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  • 1. Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Roininen, Sari
    Exploring the effects of network configurations on entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: an empirical study of new ventures and small firms2010In: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2000-7396, E-ISSN 2000-7396, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies have suggested that networks are important for new ventures and small firms as a provider of access to entrepreneurial opportunities and as a tool to increase firm performance. Although the strategic value of networks on a general level is undisputed, one major shortcoming of prior studies has been to evaluate the effects of specific network configurations. Moreover, small firms have all too often been treated as a homogeneous group, expected to reveal similar needs and patterns of behavior. The purpose of this explorative study was therefore to examine the effects of different network configurations on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and performance for two categories of small firms - new ventures and established small firms. The results were achieved by using empirical data from two independent samples of new ventures (n=171) and small firms (n=291) and show that network relationships have quite different effects in the two samples. While networking is overall positively linked to EO and performance for small firms, no positive effect from networking is evidenced for new ventures' EO and performance. For both samples, we found a strong link between EO and performance. This paper concludes with a discussion on the results and suggestions for future research.

  • 2.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Effects of network relations on new venture's competitive advantages2008In: Proceedings: 2nd Conference on Nordic Innovation Research, December 3-4 2007; Luleå University of Technology / [ed] Håkan Ylinenpää, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008, p. 110-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has primarily viewed external relations as sources of essential information, resources, and capabilities improving firm innovation and performance. For new ventures with limited in-house resources, such relations are even more important. This study compares two types of new ventures: academic spin-offs and non-academic start-ups, and how their network relationships affect the ventures' competitive performance. Results from a survey among new ventures started during 2003 in Sweden showed that academic spin-offs and non-academic start-ups were using different types of relations and resources to achieve competitive advantages which might be due to their origin. However, a common prerequisite among all the new ventures was that they all, to a large extent, needed expertise and advice to be competitive, and thus to perform better. Moreover, strong ties between a new venture and its partners contributed more to the venture's competitive performance than weak ties did, even within occasional relationships.

  • 3.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    En resa mot ett eget företagande: en studie av elva etablerade och potentiella företagare i Luleå kommun2005Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    En tematisk studie av inkubatorer i norra Sverige2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapen om inkubatorers olika sätt att etablera, utveckla och upprätthålla en befrämjande inkubatorverksamhet är liten. Trots det är inkubatorer, det vill säga miljöer där nya företag kan utvecklas och växa med hjälp av affärsmässigt stöd, vanligt förekommande i många olika regioner och länder. Anledningen är de förväntningar som ofta ställs på teknik- och kunskapsbaserade företag och deras potential att fungera som tillväxtmotorer i sina respektive regioner. I denna studie analyseras nio inkubatorer i norra Sverige i syfte att identifiera tentativa framgångsfaktorer för effektiva inkubatorer. Resultaten utvisar många likheter i inkubatorernas koncept, det vill säga vad de gör. Stora skillnader finns dock i hur de genomför verksamheten, vilket inte minst styrs av den målgrupp de riktar sig till. Emellertid finns det vissa svårigheter med att utvärdera och jämföra inkubatorer. Främst beror det på att det idag inte finns några gemensamma och allmänt accepterade verktyg för att följa upp verksamheterna på längre sikt. Därmed blir det även svårt att identifiera vad som kan betraktas som framgångsfaktorer. Trots detta dilemma indikerar resultaten på några viktiga faktorer som har betydelse för en effektiv inkubatorverksamhet.

  • 5.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Network capability and its effect on entrepreneurial orientation and new venture performance2008In: 2008 European Academy of Management Conference on Management Diversity: European Destiny and Hope, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is assumed that network capability (NC), defined as an ability to develop and utilize inter-organizational relationships (Walter et al., 2006), can be important for competitiveness in new firms, since it can help the firm to get access to external resources and capabilities that often are missing in startups. This paper therefore investigates the influence of NC on new ventures' entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and performance during the first years of operation. Except for direct relationships, the paper also tests for moderation effects from the level of complexity in the venture and the maturity of the ventures' market. Data derived from 171 Swedish startups show that NC effects EO and firm performance positively. Moderation effects are only apparent for venture performance where a complex venture has less use of NC and a venture with an immature market more use of NC.

