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  • 1.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Integrating empirical evidence on forest landowner behavior in forest sector models: a literature review and synthesis2016Ingår i: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energy efficiency and policy in Swedish pulp and paper mills: a data envelopment analysis approach2012Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 42, s. 569-579Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and mill-specific input and output data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The empirical results are discussed in relation to the reported outcomes of the Swedish voluntary energy efficiency programme PFE. The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over the time period; it equals roughly 1 TWh per year for the sample mills and this is three times higher than the corresponding self-reported electricity savings in PFE. This result is largely a reflection of the fact that in the pulp and paper industry electricity efficiency improvements are typically embodied in the diffusion of new capital equipment, and there is a risk that some of the reported measures in PFE simply constitute an inefficient speed-up of capital turnover. The above does not preclude, though, that many other measures in PFE may have addressed some relevant market failures and barriers in the energy efficiency market. Overall the analysis suggests that future energy efficiency programs could plausibly be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the most important information and behaviour-related failures.

  • 3.
    Bohlin, Rolf
    et al.
    Kammarrätten Stockholm.
    Buht, Karl-Henrik
    Finansdepartementet.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Energimarknadsinspektionen.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energiskatt på el: En översyn av det nuvarande systemet : Betänkande från Utredningen om sektorsneutral och konkurrenskraftig energiskatt på el2015Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Bohlin, Rolf
    et al.
    Kammarrätten Stockholm.
    Ärlebrant, Åsa
    Kammarrätten Sundsvall.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Beskattning av mikroproducerad el m.m.2013Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Bioenergy innovations and their determinants: A negative binominal count data analysis2014Ingår i: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 57, nr 192, s. 41-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research employed a negative binominal count data model approach to analyse the determinants of bioenergy innovations with a special focus on the effect of energy and climate policies. A panel of 14 OECD countries were analysed using patent counts for the period 1978-2009 as a proxy for innovations. The policies examined were feed-in tariffs, quota obligations and different types of investment support schemes. The study found that feed-in tariffs affected innovation positively but quota obligations did not. The results regarding investment support programs were ambiguous since the dummy variable representing strong investment policies was statistically significant whereas the continuous variable for investment support schemes was not. Another finding was that electricity prices seemed to be an important determinant of innovation and that the accumulated stock of knowledge in the bioenergy sector also had a positive impact on bioenergy innovation.

  • 6.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Effect of Environmental Regulation Stringency on the Pulp and Paper Industry2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikel-id 2323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    he article investigates whether environmental regulations have affected productivity development and technological change in the European pulp and paper industry. A dynamic panel data approach is selected for analyzing a sample consisting of the pulp and paper industries in eight European countries. Industry total factor productivity for the period 1993–2009 is used as the dependent variable; it is explained by the intensities of environmental regulations for various types of pollutants, as well as by a number of other independent variables. The econometric results indicate that the regulation of nitrogen oxides is associated with productivity improvements with a one-year lag, whereas regulations regarding sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide have not had any statistically significant impact. In line with the a priori expectations, the price of pulp is connected to a negative effect, while lagged R&D expenditures have had corresponding positive impacts. However, since stationary tests are asymptotic and the data series are quite short, strong conclusions regarding the actual causal effect of environmental policy could not be drawn. The results could therefore not be viewed as a proof of the so-called strong Porter hypothesis postulating that stringent well-designed environmental regulations increase productivity growth compared to a no-policy scenario.

  • 7.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Induced Innovation and Renewable Energy Policies for Bioenergy: An Econometric Analysis2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Kampen om skogen: koka, såga, bränna eller bevara?2010Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger ett samhällsekonomiskt perpsektiv på utnyttjandet av skogen och dess resurser genom att belysa ett antal centrala ekonomiska och politiska faktorer som påverkar användningen av skogen och till viss del även dess produktionsförmåga. I boken diskuteras också behovet av statlig styrning inom skogssektorn samt analyseras konsekvenserna av olika politiska vägval.

  • 9.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Public Policies and Solar PV Innovation: An Empirical Study Based on Patent Data2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of different renewable energy support policies and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the time period 1978-2008. Three policies are included in the analysis: public R&D support to solar PV, fixed feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and indicate that: (a) both FIT schemes and REC schemes induce more solar PV patenting activity even though the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) (lagged) public R&D support has an important impact on solar PV innovation; and (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect does not emerge in the case of public R&D and the use of REC schemes, possibly due to the relatively strong technology selection pressure under the latter policy.

