling och inhibering av gruvavfall: funktion tillgång och logistik2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nyström, Elsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Siren, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Project: Utilization of Industrial Residuals for Prevention of Sulphide Oxidation in Mine Wastes2014Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Amofah, Lea Rastas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Chemical extraction of As from a polluted soil2008Ingår i: Arsenic in the environment - Arsenic from nature to humans: Book of Abstracts, 2008, s. 205-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Amofah, Lea Rastas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),.
    Extraction of arsenic from soils contaminated with wood preservation chemicals2010Ingår i: Soil & sediment contamination, ISSN 1532-0383, E-ISSN 1549-7887, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 142-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three soil samples contaminated by chromated zinc arsenate (CZA) or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) were investigated in a laboratory scale to study As mobilization and to identify a chemical agent that could be used in soil washing to extract arsenic. Besides high As extraction, the cost, occupational health issues and technical aspects were considered when selecting the chemical. Arsenic is strongly bound to CZA/CCA soils; only ∼50% of the tot-As was removed from water-washed soils. High Fe or Al mobilization is not necessarily indicative of high As removal from CZA/CCA soils. A high Cu/As-ratio and a large amount of soluble Ca in the soil hampered As extraction. The high ratio can be an indication of stable Cu-arsenates in soil. Calcium can react with the extraction agent or with As during extraction. Sodium hydroxide, dithionite with citrate (and oxalate) (dithionite solutions), and oxalate with citrate were the most efficient chemicals for removing As from the soils. The disadvantages of using these strong chemicals are: a high cost (oxalate with citrate); damage to equipment (dithionite solutions); an adverse impact on occupational health (dithionite solutions); or a deterioration in soil quality after extraction (NaOH and dithionite solutons). Phosphate, solutions based on NH2OH·HCl, or citrate were not efficient in mobilizing As from the soils.

  • 7.
    Amofah, Lea Rastas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    The influence of temperature, pH/molarity and extractant on the removal of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil2011Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 1334-1344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Normal soil washing leave high residual pollutant content in soil. The remediation could be improved by targeting the extraction to coarser fractions. Further, a low/high extraction pH and higher temperature enhance the pollutant removal, but these measures are costly. In this study, the utility of NaOH, oxalate-citrate (OC) and dithionite-citrate-oxalate (DCO) solutions for extracting of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil were assessed and compared. In addition the effects of NaOH concentration and temperature on NaOH extractions, and those of temperature and pH on OC and DCO extractions, were evaluated. Materials and methods: A two-level, full-factorial design with a centre point was implemented. Two factors, concentration and temperature,were evaluated in NaOH extractions, and pH and temperature for OC and DCO solutions. In all cases, the extraction temperature was 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. The studied NaOH concentrations were 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 M. The pH in OC solutions was 3, 5 and 7, and in DCO solutions, 4.7, 6.3 and 6.7. Water-washed and medium coarse soil fraction of arsenic, chromium and zinc contaminated soil was agitated for 15 min with the extraction solution. Results and discussion: In NaOH extractions, the temperature and (less strongly) NaOH concentration significantly affected As and Cr mobilisation, but only the latter affected Zn mobilisation. Both pH and temperature significantly (and similarly) influenced As and Cr mobilisation in OC extractions, while only the pH influenced Zn mobilisation. In contrast, the extraction temperature (but not pH) influenced As, Cr and Zn mobilisation in DCO extractions. Conclusions: For all extractants, mobilisation was most efficient at elevated temperature (40°C). None of the extractants reduced the soil's As content to below the Swedish EPA's guideline value. Use of DCO is not recommended because dithionite has a short lifetime and residual arsenic contents in DCO-extracted soil are relatively high. Instead, sequential extraction with NaOH followed by OC solutions (affording significant reductions in As, Cr and Zn levels in the soil with short extraction times) at 40°C is recommended

  • 8. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic digestion plants for the treatment of organic MSW1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Filipsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Odén, Pär
    Rang-Sells AB.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mäkitalo, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Strategic services & Sustainable Development at Ecoloop, Luleå tekniska universitet, SCC/Ramböll, Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Efterbehandling av gruvavfall med morän/grönlutslam i tätskiktskonstruktionen: Massor med fördelar2015Ingår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, nr 1, s. 66-70Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens praxis för täckning av sulfidhaltiga gråbergsrester är att täcka med morän. Det görs som ”kvalificerad täckning” genom att lägga på ett tätskikt med lerig morän som packas tätt. I ett önskescenario finns siltig/lerig morän i anslutning till området som är tillräckligt tätt och som kan användas för att anlägga tätskikt. Erfarenhet visar dock att täta moräner förekommer sällan i gruvans närområde och funktionen som syrebarriär inte alltid uppfylls av lokalt förekommande morän. Alternativet är att använda andra tätskiktsmaterial, bentonitmatta, lera etcetera eller att modifiera lokalt förekommande morän. Ett alternativ är att modifiera lokalt förekommande morän genom inblandning av grönlutslam. Grönlutslammet har stor vattenhållande förmåga och en inblandning på cirka tio procent grönlutslam i siktad morän förbättrar moränens funktion som tätskikt avsevärt.Ett vanligt sätt att efterbehandla gruvavfall är att täcka det med ett skikt som hindrar syret att nå avfallet och därmed hindra oxidationen, även kallad kvalificerad täckning. Huvudfunktionkskravet är att minimera syretransporten och främst syre­diffusionen över tid, vilket innebär i praktiken att tätskiktets hyd­rauliska konduktivitet ska vara under 10-8 m/s. I ett önskescenario finns siltig/lerig morän i anslutning till området som är tillräckligt tätt och som kan användas för att anlägga dessa skikt.