  • 6.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Networking as a tool for competitive advantage: evidence from Swedish new ventures2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase our understanding of factors influencing new venture performance, and ultimately survival. The focus of this research is to study how network relationships, and a new venture's ability to initiate, develop and utilise the relationships that affect the firm's entrepreneurial strategy (here defined as the firm's entrepreneurial orientation) when seeking competitiveness. If a new venture is entrepreneurially oriented, then it would be more innovative, proactive and risk-taking, which in turn would improve its performance. By utilising network relationships, a new venture can obtain access to vital resources, capabilities and information missing in the firm, resulting in entrepreneurial opportunities. Moreover, by being good at identifying and managing the relationships the new venture should achieve more from its relationships. As a result, in this study it is hypothesised that a new venture's network structure and its network capability should increase a firm's entrepreneurial orientation, and its performance. However, contextual factors such as a new venture's internal and external complexity are alleged to moderate the link between a firm's entrepreneurial orientation, its network structure and its network capability, and venture performance. This means that the more complex a new venture is, the more it should benefit from the employment of an entrepreneurial orientation and by networking. To test theses assumptions, a survey study has been conducted among Swedish new ventures and the results contribute both to the scientific field, to entrepreneurs in the process of establishing a new venture, and practitioners supporting new ventures. First, this study confirms that network structure and network competence are facilitative of a new venture's entrepreneurial orientation. In other words, engaging in network relationships and having an ability to initiate, develop, and utilise these relationships early in a firm's development will increase a new venture's innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking. Second, this study also supports prior research that an entrepreneurial orientation increases firm performance. Hence, by acting more entrepreneurially when entering a (new) market, a new venture increases its performance. Finally, considering the new venture's degree of complexity, this study did not find any moderating effects. However, both internally and externally complex ventures used more entrepreneurial orientation, network capability and network relationships to improve their competitiveness and performance. Venture complexity can thus be an important factor to take into consideration when the entrepreneur/s, or supporting actors, strive for high performing ventures and increased firm survival.

  • 7.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Priorums nyföretagarverksamhet: en studie om stödjande insatser för nya företagare i Luleå kommun under perioden 1998-20032004Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Start-ups' achievement of competitive advantages trough network relations2008In: International Journal of Technoentrepreneurship, ISSN 1746-5370, E-ISSN 1746-5389, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 278-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organisational relations are viewed as sources of essential information, resources, and capabilities, improving the innovativeness and performance of small ventures. There is however a lack of research investigating inter-organizational cooperation among new ventures and its effect on firm competitiveness. This study investigates how new ventures achieve competitive advantages through network relations. The results, targeting a sample of 171 Swedish start-ups, highlight the significance of strong ties for new ventures' competitive advantages, especially among complex new ventures: the less familiar methods and the more task variety a new venture has, the stronger the link is between tie strength and achieved competitiveness.

  • 9.
    Roininen, Sari
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The start-up processes of academic spin-offs and non-academic ventures2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New and small firms are important for the national economic growth, and hence there is a growing interest among policy makers and researchers in understanding the start-up processes among new ventures in order to facilitate more new venture creations. Prior research addressing new ventures' start-up processes focus mainly on the individual behind the venture or different activities in the start-up process. The overall purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of new venture start- up processes, particularly by comparing academic spin-offs and non-academic ventures. This purpose includes giving a holistic picture of the start-up processes, and therefore my study addresses the individual entrepreneur, the new venture and the activities undertaken during the start-up process. To meet the overall purpose, six case studies have been conducted, where three founders of new ventures in each type of venture has been interviewed and complementary secondary data has been collected. The findings imply that the start-up process differs between academic spin-offs and non-academic ventures, mainly due to their origin. In addition, three factors have influenced the start-up process and the outcome of it. First, the entrepreneur(s) affect(s) the idea formulation, the business concept and the recognized opportunity. Second, the venture's business concept affects what activities the new venture has to undertake in order to get a successful start-up. Third, the venture's entry strategy also affects what activities have to be undertaken in order to reach the targeted market and to get competitive advantages over existing companies. Similarly, the start- up process itself can cause changes in the business concept as well as in the venture's entry strategy. Moreover, the findings also imply that academic spin-offs have a more complex start-up process than non-academic ventures. This complexity might be due to the academic spin-offs' more significant dependency on external resources, which they got access to through cooperation and networking and by early establishing a professional board of directors. The non-academic ventures could to a larger extent manage their start-up process by relying on their own resources and competencies. Consequently, there is a need to distinguish between academic spin-offs' and non-academic ventures' start-up processes in order to facilitate a more effective creation of new ventures and thereby economic growth in a region or a nation.