  • 10.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Future bioenergy scenarios under carbon constraints: A model analysis for Sweden2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Scenarios for large-scale integration of renewable fuels in the Swedish road transport sector2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Biofuel futures in road transport: A modeling analysis for Sweden2014Ingår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 32, s. 239-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    First and second generation biofuels are among few low-carbon alternatives for road transport that currently are commercially available or in an early commercialization phase. They are thus potential options for meeting climate targets in the medium term. For the case of Sweden, we investigate cost-efficient use of biofuels in road transport under system-wide CO2 reduction targets to 2050, and the effects of implementation of targets for an almost fossil-free road transport sector to 2030. We apply the bottom-up, optimization MARKAL_Sweden model, which covers the entire Swedish energy system including the transport sector. For CO2 reductions of 80% to 2050 in the Swedish energy system as a whole, the results of the main scenario show an annual growth rate for road transport biofuels of about 6% from 2010 to 2050, with biofuels accounting for 78% of road transport final energy use in 2050. The preferred biofuel choices are methanol and biomethane. When introducing additional fossil fuel phase-out policies in road transport (−80% to 2030), a doubling of the growth rate to 2030 is required and system CO2 abatement costs increases by 6% for the main scenario. Results imply that second generation biofuels, along with energy-efficient vehicle technologies such as plug-in hybrids, can be an important part of optimized system solutions meeting stringent medium-term climate targets.

  • 13.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Oil Phase Out in the Transportation Sector of Sweden: Costs and Consequences2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bioenergy futures in Sweden: system effects of CO2 reduction and fossil fuel phase-out policies2015Ingår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 1118-1135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy could contribute both to the reduction of greenhouse gases and to increased energy security, but the extent of this contribution strongly depends on the cost and potential of biomass resources. For Sweden, this study investigates how the implementation of policies for CO2 reduction and for phase out of fossil fuels in road transport affect the future utilization of biomass, in the stationary energy system and in the transport sector, and its price. The analysis is based on the bottom-up, optimization MARKAL_Sweden model, which includes a comprehensive representation of the national energy system. For the analysis, the biomass supply representation of MARKAL_Sweden is updated and improved by the use of, e.g., forestry forecasting modeling and through construction of detailed biomass supply curves. A time horizon up to 2050 is applied. The results indicate a potential for significantly higher use of bioenergy. In the main analysis scenario, in which CO2 reduction of 80% by 2050 is imposed on the Swedish energy system, the total bioenergy utilization increases by 63% by 2050 compared to 2010. The largest increase occurs in the transport sector, which by 2050 accounts for 43% of the total primary bioenergy use. The high demand and strong competition significantly increase biomass prices and lead to the utilization of higher cost biomass sources such as stumps and cultivated energy forest, as well as use of pulpwood resources for energy purposes.

  • 15.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar.
    Possibilities for combined evaluation of social, economic energy/environmental values2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Scandinavia is an area, which is rich in natural resources and energy-intensive base industries covering several branches, e.g., Mining, Iron and Steel, Metal production, Pulp and Paper. They are often part of a community network where a change in one node affects the behavior and efficiency of its neighbors.  Improvements in environmental load, energy efficiency etc. cannot simply be achieved by improving the individual units. A system approach is needed. Such methods (Process Integration) have been developed within the Nordic Countries for more than twenty years, e.g. within the Swedish national program that was launched 1989. They are been practically applied e.g. at SSAB in Luleå An excellence center for Process Integration in Steelmaking (PRISMA), with industrial partners from Sweden and Finland, has recently been founded at MEFOS in Luleå. The process integration methods have been developed to handle multi-objective problems. This is because the industry has to answer to a combined demand on energy consumption, emission limits for several substances, climate effects as well as costs.  For regional evaluation an economic model has been developed which explicitly returns changing input and output prices due to changes in e.g., production technology, derived input demand or the introduction of market instruments. Especially on smaller regional markets, changes in input demand of fibrous raw material might significantly affect its price. This price effect must be considered whenever extensive changes in the production process are considered so that the project is not, ex post, rendered unprofitable. Another factor of great influence is local and national attitudes. These can influence both market value and political decisions.  These effects can be evaluated in stakeholder studies. Co-evaluation with the technical parameters mentioned above is interesting, but an obstacle is the difference in result format.  A method (CONJOINT) has been developed, by which these results can be converted into numerical parameters. For the Swedish Steel industry it has been tested within the ECO-Cycle program. An attempt to merge these methods into a combined study is presently carried an ongoing PROCESS INTEGRATION study for a Pulp and paper mill in northern Sweden. The possibility to merge into a combined tool or methodology is discussed.