  • 10. Fischer, Christine
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Gas emission from landfills: an overview of issues and research needs : survey1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Hamberg, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The release of arsenic from cyanidation tailings2016Ingår i: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 / [ed] Bhattacharya, Prosun; Vahter, Marie; Jarsjo, Jerker; Kumpiene, Jurate; Charlotte, Sparrenbom, London: CRC Press, 2016, s. 201-202Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailings from a gold mine containing 1000 mg/kg of As were used to predict the release of As over an extended period of time. Post-cyanide mine processes were aiming to form arsenates and Fe-hydrates for effective As-immobilization. Speciation of the As in ore and tailings samples revealed that mining processes have dissolved the majority of the arsenopyrite in the ore, causing secondary As phases to co-precipitate with newly formed Fe-hydrates. Weathering Cell Tests (WCT) were conducted to assess the effect of weathering on the stability of As in the tailings. As-bearing Fe-hydrates remained intact during the early stages of the WCT. During later stages of the WCT, the release of As, Fe and S increased due to pyrrhotite oxidation and the destabilization of As-bearing Fe-hydrates. Low proportions of As was released in WCT, but additional pyrrhotite oxidation as pH falling to < 3 could further destabilize As-bearing Fe-hydrates

  • 12.
    Hamberg, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Release of arsenic from cyanidation tailings2016Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 93, s. 57-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At a gold mine in northern Sweden, gold occurring as inclusions in pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite is leached by cyanidation of the ore. The main sulphide minerals in the ore are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. Effluents from the cyanidation process are treated with Fe2(SO4)3 to form Fe-precipitates suitable for the co-precipitation of As. The aim of this study was to perform static and kinetic leaching tests on the ore and tailings to define geochemical processes governing As mobility. Sequential leaching tests suggested that the majority of dissolved As deriving from the sulphide fraction in the ore was incorporated in newly formed Fe-precipitates in the tailings. The mobility of As in the tailings was therefore mainly dependent on the stability of these As-bearing Fe-precipitates. Weathering cell tests (WCT) involving 31 weekly cycles of wetting and air exposure were conducted to assess the stability of the As in the tailings under accelerated weathering conditions. The first stage of the WCT was characterized by a pH ≈ 5 and low As leaching, probably driven by the dissolution of amorphous Fe-As species. In the second stage of the WCT, leaching of Fe, S and As increased and the pH decreased to <3.5. An increase of the leachate’s molar Fe/S-ratio suggested that pyrrhotite oxidation was occurring. The falling pH destabilized As-bearing Fe-precipitates, causing further As release. The total As release during the WCT corresponded to only a small proportion of the tailings’ total As content. The accelerated As-leaching observed towards the end of the WCT could thus indicate that its release could increase progressively over time.

  • 13.
    Hamberg, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lowering the water saturation level in cemented paste backfill mixtures: Effect on the release of arsenic2017Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 112, s. 84-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cemented Paste Backfill (CPB) method allows the mixing of dewatered tailings slurries with cementitious binders to backfill excavated underground workings. After mine closure, CPB workings are permanently flooded by rising groundwater. This flooding is considered beneficial for reducing the risk of acid generation associated with CPB containing sulphide minerals. In general, CPB workings are slowly flooded and the process may lead to regions with a low degree of water saturation to form within the CPB. This in turn, may increase oxygen ingress in the CPB, thereby prolonging oxidation of the minerals. To investigate the environmental impact of this oxidation, tailings containing elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) and pyrrhotite were handled via CPB. In this study, CPB mixtures containing 1–3 wt.% of cementitious binders and tailings was studied. The water saturation level in the CPB-mixtures was lowered as curing time extended. In mimicked flooded conditions, the mobility of As in the CPB mixtures was correlated with As-bearing cementitious phases that are sensitive to a reduction in the pH. In CPB-mixtures with lower proportions of binders, cementitious As-phases dissolved while the water saturation level decreased to form more stable As-phases. Increasing binder fractions, most of the cementitious As-phases persisted in the CPB while water saturation levels were lowered and release of As increased. Regardless of curing conditions, managing these tailings via the CPB method yielded increased mobility of As compared with that in the unmodified tailings; this resulted possibly from the formation of less acid-tolerant As species.

  • 14.
    Hamberg, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The formation of unsaturated zones within cemented paste backfill mixtures: Effects on the release of copper, nickel, and zinc2018Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 21, s. 20809-20822Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding of cemented paste backfill (CPB) filled mine workings is, commonly, a slow process and could lead to the formation of unsaturated zones within the CPB-fillings. This facilitates the oxidation of sulfide minerals, and thereby increases the risk of trace-metal leaching. Pyrrhotitic tailings from a gold mine (CT), containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Cu and Zn, were mixed with cement and/or fly ash (1-3 wt. %) to form CT-CPB-mixtures. Pyrrhotite oxidation progressed more extensively during unsaturated conditions, where acidity resulted in dissolution of the Ni, Cu, and Zn associated with amorphous Fe-precipitates and/or cementitious phases. The establishment of acidic, unsaturated conditions in CT-CBP:s with low fractions (1 wt. %) of binders increased the Cu-release (to be higher than that from CT), owing to the dissolution of Cu-associated amorphous Fe-precipitates. In CT-CPB:s with relatively high proportions of binder, acidity from pyrrhotite oxidation was buffered to a greater extent. At this stage, Zn-leaching increased due the occurrence of fly ash-specific Zn-species soluble in alkaline conditions. Irrespective of binder proportion and water saturation level, the Ni- and Zn-release were lower, compared to that in CT. Fractions of Ni, Zn, and Cu associated with acid-soluble phases or amorphous Fe-precipitates, susceptible to remobilization under acidic conditions, increased in tandem with binder fractions. Pyrrhotite oxidation occurred irrespective of the water saturation level in the CPB-mixtures. That in turn, poses an environmental risk, whereas a substantial proportion of Ni, Cu and Zn were associated with acid-soluble phases.