  • 10.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Varför startar enskilda individer egna företag?: en studie av motiv, utlösande faktorer och nyföretagarinsatser vid valet att starta ett företag2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Westerberg, Mats
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Network relationships for entrepreneurial orientation and growth: an empirical study of new ventures and small firms2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Network structure and networking capability among new ventures: tools for competitive advantage or a waste of resources?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Network relationships are significant for new firms' competitive advantages and success since new and entrepreneurial opportunities are favored by diversity (Burt, 2004; Ireland et al., 2002; Cooper, 2002; Granovetter, 1973). However, to gain access to various resources held by other actors the firms would have to have an ability to develop and utilize inter-organizational relationships (Walter et al., 2006), called network capability (NC). Additionally, new ventures would increase their performance by using an entrepreneurial strategy (cf. Wiklund & Shepherd, 2003; Lumpkin & Dess, 2001). Firms using an entrepreneurial orientation (EO) have an ability to find or discover new opportunities creating different and competitive advantages (Wiklund & Shepherd, 2005). This is particularly true among start-ups having external ties providing scarce and valuable resources (Lee et al., 2001). However, we believe these associations are moderated by the venture's complexity. The more complex the venture is internally (i.e. having low level of routines and analyzability) and externally (i.e. having immature markets) the stronger the relationship between NC, networks and EO, and performance will be. This study will hence combine these three dimensions to investigate how start-ups can obtain competitive advantages improving their performance by the use of an entrepreneurial strategy and participation in networks, a combination that has not previously been studied.MethodWe test the framework on 171 new Swedish ventures. The research instrument consisted of a mailed questionnaire to the owner and/or manager having taking part in the start-up of the company examining firm level factors affecting the start-ups' competitive performance. For the analysis structural equation modeling is used.Results and implicationThe results show a positive link between a new venture's NC and its EO, as well as between its network structure and EO, and EO in turn is the only dimension linked to increased firm performance. We did not find any moderating effects of venture complexity, but a strong direct effect on EO. Consequently, regardless of complexity, new ventures benefit from their networks and the ability to utilize external contacts in order to act entrepreneurially and in turn create competitive advantages.

  • 13.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    The relation between network competence, network structure, strategy and new venture performance2007In: The first Nordic innovation research conference - Finnkampen / [ed] Harri Haapasalo; Päivi Iskanius, Oulu: University of Oulu, 2007, p. 187-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a model to explain new venture performance using network theory. The model suggests that a new venture's performance - both directly and indirectly through strategy - can be explained by its network competence and network structure. Further, venture complexity is hypothesized to moderate the relationship where those ventures having higher task complexity will benefit more from their network competence and structure. In the paper, we also briefly outline how this model can be put to test.

  • 14. Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    New ventures' entry strategies: a comparison of academic and non-academic business startups2010In: Entrepreneurship and the Creation of Small Firms: Empirical Studies of New Ventures, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 65-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Venture creation processes are not uniform but dependent on situational and contextual factors. The focus in this chapter is on comparing the start-up processes of two different types of business ventures: academic spin-offs and non-academic new firms. Following a case study based design, the findings indicate that non-academic ventures and academic spin-offs have different bases for their venture creation and follow different strategies to enter their specific markets. Academic spin-offs are to a larger extent product-oriented and enter a market through technology push, which requires more resources and cooperation to manage. The non-academic ventures, on the contrary, enter a market through market pull relying on their own resources. Overall, academic spin-offs emerge as organizations significantly more oriented towards networking and collaboration with different kinds of partners while non-academic start-ups primarily rely on in-house resources. These differences implicate start-up processes that indicate differences regarding the firms' resource requirement and configuration.

  • 15.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    New venture's entry strategies in their start-up processes2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Schumpeterian versus Kirznerian Entrepreneurship: a comparison of academic and non-academic new venturing2009In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 504-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Identifying how different modes of resource configuration, entry strategy and product/market characteristics affect new ventures' start-up processes as well as outcomes in terms of firm growth and revenues. Design/methodology/approach - Case studies of three academic spin-offs and three non-academic new ventures is employed as a base for analytical generalisation. Findings - Non-academic ventures and academic spin-offs have different bases for their venture creation and follow different strategies to enter their specific markets. Academic spin-offs are to a larger extent innovative, product-oriented and enter their target markets employing a technology/science-push strategy which requires considerable resources and partner cooperation to manage. The non-academic ventures, on the contrary, exploit emerging opportunities on the market through a market-pull strategy relying mainly on offerings already known to the market and building on their own, in-house resources.Research limitations - Future research should benefit from investigating factors and conditions affecting different ventures' start-up process by utilizing qualitative, in-depth approaches as well as quantitative approaches and a more robust database. Practical implications - Venture creation processes are not uniform but dependent on situational and contextual factors. Overall, academic spin-offs come forward as examples of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship characterised by exploration and innovation, while the more ‘Kirznerian' and non-academic start-ups primarily recognise and exploit upcoming market opportunities based on resources they control. The results highlight challenges for nascent entrepreneurs as well as for policy makers supporting new venture creation.Originality/value - A comparison highlighting critical events, resource configurations and environmental conditions of different start-up processes depending on the new ventures' origin.

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