  • 16.
    Hammarlund,, Cecilia
    et al.
    AgriFood Economics Center, Lund University.
    Ericsson, Karin
    Lunds tekniska högskola, LTH.
    Johansson, Helena
    AgriFood Economics Center, Lund University.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Olsson, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Pavlovskaia, Evgenia
    Lunds universitet.
    Wilhelmsson, Fredrik
    Food Economics Centre, Lund.
    Bränsle för ett bättre klimat: marknad och politik för biobränslen2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Structural changes in industrial electricity use: the case of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden2013Ingår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 305-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse altering energy demand patterns and energy factor substitution possibilities over time in the pulp and paper industry in order to increase our understanding of suitable policy options for increasing energy efficiency. The investigation employs a flexible translog cost function and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005 in Sweden. Specifically, we test whether energy factor demand patterns in the industry for the period 1974-1990 differ from those during the latter period, 1991-2005. The empirical results reveal that even though the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively insensitive to changes in energy factor input prices in the short run, we find evidence of significant changes over time. According to the results, the own-price sensitivity of fuel has increased since the 1970s and the 1980s, thus indicating that fuel demand has become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices. The estimated cross-price elasticities between electricity and fuel also support the hypothesis of increased substitutability over time. However, the null hypothesis of an equal own-price elasticity of electricity demand across the two time periods cannot be rejected

  • 18.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Are Shocks to Wood Fuel Production Permanent? Evidence from the EU2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Are Shocks to Wood Fuel Production Permanent? Evidence from the EU2015Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 12718-12728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks (economic effects) to wood fuel production for 18 countries of the European Union (EU) over the period 1961–2012 are temporary or persistent. A variety of time-series and panel data unit root tests are employed. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account when performing those tests. Wood production in approximately 78% of the countries is found to follow a non-stationary process supported by the result that most of the panel unit root tests also point towards a non-stationary process. This indicates that the economic effect will tend to be persistent and suggests that policies affecting wood fuel production, implicitly or explicitly, will have enduring effects. For instance, forest conservation policies will persistently reduce the wood fuel production level.

  • 20.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden2015Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. 4617-4633, artikel-id 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern). Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP). However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM)-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  • 21.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dynamics of Wood Pulp Production: Evidence from OECD Countries2017Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 170-180, artikel-id 107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks to pulp for paper production for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) members over the period 1980–2012 are transitory or permanent. A variety of univariate and panel data unit root tests are employed. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account when performing those tests. Based on the Narayan-Popp univariate unit root test, wood production series for approximately 64.71% of countries is found to follow a non-stationary process. However, univariate unit root tests tend to have low power when the time span is relatively short. Consequently, three generations of panel unit root tests are considered. Cross-sectional dependence is detected. The first generation of unit roots do not effectively control for cross-sectional dependence, while the second and third generations do. The third generation accounts mainly for cross-sectional co-integration. As a confirmatory analysis, both unit root tests that tests for the null of non-stationarity and stationarity are considered. Most of the panel unit root tests point towards a non-stationary process. Hence, while these shocks can be transmitted to other economic sectors, past behaviours of wood production cannot be used for forecasting purposes. Forest conservation policies can have a permanent impact on pulp for paper production.