  • 15.
    Hamberg, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The use of low binder proportions in cemented paste backfill: Effects on As-leaching2015Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 78, s. 74-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gold is extracted by cyanide leaching from inclusions in arsenopyrite at a mine in the north of Sweden. The major ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite–loellingite. Arsenopyrite is assumed to be oxidized during cyanidation and the stability of secondary As-phases needs to be assessed. One way of managing such tailings is to convert them into a monolithic mass by using a method called cemented paste backfill (CPB). In CPB, tailings are traditionally mixed with water (typically 25% by weight) and small amounts (3–7%) of binders, and backfilled into excavated underground areas. To investigate the release of arsenic (As) from CPB prepared from As-rich tailings, tailings containing approx. 1000 ppm of As, mainly in the form of As-bearing iron (Fe)-precipitates (FEP), were mixed with small quantities (1–3%) of biofuel fly ash (BFA), ordinary cement, and water to produce monolithic CPB masses. CPB-recipes were designed to meet the strength demand of 200 kPa, stated by the mine operators. Tank leaching tests (TLT) and the weathering cell test (WCT) were used to compare the leaching behavior of As in unmodified tailings and CPB-materials. Results from the leaching tests (TLT and WCT) showed that the inclusion of As-rich tailings into a cementitious matrix increased leaching of As. This behavior could partially be explained by an increase of pH where As sorbed to FEPs becomes unstable. In the CPB mixtures, small (>1%) proportions of the total As in the solid material was released from less acid-tolerant species (i.e. Ca-arsenates and As bonded to cementitious phases). Unmodified tailings generated an acidic environment in flooded conditions at which As-bearing FEPs were stable. Acid was added to the crushed CPB materials during later stages of the WCTs to mimic the effects of weathering. This increased the leaching of Fe and had minor effects on that of As but did not affect S-leaching.

  • 16.
    Heijne, Patrik von
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Adaptive sampling strategies to improve site assessment2010Ingår i: ConSoil 2010: 22 - 24 September 2010 Salzburg, Austria; proceedings 11th International UFZ-Deltares - TNO Conference on Management of Soil, Groundwater & Sediments in cooperation with Land Salzburg ..., Leipzig: UFZ , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an adaptive sampling strategy based on multi-stage sampling, information gathered in earlier stages is used to choose what information to search for in the next stage. This should be the information that has the greatest probability to best improve the basis for the decisions to be made. Based on literature this paper discusses how to use this strategy to improve investigations of contaminated soil by assessing decision uncertainty. The measurement error, the number of samples and choice of interpolation method are among the factors that have large effect on the usability of the outcome of a multi-stage sampling investigation using interpolation. In the light of increased usage of field-portable test instruments the interaction of measurement error and number of samples needs to be further investigated. Other issues that need attention are how to measure the quality of the basis for decision and how to decide when the quality is good enough.

  • 17.
    Heijne, Patrik von
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reporting data: managing sampling and analytical uncertainty2014Ingår i: Contaminated Soils: A Guide to Sampling and Analysis, London: Future Science Ltd , 2014, s. 88-101Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash: sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners2009Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, nr 14, s. 3541-3547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash - sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 27-1 fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material×ash ratio and ash ratio×compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (α = 0.05). Freezing on 5 freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R2adjusted values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 × 10-11 m s-1 and 8.9 × 10-10 m s-1 if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm-3, the ash ratio between 20 and 75 % and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10-9 m s-1.

  • 19.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Department of Environment and Minerals Resources, Greenland Institute of Nature Resources.
    Ehlert, Ludwig
    Ramboll Sverige AB.
    Wahlskog, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Water quality of stormwater generated from an airport in a cold climate, function of an infiltration pond, and sampling strategy with limited resources2018Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 190, nr 1, artikel-id 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring pollutants in stormwater discharge in cold climates is challenging. An environmental survey was performed by sampling the stormwater from Luleå Airport, Northern Sweden, during the period 2010-2013, when urea was used as a main component of aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs). The stormwater collected from the runway was led through an oil trap to an infiltration pond to store excess water during precipitation periods and enhance infiltration and water treatment. Due to insufficient capacity, an emergency spillway was established and equipped with a flow meter and an automatic sampler. This study proposes a program for effective monitoring of pollutant discharge with a minimum number of sampling occasions when use of automatic samplers is not possible. The results showed that 90% of nitrogen discharge occurs during late autumn before the water pipes freeze and during snow melting, regardless of the precipitation during the remaining months when the pollutant discharge was negligible. The concentrations of other constituents in the discharge were generally low compared to guideline values. The best data quality was obtained using flow controlled sampling. Intensive time-controlled sampling during late autumn (few weeks) and snow melting (2 weeks) would be sufficient for necessary information. The flow meters installed at the rectangular notch appeared to be difficult to calibrate and gave contradictory results. Overall, the spillway was dry, as water infiltrated into the pond, and stagnant water close to the edge might be registered as flow. Water level monitoring revealed that the infiltration capacity gradually decreased with time.

  • 20.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Department of Environment and Minerals ResourcesGreenland Institute of Nature ResourcesNuukGreenland.
    Hamberg, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Swedish Geological Survey AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Asif
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Department of Energy and Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan.
    Mäkitalo, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Variation of green liquor dregs from different pulp and paper mills for use in mine waste remediation2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The geotechnical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of green liquor dregs (GLDs) generated as byproducts from five paper mills were investigated to assess their buffering and heavy metal immobilization capacities and their roles as water and oxygen barriers. One type of GLD was further studied to test the effects of the retrieval process and the storage, drying, and hydration of GLD. The high water retention capacity of the GLDs is valuable for limiting O2diffusion. Laboratory results showed that the GLDs had hydraulic conductivities of 3.7 × 10−9–4.6 × 10−8 m/s and varied regularly in plasticity. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the GLDs varied greatly, reflecting the raw material used to produce paper and the process used to retrieve GLDs. Although they had high total heavy metal contents, none of the leached elements from the GLDs (L/S 10 cm3/kg) exceeded the European Union’s limits for landfills of non-hazardous waste. The GLDs exhibited high buffering capacities. In a supplementary test, the buffering capacities varied (0.0041–0.0114 M H+/g GLD) over 72 d after acid was added to the GLD. Changing the filtration process did not greatly affect the GLDs’ properties but mainly affected the hydraulic conductivity, total heavy metal contents and sulfur content. Analyzing the storage of GLDs is necessary in the mining industry because remediation measures require large amounts of material over short periods. The buffering capacity of the dried GLD decreased slightly. The effect of dewatering caused by the mixing of 2% Na-lignosulfate with GLD (w/w) was low.

  • 21.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of the alkaline industrial residues fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud on mine tailings oxidation when used as covering material2014Ingår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 319-334, artikel-id 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential to use the alkaline residue products fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud originating from paper mills as dry cover materials to seal tailings has been investigated. Metals concentration in lime mud and fly ash had the lowest and highest contents, respectively. The tailings (less than 1% sulfur content, primarily pyrite) were disposed about 50 years ago and originated from the former Rönnskär mine site in Sweden. The results of chemical composition analysis shows that the raw unoxidized tailings are active towards oxidation, while the components of the adjacent oxidized tailings are not. To quantify the release of metals from the tailings and to evaluate the effect of a sealing layer on oxidation and weathering of the tailings, batch leaching tests were conducted in which leachate from alkaline residue materials was fed to the tailings. The results show that a higher concentration of most trace elements is leached from the unoxidized tailings than from the oxidized tailings. Except As and Cr, the rest of analyzed metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb) became immobilized in response to the increased pH as a consequence of the amendment. The three tested alkaline amendments show a similar potential for preventing the release of metals (with the exception of As and Cr) from the tailings. Under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, microbial activity was found to be of minor importance. XRD analysis of the field samples revealed that it was feasible to use alkaline residue products in covering tailings, and that it was advantageous to use ash as a cover material more than dregs.

  • 22. Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Metal Mobilization in Tailings Covered with Alkaline Residue Products: Results from a Leaching Test Using Fly Ash, Green Liquor Dregs, and Lime Mud2015Ingår i: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 270-287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The in situ dynamics of repeated percolation of rainwater through unoxidized mine tailings was simulated using a modified column test to predict long-term weathering characteristics. Fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud waste materials from the paper mill industry were used in the column tests to assess the effect of alkaline paper mill residue on pH buffering and controlling the mobility of metals and semi-metals from the tailings. The experiment was continued for 15 cycles, each comprising reaction, leaching, and idle steps (1 week per step). The cumulative percolated water through the tailings represented a liquid:solid ratio of 1.6. The leached content of inorganic elements decreased with time in both the covered and the uncovered tailings. The presence of the alkaline materials consistently reduced the mobility of most contaminants (e.g. Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn), but not As. The leachate was modeled using PHREEQC. XRD analysis of the remaining tailings samples after termination of the test showed detectable variations in mineral composition. The alkaline residue products all fulfilled the requirements as a cover material from a geochemical prospective, with the exception of As. The green liquor dregs and lime cover increased the pH of the tailings more rapidly than did the fly ash.

  • 23.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mobility of as, Cu, Cr, and Zn from tailings covered with sealing materials using alkaline industrial residues: a comparison between two leaching methods2016Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 648-660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Different alkaline residue materials (fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud) generated from the pulp and paper industry as sealing materials were evaluated to cover aged mine waste tailings (

  • 24.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nason, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Degradation of digested sewage sludge residue under anaerobic conditions for mine tailings remediation2014Ingår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, nr 9, s. 3643-3654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that 85 % of total organic matter (TOM) in digested sewage sludge (biosolids) used as a sealing layer material over sulfide tailings at the Kristineberg Mine, northern Sweden had been degraded 8 years after application, resulting in a TOM reduction from 78 % to 14 %. To achieve a better understanding of the field observations, laboratory studies were performed to evaluate biodegradation rates of the TOM under anaerobic conditions. Results reveal that the original biosolid consisted of ca. 60 % TOM (48.0 % lignin and 11.8 % carbohydrates) that had not been fully degraded. The incubation experiments proved that 27.8 % TOM in the biosolid was further degraded anaerobically at 20-22 C during the 230 d incubation period, and that a plateau to the biodegradation rate was approached. Based on model results, the degradation constant was found to be 0.0125 (day-1). The calculated theoretical gas formation potential was ca. 50 % higher than the modeled results based on the average degradation rate. Cumulated H2S equated to 0.65 µmoL*g-1 of biosolid at 230 d. However, the large sulfurous compounds reservoir (1.76 g SO42- kg-1 biosolid) together with anaerobic conditions, can generate high concentrations of this gas over a long-term perspective. Due to the rate of biodegradability identified via anaerobic processes, the function of the biosolid to serve as an effective barrier to inhibit oxygen migration to underlying tailings, may decrease over time. However, a lack of readily degradable organic fractions in the biosolid and a large fraction of organic matter that was recalcitrant to degradation suggests a longer degradation duration, which would prolong the biosolid material’s function and integrity.

  • 25. Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Nason, Peter
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Investigation of biosolids degradation under flooded environments for use in underwater cover designs for mine tailing remediation2015Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 13, s. 10047-10057Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the potential suitability of digested sewage sludge (frequently termed biosolids) for use as underwater cover material for mine waste tailings, the degradability of biosolids at 20 − 22 °C under flooded anaerobic conditions was evaluated during incubation for 230 days. Leaching of elements from the flooded anaerobic system was also evaluated. Biosolid degradation was confirmed by the generation and accumulation of CH4 and CO2. Specifically, approximately 1.65 mmoL gas/g biosolids was generated as a result of incubation, corresponding to degradation of 7.68 % of the organic matter, and the residue was stable at the end of the laboratory experiment. Under field conditions in northern Sweden, it is expected that the degradation rate will be much slower than that observed in the present study (Nason et al. Environ Earth Sci 70:30933105, 2013). Although the majority of biosolid fractions (>92 %) were shown to be recalcitrant during the incubation period, long-term monitoring of further degradability of residue is necessary. The leaching results showed that most of the metals and metalloids leached from the biosolids at day 230 were below the limit value for non-hazardous waste, although Ni was the only element approximately three times higher than the limit value for inert material at the landfill site. In conclusion, biosolids have potential for use as covering material for underwater storage of tailings based on their biodegradability and leaching of elements.