  • 22.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dynamics of Spruce and Pine Market Integration in Sweden2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Forest products exports and economic growth: Evidence from rich countries2016Ingår i: The Journal of developing areas, ISSN 0022-037X, E-ISSN 1548-2278, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 443-458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest sector contributes a significant share to national income. The existence and magnitude of causal relationships between forest product exports and economic growth is thus important to understand not least for policy issues. It has vital implications for policy-makers enacting proper development strategies. This causality is usually analyzed using the export-led economic growth hypothesis. International trade is affecting economic growth through enhanced competition and specialization. Export, more specifically, foster economic growth via the accumulation of foreign exchange, by stimulating efficient investments in the right sectors and by allowing for improved economies of scale. Surprisingly, practically no studies have been done analyzing the forest products export-led economic growth hypothesis. Thus, the current study fills an important gap in the literature. The study attempts to test the forest product export-led growth hypothesis for 22 economies over the period 1970 to 2011. Various generations of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. The time frame and the selection of countries are purely dictated by the availability of data and the amount of existing productive forest area. The econometric tests are based on augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root and cointegration tests. These tests are necessary before assessing the impact of forest product exports on GDP. The connection between economic growth and forest products exportation is analyzed using an error correction model (ECM) based panel causality test structure. The ECM is subsequently used to estimate short- and long-run elasticities. The series are found to be integrated of order one and cointegrated, especially when applying the third-generation tests. Uni-directional causality running from forest product exports to economic growth is uncovered in the both the short-run and the long-run. Moreover, forest products exportation is found to positively affect economic growth. The short-run elasticity reveals positive and significant income elasticity. A 1% increase in forest product exports will lead to a 0.022% increase in economic growth in the short-run and 0.002% in the long-run. The regional dummy is also significant and positive, implying that countries with significant forest land coverage are bound to experience higher economic growth. The findings will help policymakers in their projections and implementing natural resource and forest policies. Unidirectional causality implies forest product exports can be used to predict economic growth in both short-run and long-run but not vice versa. In general, the results support the ELG hypothesis. Promotion of forest product exportations can lead to a multiplier effect.

  • 24.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Forest Products Exports and Economic Growth: Evidence from Rich Countries2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wind power innovation and policy in Europe: a patent data approach2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th IAEE European Energy Conference: Energy challenge and environmental sustainability, International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE) , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    A comparison of approaches towards measuring technical change: the case of Swedish newsprint production2005Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 563-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and analyze technical change in the Swedish newsprint industry over the time period 1974-1994. Using a variable Translog cost function as the basis, three different approaches toward estimating technical change are developed: (a) the Tornqvist index, (b) the standard time trend specification, and (c) the general index approach. The empirical results indicate that considerable differences exist between the three approaches, both in terms of their mean estimates of technical change and in their variation over time. Finally, the main determinants of technical change in the Swedish newsprint industry are identified and used to explain the three technical change indices within a simple econometric model. The results indicate that capacity utilization has been the dominant determinant of technical change, but that regulatory intensity and output prices are also important determinants.

  • 27.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Analysis and projection of global iron ore trade: a panel data gravity model approach2018Ingår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, nr 1-2, s. 191-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an empirical model of global trade in iron ore is developed and applied. The empirical specification is based on the trade gravity theory in which the trade is determined by the income of the trading countries, the distance between the countries, and other characteristics of the countries. The model is specified allowing for country-specific effects. The estimation is performed with panel data for global bilateral iron ore trade flows from 1980 to 2016 including 121 countries and almost 14,000 observations. The results indicate a strong support of the gravity model hypotheses. On average, the trade value is projected to increase by approximately 5% per year up until 2035. The trade potential of iron ore is estimated to 410 million USD per year. Applied to forecasting and policy analysis, the results represent another worthwhile source of information providing an alternative view of the global trade in iron ore that can be helpful for decision-makers.

  • 28.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Avfallspolitiken måste fokusera på rätt saker2012Ingår i: Goeteborgs Fria Tidning, ISSN 1651-1190, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 8-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Changes in Namibia’s energy market2001Ingår i: Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, ISSN 1651-9728, Vol. 20, nr 1/2, s. 103-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Choice of location for investments in the European paper industry: the impact of wastepaper2001Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 167-180Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies and estimates the relative impact that factor input prices, output market size and agglomeration effects have on the choice of location for investment projects in the European pulp and paper industry, with special focus on the price of waste paper A conditional logit model was developed to fit investment projects across 16 European countries for the period 1985-95. The results suggest that factor input prices, in general, and the price for waste paper in particular, are neither a statistical nor an economic significant location determinant for a paper manufacturer. Furthermore, the results suggest that market size and agglomeration effects are considered more important than the price of raw material when an investment site is chosen.