  • 26.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Department of Environment and Mineral Resources Greenland Institute of Natural Resources Nuuk.
    Stahre, Nanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Ramböll Sverige AB Luleå.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Geotechnical and chemical characterization of field-applied fly ash as sealing material over mine tailings2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 1701-1710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses the geotechnical and chemical properties of sealing materials using a paper mill by-product, fly ash, on top of sulfide-bearing mine waste tailings after 5 years of field application. From a geotechnical perspective, the low in situ bulk density (≤ 1500 kg/m3) ensured a high degree of water saturation (90.2%) for the field-applied ash. The chemical characteristics and behaviors of the fly ash samples reflected a high long-term leaching capacity (liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 cm3/g) and high alkalinity (liquid-to-solid ratio of up to 500 cm3/g). The laboratory leaching results suggested that none of the elements released from the field-applied ash exceeded the EU limits for inert materials, and the concentrations of elements were far below the limits for hazardous materials at landfill sites. Based on the in situ and laboratory characterizations of the field-applied ash, the fly ash sealing material was considered geotechnically stable. However, a number of geotechnical parameters could not be measured due to the cementation of the ash. Moreover, the chemical composition of the field-applied ash exhibited considerable variations when compared with that of the raw ash generated from the same paper mill. Overall, the field-applied ash displayed high alkalinity and effectively buffered the acid generated from sulfidic tailings for long-term sealing purposes.

  • 27.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Stahre, Nanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mäkitalo, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elemental mobility in sulfidic mine tailings reclaimed with paper mill by-products as sealing materials2017Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, nr 25, s. 20389-20389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sealing layers made of two alkaline paper mill by-products, fly ash and green liquor dregs, were placed on top of 50-year-old sulfide-containing tailings as a full-scale remediation approach. The performance and effectiveness of the sealing layers with high water content for an oxygen barrier and low hydraulic conductivity for a sealing layer in preventing the formation of acid rock drainage were evaluated 5 years after the remediation. The leaching behavior of the covered tailings was studied using batch leaching tests (L/S ratio 10 L/kg). The leaching results revealed that, in general, the dregs- and ash-covered tailings released relatively lower concentrations of many elements contained in acid rock drainage compared to those from the uncovered tailings. A change in the chemical composition and mineralogical state of the tailings was observed for the tailings beneath the covers. The increase in pH caused by the alkaline materials promoted metal precipitation. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC confirmed most of the geochemical changes of the covered tailings. Both the ash and dregs showed potential to function as sealing materials in terms of their geochemical properties. However, mobilization of Zn and Ni from the lower part of the dregs-covered tailings was observed. The same phenomenon was observed for the lower part of the ash-covered tailings. Ash showed advantages over dregs as a cover material; based on geochemical studies, the ash immobilized more elements than the dregs did. Lysimeters were installed below the sealing layers, and infiltrating water chemistry and hydrology were studied to monitor the amount and quality of the leachate percolating through

  • 28.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Stenman, David
    Mäkitalo, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of amended tailings as mine waste cover2013Ingår i: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 709-718Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses the effectiveness of green liquor dregs (GLD, a residue from paper pulp-making) as a paste additive with different proportions in tailings for stabilizing mine waste by testing of uniaxial compressive strength and hydraulic conductivity. Selected samples were also investigated for freeze–thaw effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the water retention capacity was discussed based on previous results. Fly ash was also added to the paste to study the auxiliary functions such as solidification in the sealing material. GLD have the potential for use as a barrier layer material for stabilizing mine tailings by decreasing water percolation and improving water retention properties. However, the solidified paste of GLD-amended tailings possesses low uniaxial compressive strength, but the addition of fly ash to the paste increased the uniaxial compressive strength by up to 2–3 times 1 month after it was solidified, with a further two- to threefold strength increase after 3-months curing time. Although the hydraulic conductivity of the tailings paste decreased as a consequence of mixing with both GLD and FA, the difference was within one order of magnitude. The hydraulic conductivity was also reduced as the water/solid ratio of pure GLD decreased. The climatic freeze–thaw cyclic process led to 20 % increase in hydraulic conductivity. A proportion of 7:2:1 for tailings:GLD:FA was found to be a geotechnical satisfactory recipe to seal the mine waste. If porosity is reduced, improved water retention capacity and no cracking in the tailings can be assured, oxygen diffusion is limited, and oxidation of the mine waste is decelerated, thus mitigating acid rock drainage.

  • 29.
    Jia, Yu
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Stenman, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mäkitalo, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of rest products as additive in tailings paste for the mitigation of ARD: Effect of green liquor dregs and fly ash addition on geotechnical stabilization of tailings2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials: WASCON 2012 Conference proceedings / [ed] M. Arm; C. Vandecasteele; J. Heynen; P. Suer; B. Lind, ISCOWA , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the effect of green liquor dregs (GLD) and fly ash (FA) on geotechnical stabilization of tailings, using shear strength test.The objectives were to evaluate thickening of tailings using GLD to paste to improve its water retention and to reduce waste percolation, to identify optimal proportion of additives regarding geotechnical stabilization of tailings, and to study the role of FA in the decrease of porosity and thus to reduce oxygen diffusion via hardening process.The results showed that GLD is a potential material for tailings stabilization by decreasing water percolation and improving water retention property. However, the paste of GLD amended tailings withstands low shear strength. The addition of FA to the paste greatly improves shear strength which is up to 2-3 times higher. Moreover, the fly ash hardening process effectively reinforces the strength of GLD amended tailings paste. Longer curing period (3 months) for specimens leads to up to 2-3 folds higher strength compared to that of 1 month. Hydraulic conductivity is reduced as a result of GLD and FA addition, since the porosity of the tailings decreased. If reduced porosity, improved water retention capacity and no cracks are ensured in the tailings, oxygen diffusion can be limited.

  • 30.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Maurice, Christian
    Impact of grassed swales on the fate of metals leached from roads built with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes2006Ingår i: Coal Combustion Byproducts and Environmental Issues: [Seventh International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements held at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, from June 15-19, 2003], New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2006, s. 87-98Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Granström, H.
    Ruth, E.
    Maurice, Christian
    Immobilization of contaminants from bottom ashes: the role of soil organic matter2003Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, ISSN 1648-6897, E-ISSN 1822-4199, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 14-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilization of bottom ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in road constructions might cause environmental problems due to the release of toxic metals. The present work is aimed at studying the suitability of soil as a treatment facility of metals leached out from bottom ashes. A laboratory experiment with three types of soil (forest soil, peat and mould soil), and with sand as a reference substrate, was performed to determine the binding capacity of each substrate towards heavy metals, such as Cu and Cr(VI). The results indicated that all the substrates were capable of removing on average 99,3 % of Cu from the solution, while only peat showed a high retention of Cr(VI) (96,2 %). The retention of Cr(VI) was directly proportional to the soil organic matter (SOM) content, while the retention of Cu had no correlation with the SOM of the substrates. A high retention of Cu shown by sand was due to its high content of pH which could favor the precipitation of Cu(OH)2. A synergetic effect of Cu on the retention of Cr(VI) by sand and mould was detected, i.e. increasing concentrations of Cu in the solution increased the retention of Cr. In all the other cases there was no statistically significant interaction between the retention of Cu and Cr(VI) by the analysed substrates.

  • 32. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Retention of metals leached from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes in soils2006Ingår i: Soil & sediment contamination, ISSN 1532-0383, E-ISSN 1549-7887, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 429-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilization of bottom ash in road construction may lead to a release of contaminants that can affect the soil of the swales constructed along these roads. Column tests were performed to evaluate the retention behavior of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb, originating from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash leachate, in two substrates: peat and mould (a cultural soil). A chemical sequential extraction method was used to predict the risk associated with the release of the retained elements with modifications of environmental conditions. Apart from the dissolution of organic matter (OM), ash leachate properties hindered the metal transport from peat. Mould was efficient only in removing Zn, making it a less favorable substrate for the leachate control along the roads. Readily soluble forms made up a minor fraction of the retained metals in peat, reducing the risk of metal release due to ion exchange and pH drop. Changes in redox potential might be the main cause of Zn desorption from peat as the Fe-Mn oxides were the main scavengers for this metal. Oxidation of OM would be the primary reason of Cu and Cr release, while for Pb both fractions (Fe-Mn oxides and OM) might equally contribute to the metal discharge.

  • 33. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments: a review2008Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 215-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxyhydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.

  • 34. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Stabilization of Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat2007Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 145, nr 1, s. 365-373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The stabilization of metal contaminated soil is being tested as an alternative remediation method to landfilling. An evaluation of the changes in Cu and Pb mobility and bioavailability in soil induced by the addition of coal fly ash and natural organic matter (peat) revealed that the amount of leached Cu decreased by 98.2% and Pb by 99.9%, as assessed by a batch test. Metal leaching from the treated soil was lower by two orders of magnitude compared to the untreated soil in the field lysimeters. A possible formation of mineral Cu- and Pb-bearing phases and active surface with oxides were identified by chemical equilibrium calculations. Low metal leaching during a two-year observation period, increased seed germination rate, reduced metal accumulation in plant shoots, and decreased toxicity to plants and bacteria, thereby demonstrating this stabilization method to be a promising technique for in situ remediation of Cu and Pb contaminated soil. Copper and lead mobility and bioavailability in soil can be effectively reduced by using a combination of coal fly ash and peat as soil amendments.

  • 35.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Maurice, Christian
    Impact of water saturation level on arsenic leaching in iron-stabilized soil2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Liljedahl, Thomas
    Umeå university.
    Maurice, Christian
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå university.
    Kessler, Elisabeth
    Editorial2007Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 429-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, contaminated soil has become of both public and scientific concern. National inventories have shown very large numbers of potentially contaminated sites originating from various industrial activities. Industrial technologies in the old days were often based on open systems designed without the insight of their being potential environmental threats. Legal actions taken against organizations responsible for water and air pollution have led to the development of new water and flue gas cleaning technologies. Today, contaminated land plays a major role in sustainable future land use, not only with regard to pollution resulting from old industrial activities but also with regard to the management of present industrial technologies and waste products.Issues related to contaminated soil are by definition interdisciplinary. In the Northern Sweden Soil Remediation Center (MCN), scientists from three universities (Umeå University, Luleå University of Technology, and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) have focused on developing a detailed understanding of the mechanisms and processes in the soil system. Fundamental and applied research in collaboration with enterprises has been performed concerning critical knowledge gaps.The MCN was initiated in 2001 and consists of scientists, representatives from authorities, consultants, and entrepreneurs. The major goals of the MCN have been to increase the scientific basis for the risk assessment of contaminated soil and, by improved knowledge of the interactions between different contaminants and the soil system, to guide the development of remediation methods. New scientific results have been implemented by collaboration enterprises and authorities that have added strategic value for the whole sector in general.This issue of AMBIO summarizes the MCN's research activities, which have focused on inorganic and organic pollutant behavior, analytical methods, and risk assessments of brownfields. In addition, invited contributions from research groups outside the MCN have added other valuable aspects to the multidisciplinary research field.