  • 31.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Consequence analysis of changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An applied partial equilibrium model of the forest cluster has been developed and implemented to assess the impact of changing market conditions for the sawmill industry in Sweden. The focus of this study was thus to analyse the sawmill industry and the interdependencies between the different sectors in the forest cluster. The dependencies and relationships between the sectors using forest-based raw materials implies that changing market conditions in one sector could have profound effects on the other sectors. In this research report the forest cluster is defined and a partial equilibrium model is developed and implemented (FCM) that simulates the results from changing market conditions for the sawmill industry and its effects on the other sectors in the forest cluster. Three scenarios are simulated using the FCM: (i) a ten percent decrease in demand for sawn wood products; (ii) a 30 percent decrease and; (iii) a ten percent increase. The results indicated that both production and consumption patterns are sensitive to changes in the demand for sawn wood products. There are also significant differences between different intermediate inputs and between different sectors in their responses to these changes. Also, certain sectors and inputs would gain market share while others would lose market shares. Changing output market conditions for the sawmill industry have significant effects on the factor prices and on the flow of intermediate inputs between the forest cluster sectors. In general, in the minor reduction and the worse case scenarios the price for sawlogs is reduced by between nine and 25 percent depending on scenario. Even a small reduction in the demand for sawn wood products has serious effects on the price formation and on the quantitative flows in the cluster. The factor prices for woodchips and sawdust increases by 21 and 34 percent, respectively, as a consequence of a 30 percent reduction in the demand for awn wood products while the price of sawlogs decrease by 25 percent. The reduced supply of the sawmill by-products, i.e., sawdust and woodchips, causes significant price increases forcing the woodboard industry to close down entirely. The forest value will, depending on scenario, decrease by as much as 5.5 billion SEK due to reductions in the demand for sawn wood products. The value of the forest is reduced since forest owners can not fully meet the reduced domestic demand by increasing export volumes. The difference between the sawlogs and pulpwood prices are diminishing considerately mainly as a result of a reduction in the demand for sawlogs from 160 SEK in the baseline scenario to only 51 SEK in the worst case scenario. This complicates the traditional classification between the two types of roundwood. What has traditionally been considered as sawlogs and primarily purchased by the sawmill industry are now close to being classified as “pulpwood” and can thus be diverted to the pulp and paper industry reinforcing the predicaments for the sawmill industry.

  • 32.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Cost structure of and the competition for forest-based biomass2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 272-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass has become a popular alternative to satisfy expanding energy demand and as a substitute for fossil fuels and phased-out nuclear energy in Europe. The European Union White Paper stipulates that the utilization of biomass shall increase to 1566 TWh by 2010. However it is often overlooked that the forest resources are already, to a large extent, used by the forest industries. When promoting biomass for energy generation the consequences for the forest industries also need to be considered. Sweden is an excellent case study, as there are vast quantities of forest resources, nuclear power is starting to be phased out, there are restrictions on expanding hydropower and the political desire exists to "set an example" with respect to carbon dioxide emissions. This paper attempts to estimate and analyse the supply of two types of forest resource, namely, roundwood and harvesting residues derived from final harvesting and commercial thinnings. Two separate supply curves are estimated: one forroundwood and one for harvesting residues. The cost structure is based on an economic-engineering approach where the separate cost components are constructed from the lowest cost element into aggregates for labour, capital, materials and overhead costs for each forest resource. The results indicate an unutilized economic supply of 12 TWh of harvesting residues in Sweden. However, after these 12 TWh have been recovered it becomes more profitable to use roundwood for energy purposes than to continue extracting further amounts of harvesting residues.

  • 33.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dependencies between forest products sectors: a partial equilibrium analysis2007Ingår i: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 57, nr 9, s. 79-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An applied partial equilibrium model of the forest cluster has been developed and implemented to assess the impact ofchanging market conditions for the sawmill industry. The focus of this study was to analyze the sawmill industry and the interdependencies between the different sectors in the forest cluster. The dependencies and relationships between the sectors using forest-based raw materials implies that changing market conditions in one sector could have profound effects on other sectors. The analysis indicated that both production and consumption patterns are sensitive to changes in the demand for sawn wood products. There are also significant differences between different intermediate inputs and between different sectors in their responses to these changes. Also, certain sectors and inputs would gain market share while others would lose market shares. Furthermore, changing output market conditions for the sawmill industry have significant effects on the factor prices and on the flow of intermediate inputs between the forest cluster sectors. In general, the price for sawlogs is reduced by between 9 and 25 percent depending on scenario. Even a small reduction in the demand for sawn wood products has serious effects on the price formation and on the quantitative flows in the cluster.