  • 37.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Remediation of soil contaminated with inorganic pollutants2003Ingår i: Proceedings / Sixth International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central & Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States: 1 - 4 September 2003, Prague Mariott Hotel, Prague, Czech Republic, Tallahassee, Fla: Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research, Florida State University , 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Stabilization of Pb and CU contaminated soil2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan, Hokkaido, 2004, s. 167-169Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Montesinos, Isaac Castillo
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of the critical factors controlling stability of chromium, copper, arsenic and zinc in iron-treated soil2007Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 410-417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Various environmental factors are expected to affect the mobility of elements in chemically stabilized soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pH, oxidizing–reducing potential (Eh), liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), presence of organic matter (OM) and microbial activity (MA) on the mobility of chromium, copper, arsenic and zinc in zerovalent iron (Fe0)-stabilized soil. A 25 full factorial design was applied to assess the leaching of the elements from the treated soil. The factor having the most impact on the mobility of Cr, Cu and Zn was pH; low pH (3) led to the release of these elements. Arsenic remobilization was controlled by L/S and MA, whilst Eh, though also significant, had less influence. In the identified worst-case scenarios, more than half of the total Zn and Cu and 14% of As can be expected to remobilize from the treated soil. The leaching procedure concerning sample agitation and type of filtration showed to substantially affect the results of As leaching, especially in OM rich soil.

  • 40.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ore, Solvita
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Erratum to "Stabilization of Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat" (vol 145, pg 365, 2007)2007Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 148, nr 1, s. 384-384Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Ore, Solvita
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux University.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Assessment of zerovalent iron for stabilization of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soil2006Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 144, nr 1, s. 62-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilization of soil contaminated with trace elements is a remediation practice that does not reduce the total content of contaminants, but lowers the amounts of mobile and bioavailable fractions. This study evaluated the efficiency of Fe(0) to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of Cr, Cu, As and Zn in a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil using chemical, biochemical and biotoxicity tests. Contaminated soil was stabilized with 1% iron grit. This treatment decreased As and Cr concentrations in leachates (by 98% and 45%, respectively), in soil pore water (by 99% and 94%, respectively) and in plant shoots (by 84% and 95%, respectively). The stabilization technique also restored most of analyzed soil enzyme activities and reduced microbial toxicity, as evaluated by the BioTox test. After stabilization, exchangeable and bioaccessible fractions of Cu remained high, causing some residual toxicity in the treated soil.

  • 42.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå university.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå university.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Lättström, Anders
    Umeå university.
    Leffler, Per
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå.
    Maurice, Christian
    Impact of water saturation level on arsenic and metal mobility in the Fe-amended soil2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 206-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of water saturation level (oxidizing-reducing environment) on As and metal solubility in chromium, copper, arsenic (CCA)-contaminated soil amended with Fe-containing materials was studied. The soil was mixed with 0.1 and 1 wt% of iron grit (Fe(0)) and 1, 7 and 15 wt% of oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG, a by-product of steel processing). Solubility of As and metals was evaluated by a batch leaching test and analysis of soil pore water. Soil saturation with water greatly increased As solubility in the untreated as well as in the Fe-amended soil. This was related to the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides and increased concentration of As(III) species. Fe amendments showed As reducing capacity under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The cytotoxicity of the soil pore water correlated with the concentration of As(III). The Fe-treatments as well as water saturation of soil were less significant for the solubility of Cu, Cr and Zn than for As. The batch leaching test used for waste characterization substantially underestimated As solubility that could occur under water-saturated (anaerobic) conditions. In the case of soil landfilling, other techniques than Fe-stabilization of As containing soil should be considered.

  • 43.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    LTU.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lokal lakvattenbehandling i Umeå: pilotförsök2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lakvatten sambehandlas ofta med kommunalt avloppsvatten i avloppsreningsverk. Detta förfarande försöker man i Sverige stegvis frångå och istället etablera lokala behandlingsanläggningar på eller i anslutning till deponierna. De lokala anläggningarna kan därmed bättre anpassas för att behandla lakvattnets föroreningar. Som ett led i att etablera en lokal lakvattenbehandling på avfallsupplaget Dåvamyran i Umeå har en pilotanläggning för lakvattenbehandling etablerats under 1998 och 1999. Den huvudsakliga driftsäsongen har varit sommaren 2000. Denna rapport är en rapportering av i huvudsak säsongen 2000. I en förstudie hade ett behandlingsbehov för några olika vatten inom deponiområdet bestämts. Hypoteserna, som skulle bekräftas eller dementeras med forskningsprojektet, var: det finns olika kvaliteter vatten inom deponiområdet och de skiljer så mycket i sammansättning att det ur behandlingssynpunkt är relevant att hålla isär dessa kvaliteter. Det finns en basbehandling (sekvens av behandlingssteg) bestående av sandfilter, steg för nitrifikation och våtmark med rotzonsflöde till vilken olika vatten kan kopplas på i olika steg och därmed skapa en effektivare behandling än då allt vatten passerar alla behandlingssteg Det går att denitrifiera kväve i en rotzonsvåtmark i kallt klimat Resultaten av analysen av de olika vattenkvaliteterna på deponiområdet visar att koncentrationen av olika ämnen i ytvatten och lakvatten skiljer så mycket att det är relevant att hålla isär dessa. Ytvattnet skulle endast behöva en putsbehandling och därmed kopplas direkt till våtmarken. Även inom kategorin lakvatten finns det skillnader. Exempelvis är halten kväve för lakvatten från blandat industriavfall betydligt högre än i lakvattnet från aska. Metallhalterna å andra sidan är högre i asklakvattnet. Dessa skillnader skulle kunna motivera att hålla isär de olika lakvattenkvaliteterna. I huvudsak föreligger ett behandlingsbehov för järn, kväve och till viss del organiskt material och metaller. En pilotanläggning har etablerats och drivits på lakvatten från industriavfall. Anläggningen omfattar tre olika behandlingssteg i serie: Sandfilter för järnreduktion Biorotor för nitrifikation Våtmark med rotzonsflöde för denitrifikation och putsbehandling av organiskt material och metaller I sandfiltret sker en reduktion på upp till 70% av järn. Dock försämras funktionen med tiden och sandfiltret uppvisar högre halter ut än in under senare delen av säsongen. Andra metallhalter reduceras också över sandfiltret. För dessa återfinns inte någon tydlig tidstrend. I biorotorn sker en nitrifikation, dvs ammoniumkväve omvandlas till nitratkväve. Halten ammoniumkväve i utgående vatten är nära noll och halten nitratkväve är hög. Sammantaget sker dock en kväveförlust över biorotorn. Kväveförlusten i kombination med ett ökande pH tyder på att det sker en viss denitrifikation i biorotorn. Tydligast är detta i början av säsongen, då kväveförlusterna kan vara betydande. Perioder med stora temperaturfall leder till störningar i processen och förhöjda halter av nitritkväve uppmäts då i utloppet. Biorotorn har som mest nitrifierat ca 3,5 gN/m2,d. I de båda våtmarkerna sker sannolikt en viss denitrifikation. Tydligast är detta för våtmark två, vilken innehöll en sektion med matjord. En kvantifiering av kvävereduktionen är inte möjlig att genomföra med existerande data. Våtmarkerna har fungerat väl i det kalla klimatet. Bottenfrysning har undvikits tack vare ett isolerande snötäcke. Flertalet växtarter har överlevt och utvecklats, några har försvunnit. Temperaturmätningar i våtmarken tyder på att temperaturen överskrider 5°C under sex månader och att behandling därmed skulle vara möjlig under denna tid.