  • 34.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Determinants of trade for forest fuels and products2009Ingår i: Energy, Economy, Environment: The Global View: 32nd IAEE International Conference, San Francisco CA, June 21-24, 2009, International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA, Publications, Sales and Promotion Unit , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Empirical specification of cost reductions associated with accumulated knowledge in the Swedish kraft paper industry2008Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 10, nr 7-8, s. 460-466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an alternative approach in estimating the effect that technological knowledge has on the cost structure facing individual firms. The suggested method is applied to the Swedish kraft paper industry and relies on a comprehensive dataset for eight individual integrated kraft paper mills. The developed model is based on a two-step process. Step one, the estimation of a pure cost reduction index is derived using a flexible variable cost function which is utilising mill-specific dummy variables. In addition, this approach allows for an estimation of the pure unit cost reduction index that is devoid of scale and price effects which, if not dealt with can produce spurious results when estimating learning effects. Step two, is the estimation of a two factor dynamic learning curve model (2FDLC) using the estimated pure unit cost reduction index as dependent variable. The results suggest that the Swedish kraft paper industry has relatively little to gain in terms of cost reduction through a further technological learning. However, the method performed well, producing intuitive and statistically significant estimates indicating its usefulness in further analyses.

  • 36.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energy Price Volatility: The Link between Fossil Energy and Woody Bioenergy2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    European trade in forest products and fuels2010Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 235-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose has been to determine to what extent differences in net trade and revealed comparative advantage between EU member states could be explained by differences in forest endowments, domestic demand, energy policies and other country specific characteristics. An adopted model of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory, suggesting a direct relationship between a country's trade, forest endowments and income (HOV model), has been empirically estimated for three forest products (roundwood, chips & particles and wood fuel), 19 European countries and for the period 1994-2006. Both net export and an index of revealed comparative advantages was constructed and used as dependent variables. Moreover, different model specification was estimated using different measures of forest endowments. The results suggest that forest endowments are an important determinant for explaining differences in net trade of the included forest commodities. However, domestic demand, measured by income level, is not. Thus, the results provide mixed support for the HOV model

  • 38.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Factor demand and price sensitivity of forest-based biomass in the European energy and forest sectors2009Ingår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 229-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing utilization of biomass is, in the short-term, one of the most realistic alternatives to meet the energy and the environmental goals established by the European Union. As a result, the demand for forest-based products from European forests will increase. However, glaringly little research effort has been made towards analyzing the price effect resulting from the increasing demand for forest-based biomass and how the relevant industry sectors adjust their input demands due to these price changes. The purpose of this paper is thus to provide a disaggregated and detailed empirical estimation and analysis of the various input demand elasticities, as well as of the relevant substitution elasticities. The model is estimated using a panel of 23 European countries for the period between 1999 and 2005, thus allowing for specific country effects. The results indicate that the energy sector is relatively more price sensitive in its input demand for fossil fuels compared to the fibrous fuel categories. Thus, higher fibrous input prices will have a relatively small effect on the quantity of fibrous inputs that the energy sector demands. The forest industry is comparatively more price sensitive in its procurement of fibrous inputs than the energy sector, and will therefore reduce its input demand relatively more as a consequence from a fibrous input price increase. Furthermore, the cross-price elasticities reveal some interesting findings. In general, the energy sector will increase its utilization of fossil fuels as a result of increasing fibrous input price. Conversely, the energy sector will increase the utilization of fibrous input relatively less as a consequence of increasing fossil fuel prices

  • 39.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Fuel choice for energy generation in the Swedish kraft pulp/paper industry2003Ingår i: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 16-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the economic possibilities for the Swedish pulp and paper industry in general and the kraft pulp industry in particular of increasing the share of internally generated energy by using readily available production residues such as black liquor. It is suggested that the industry's reliance on fossil fuels and purchased electricity has decreased over time, thereby reducing the impact of external energy prices on energy investments. The results suggest that the use of biomass will only increase to the point where the existing capacity to do so is met unless heavy investment subsidies are made available.