  • 44.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Maurice, Christian
    Kolbalanser vid testceller1996Ingår i: Symposium om svensk upplagsforskning 1996 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Malmö: Svenska renhållningsverks-föreningens Service AB , 1996, s. 119-145Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Under periodenn 1992-94 har gasemissioner studerats vid testceller ingående i projektet "Samordnad deponigas-FUD" (i Malmö, Helsingborg och Upplands Bro). Syftet med dessa mätningar har varit att bestämma gasbildningen och gasutvinningens effektivitet i olika celler

  • 45.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Landfill carbon balances1996Ingår i: The second Conference on environmental management technology and development: Johannesburg, SA, 7-8 October, South African Institution of Civil Engineers , 1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 46. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Management of iron stabilised CCA contaminated soil2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials: WASCON 2006 / [ed] Marina Ilic, Belgrade: ISCOWA , 2006, s. 665-676Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical stabilisation of trace element contaminated soil may be used as pre-treatment prior to landfilling or re-utilisation. Three different treatments with iron amendments were evaluated for their efficiency in reducing trace element mobility in chromate copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil. The amendments tested were two industrial by-products from steel production industries, viz. blaster sand, containing mainly zerovalent iron (Fe0), and oxygen scarfing granulate, with mainly iron oxides. Batch, column, and lysimeter leaching tests were conducted on untreated and treated soils. The tests were used to firstly evaluate the potential of the amendments as stabilising agents, and secondly to assess the potential management of the treated soil. Soil amendments lowered concentrations of As, Cu, Cr, and Zn in soil pore water and leachate, whereas Fe, Mn, and Ni showed tendencies towards increased concentrations. The treatment efficiency can be ranked as 1% Fe0 < 4% iron oxides < 8% iron oxides. While iron oxides may be used as effective amendments to reduce As leaching from soil, their effects on leaching of e.g. Ni warrant careful consideration. Further, impurities of the iron oxides increased soil concentrations of e.g. Cr, potentially limiting re-utilisation of the treated soil. Lowered As leaching from column and lysimeter tests on treated soil indicated aerobic soil conditions and, hence, stability of iron oxides. This may, however, be an artefact of a too short testing period for anaerobic conditions to establish.

  • 47. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    To assess arsenic leaching from iron stabilised CCA contaminated soil2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 131-132Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Leffler, Per
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Maurice, Christian
    Field trials to assess the use of iron-bearing industrial by-products for stabilisation of chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil2007Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 387, nr 1-3, s. 68-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two industrial by-products with high iron contents were tested for their effectiveness in the stabilisation of arsenic and trace metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil. Steel abrasive (SA; 97% Fe0) and oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG; 69% Fe3O4) were applied at levels of 1% and 8% (w/w) respectively to two soils with different organic matter contents. Field lysimeter measurements indicated that SA and OSG treatments decreased the arsenic concentration in pore water by 68% and 92%, respectively, for the soil with low organic matter content, and by about 30% in pore water of soil with high organic matter content. At pH ≤6, the amended soil with low organic content contained elevated levels of manganese and nickel in their pore water, which were sufficient to induce cytotoxic effects in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The industrial by-products have significant potential for soil amendment at field-scale, but caution is required because of the potential release of their chemical contaminants and their reduced capacity for sorption of arsenic in organic-rich soils.

  • 49.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Erixon, Peter
    Fell, Astrid
    Ingri, Johan
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rönnbäck, Brit
    Teaching community in sustainable development: aim, realization and evaluation. Final report from project "Teaching communities" (självförbättrande lärartem)2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for the educational development of university teachers (a type of teaching community) has been tested. University staff from different faculties worked and reflected together over the teaching and learning practice in a couple of courses. The community was supervised by an educational developer with a doctoral degree in psychology, and they worked in close collaboration with both undergraduate students and PhD students. The teaching staff that participated improved their teaching skills, extended their repertoire of learning tools, and experienced increased self-reliance. Their motivation and enthusiasm for teaching increased, and today they act as "missionaries" for good teaching and learning practices at the University. It was not obvious, however, that this educational development promoted their academic careers. New project ideas emerged from the teaching community.

  • 50.
    Lundberg, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Erixon, Peter
    Widenfalk, Lennart
    Maurice, Christian
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rönnbäck, Brit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Promotion of collaborative learning in sustainable development: Arena Global Resources2006Ingår i: Proceedings 2005: utvecklingskonferensen 16-18 november i Karlstad / [ed] Ingrid Järnefelt, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Arena Global resources many exercises that designed to promote team-work and collaborative learning were introduced during the first semester. Examples of exercises were: a) adventure based experiential learning b) supervised peer review of written (process writing) and oral student presentations c) an exercise that revealed the disadvantages with lack of co-operation d) a home-work exercise where the students were encouraged to co-operate e) team-work dealing with water resources in an international perspective f) student panel discussion where knowledge from two different courses was integrated g) a tree-day study tour where the students learn to know each other. The students were also encouraged to read texts describing advantages with collaborative learning.

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