  • 40.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Glädjekalkyler kan locka till dyr energieffektivisering2009Ingår i: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640X, s. 3-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Investment behaviour in the European pulp and paper industry2003Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 184-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the location of investments in the European pulp and paper industry. Three continuous investment models were estimated allowing for fixed as well as random effects using data for 10 European countries over the period 1978-1995. The results indicated that labour wages, market size and agglomeration effects were the most important determinants of investment levels. The impacts of raw material prices were somewhat ambiguous. However, in the long run waste paper availability seems to matter in the sense of attracting investments. A comparison of the economic significance of changes in the costs of input factors with changes in the market size indicated that proximity to output markets had a larger impact on the decision to invest than proximity to abundant raw materials or cheap access to electricity and labour. Furthermore, the agglomeration coefficient indicated that the power of sunk costs is important.

  • 42.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mikroekonomi: teori och tillämpning2010Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Mikroekonomi är det vetenskapsområde som analyserar hur marknader för olika varor eller tjänster fungerar. Många av de samhällsekonomiska problem som uppstår kan lättare förstås och lösas genom att tillämpa mikroekonomisk teori. Boken presenterar grundläggande begrepp, förhållanden och teorier som ligger till grund för hur individer eller hushåll fattar sina konsumtionsbeslut. Till detta kopplas hur företag fattar sina produktionsbeslut, det vill säga vad som ska produceras och hur det produceras.Boken inleds med en presentation av hur utbud och efterfrågan samspelar för att bestämma pris och kvantitet av en vara eller tjänst som handlas på en marknad. Detta följs av en djupare analys av nyttoteori och av produktionsteori som ligger till grund för utbudet och efterfrågan. Vidare presenteras hur avsteg från den ideala marknadsformen, fullständig konkurrens, kan ske och hur statligt marknadsingripande kan vara motiverat. Boken innehåller rikligt med diagram och figurer för att visuellt förklara flertalet av de ekonomiska förhållanden som presenteras.Mikroekonomi är skriven för att användas som lärobok i mikroekonomi på grundnivå för universitets- och högskolestudier. Den vänder sig även till en bred grupp av läsare utan förkunskaper i mikroekonomi.

  • 43.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mikroekonomi: Teori och tillämpning2013 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    On the existence of learning effects in Swedish kraft paper mills2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an alternative approach in estimating the effect learning has on the cost structure facing individual firms. The suggested method is applied to the Swedish kraft paper industry and relies on a comprehensive dataset for eight individual integrated kraft paper mills. The analysis is conducted through two steps. First, using a flexible cost function, utilizing mill-specific dummy variables, a cost reduction index can be estimated devoid of scale and price effects that if not dealt with can produce spurious results when estimating learning effects. The second step is to regress the estimated cost reduction index on the traditional determinants that are thought to influence the learning process. The results suggest that the Swedish kraft paper industry has relatively little to gain in terms of cost reduction through a further learning process. However, the method performed well, producing intuitive and statistically significant estimates indicating its usefulness in further analyses.

  • 45.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Outnyttjade samhällsekonomiska vinster inom byggsektorn2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydande kostnadsreduktioner för byggnaders och anläggningars uppförande och förvaltning kan frambringas genom att analysera byggnadsverkens livscykelkostnad. Minskat energibehov och annat resursutnyttjande tillsammans med ökad materialåtervinning ger dessutom upphov till lägre samhällsekonomiska kostnader. Det är därför en utomordentligt central uppgift för den politiska makten att skapa institutionella incitament som styr de enskilda aktörernas handlande i en riktning som gynnar hela samhället. Det är på så sätt den ekonomiska utvecklingen kan styras mot långsiktig miljömedvetenhet. Byggsektorn är en av de större aktörerna i den svenska ekonomin. Den totala byggverksamheten uppgick år 2003 till 125 miljarder SEK och sysselsatte 238 000 personer. Samma år byggdes det motsvarande drygt 160 000 kvm bruttoarea kontorsyta, cirka 1,2 miljoner kvm bruttoarea boyta i flerbostadshus och cirka 5 000 km statlig väg fick ny beläggning samtidigt som 370 km nybyggda eller förbättrade statliga vägar öppnades. Förvaltningskostnaden för denna produktion förväntas motsvara 270 miljarder SEK per år. Ställt i relation till den totala byggverksamhetens omfattning är det förvånande att förvaltningskostnaden inte åtnjuter större uppmärksamhet. Detta förefaller än mer förvånansvärt med tanke på byggnadernas och anläggningarnas förväntade livslängd. Livscykelkostnaden kan bestå av upp till 90 procent av förvaltningskostnader. För att samhällets resurser ska användas optimalt måste nya kriterier för livscykelekonomiska analyser utvecklas och konsekvent tillämpas vid, framför allt, offentlig upphandling av byggnadsverk. En genomgång av den svenska byggpolitiken måste ske och nya beslutsmodeller utvecklas för att de rättaavvägningarna ska kunna göras.

  • 46.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Paper recovery and investment behaviour in the European pulp and paper industry2000Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory part followed by two self-contained papers both analysing the effect recovered paper has on the locational choice for investments in the European pulp and paper industry. In the first paper we develop a continuous Cobb-Douglas investment model with the purpose of finding and estimating the investment determinants for the European pulp and paper industry, with special focus on the impact of recovered paper. The analysis is carried out within a neo-classical locational framework in which firms minimise the production and transportation costs for both input factors and for output products. We use a panel of data consisting of ten European countries over the period 1978 to 1995. The results suggests that both short and long run aspects of wastepaper recovery tend not to be important determinants of investment activities in the pulp and paper industry, whereas the price of wood pulp and electricity together with existing capacity seem to be more important. In the second paper we employ a different approach to the same problem. In this paper we develop a conditional logit model and compile the number of investment projects that were scheduled to be finished in 16 European countries between 1985 and 1995. In contrast to the first paper, which used continuous data, this model employs discrete data for the dependent variable. A discrete variable counts the actual number of times a certain event has taken place, i.e., the number of investment projects. The same set of determinants as in the first paper is used to ease comparing the two papers. We further break down the investment projects into four paper grades, which allow us to analyse the effects of wastepaper in greater detail. The results suggest that factor input prices in general and the price for wastepaper in particular are neither statistically nor economically significant location determinants for a paper manufacturer. Furthermore, the results suggest that market size and agglomeration effects are more important than the price of raw materials for location. On the basis of the results from the two papers, we can conclude that the price of wastepaper is not an important determinant for the European pulp and paper industry when choosing investment sites. Price driven policies aimed at stimulating paper recovery may therefore fail to achieve increased investments in the industry. At the same time, both papers suggests that agglomeration effects, i.e., existing productive capacity, is an important determinant. The economic significance of the agglomeration coefficients suggests that the power of sunk costs is important. Investments are largely diverted to existing capacity and the ability to attract new establishments is limited.

  • 47.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Produktion och marknad: utdrag ur Mikroekonomi2018 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Substitution and price effects from increased utilisation of forest-based biomass in the European energy sector2007Ingår i: From research to market development: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Berlin, Germany, 7 - 11 May 2007 / [ed] K. Mariatis, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Så bromsar vi sopökningen2011Ingår i: Dagens SamhälleArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 50.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The role of wastepaper in the pulp and paper industry: investments, technical change and factor substitution2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns, both public and private, has resulted in, among other things, an increased wastepaper recovery. The segment of the economy this has had a major impact on is the pulp and paper industry since they are the prime user of wastepaper in the production of paper and paperboard. This, together with the fact that the pulp and paper industry is one of the larger actors in the European economies, has raised the question whether the increasing wastepaper recovery has in any profound way altered the structure of the pulp and paper industry. Hence, the overall purpose of this dissertation is to analyse the alleged increased importance of wastepaper as an input factor in the production of new paper and paperboard products. Specifically, the impact wastepaper has on the pulp and paper industry is analysed from three different aspects: (a) investment behaviour; (b) technological change; and (c) input factor substitutability. The dissertation contains six detached papers of which the three first analyse the investment behaviour, while the remaining three analyse technical change and input factor substitution possibilities. Papers I-III attempts to answer the question whether wastepaper availability

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