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  • 1.
    Bhattacharjee, Shimantika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Performance evaluation of a passive house in sub-arctic climate2018In: 9th International Cold Climate Conference, Kiruna, Sweden. March 12-15, 2018: Sustainable New and Renovated Buildings in Cold Climate, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the operational energy use in buildings contributes highly to the total energy used and greenhouse gases emitted in the cold climate regions of Europe, buildings which are more energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive during operation are key to meet sustainability objectives in these regions. Yet, research shows that the practice of passive or low-energy buildings in the sub-arctic climate of northern Sweden is comparatively less than in the southern region. Moreover, previous studies did not explicitly examine the performance of low energy buildings in sub-arctic climate in relation to established building energy efficiency standards. Consequently, knowledge regarding the energy performance of low-energy buildings in such climate is limited. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the performance, in terms of indoor temperature and energy use for heating, domestic hot water and electricity of a new-built passive house titled “Sjunde Huset” in the sub-arctic town of Kiruna. It is Sweden’s northernmost house designed to fulfil the Swedish passive-house criteria of a maximum heat loss factor of 17 W/m2 and a maximum annual energy use of 63 kWh/m2. The implemented passive design strategies include a highly insulated, compact and airtight building envelope with a vestibule, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and renewable energy production through photovoltaic solar cells. The house is connected to district heating and is equipped with energy-efficient appliances to allow low occupant energy use. Ongoing performance evaluation is based on building simulation and measurements of energy and temperature in different zones of the building. Energy performance deviations between occupied and non-occupied zones are explored through internal heat gain evaluations. The indoor temperature is also evaluated to assess the temperature variations throughout the year. The ongoing research further evaluate a comparative simulated and measured energy analysis of heating, hot water and electricity based on both the international passive house standard and the Swedish passive house criteria “Feby 12”.

  • 2.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    From the Pilot Project to the Mainstream Practice: Learning Explored in Planning and Design of a Low-Energy Quarter2015In: Procedia Economics and Finance, E-ISSN 2212-5671, Vol. 21, p. 288-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot projects are common platforms for developing/testing construction methods or solutions for e.g. low-energy house-building. Whereas studies report on their technical/engineering outcomes, little is known from a learning perspective. In our study of pilot-project learning, the planning for and assessment of learning from a “low-energy quarter” pilot was explored. In step one, the initiators and the local authority participantswere addressed. The findings of the interviews indicatedthe changed understandings during the pilot of e.g. the planning and design criteria for sustainable building. Although stressed at the pilot outset, it seems that the learning among the stakeholders was not so well documented or systematically evaluated and shared so that the mainstream practice could have been informed or changed

  • 3.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Maurice, Christian
    Impact of water saturation level on arsenic leaching in iron-stabilized soil2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of construction with recycled materials2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of industrial residues as raw materials in construction raises concerns over the potential leaching and dispersal of hazardous constituents from them into the environment. Their leaching behaviour has been studied in laboratory assays, but leaching processes in the field over larger spatial and temporal scales are more complex due to variations in the conditions the materials are exposed to, and less well understood. Hence, estimates of the potential environmental loads associated with the use of such materials based on laboratory tests may be inaccurate. This thesis addresses the environmental implications of using recycled materials in road and landfill cover constructions. The focus is primarily on the leaching of inorganic constituents from six types of materials: incineration ashes, copper smelter slag, blast-furnace slag, recycled concrete, natural rock and contaminated soil. The leaching behaviour of constituents from these materials were assessed in both laboratory batch leaching tests and monitoring programs in which the water percolating through them in field applications were sampled over one to ten years. Leaching data were evaluated using statistical and geochemical modelling. In addition, assessment methods and criteria to judge the environmental suitability of substituting natural materials for recycled materials in construction were reviewed. It was found that leachates from recycled materials in the constructions contain higher concentrations of several constituents than natural water and leachates from conventional materials. However, the rates and extent of constituent leaching were affected by the application methods in various ways that are explored and discussed. The results of simplified leaching tests did not always reflect the leaching behaviour in the field, which highlight the importance of developing assessment methods that allow case-specific factors to be taken into account. The environmental impacts of leaching must also be considered in relation to the expected impacts of the default alternative, i.e. landfilling of industrial residues and exploitation of natural resources. Combinations of case-specific assessments and system analyses would be the ideal approaches to evaluate impacts at both local and regional scales.

  • 5.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of secondary construction materials2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process industry, construction and other comparable activities produce large quantities of waste with potential use in geotechnical applications. Prior to utilisation, an acceptably low risk of contamination to humans and the environment must be demonstrated. This work focuses on the identification and evaluation of critical factors for environmental assessments of secondary construction materials. The market potential and the main barriers for usage of industrial wastes were analysed and showed a good potential especially in urban areas. The main obstacle is the long and complicated permit process involved. Further, the lack of a general procedure to investigate the suitability of intended usage leads to inconsistent assessments. An evaluation of leachate emissions from a large-scale test road demonstrated the importance of construction design and site-specific field conditions on the potential environmental impacts. It was also shown that pollutant concentrations in leachate from secondary construction materials tend to become comparable, or for some pollutants, even lower than from rock materials. Different assessment methods and criteria to judge the acceptability of an intended use were reviewed and various methods were identified. However, a generic method to evaluate materials under various environmental conditions is lacking.

  • 6.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Leaching behaviour of air-cooled blast-furnace slag under intermittent and continuous wetting2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air-cooled blast-furnace slag is commonly utilised as a construction material in roads, fill and embankments. Materials used in such constructions do not remain continuously wetted, but is often subjected to cyclic wetting and drying under various exposure conditions. However, its leaching behaviour is often assessed based on tests performed under continuous wetting. This work was conducted to evaluate the leaching behaviour of an air-cooled blast-furnace slag under intermittent and continuous wetting. Four different leaching tests were performed, including a static leaching test without leachant renewal and three dynamic leaching tests: a column leaching test with continuous flow of the leachant, a tank leaching test with sequential renewal of the leachant and an intermittent leaching test with periodical flow of leachant. Leaching of the studied material under cyclic wetting and drying led to less alkaline and more oxidised eluates than leaching under continuously wetted conditions. The eluates are expected to maintain a mildly alkaline pH for long time periods during wetting, drying and oxidation of the material because the material has considerable acid neutralising potential. The leaching of soluble elements such as Ca and S was lower under intermittent than under continuous flow of the leachant which could be due to the shorter contact time between the leachant and material, and the precipitation of secondary phases on the particle surfaces during intermittent leaching. During exposure of the BFS to cyclic wetting and drying, the leaching of these elements decreased and the speciation of S in the eluates shifted towards more oxidising forms. The leached amounts of constituents were low in all performed tests, which indicate that the material was resistant to leaching under the conditions that were investigated here.

  • 7.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Trästäder visar vägen mot hållbart byggande2010In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Value-added wood processing: Building and living with wood2012In: Public Service Review. European Union, ISSN 1472-3395, no 21, p. 391-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Furthering sustainable building or not?: Discussing contractors' reflections on a sustainable building pilot project2015In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual ARCOM Conference: 7-9 September 2015, Lincoln, UK / [ed] Ani Raiden; Emmanuel Aboagye-Nimo, Lincoln: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 447-456Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governmental initiatives in Sweden that aim to support the shift towards a more sustainable building stock are frequently organized as pilot (or demonstration) projects. Pilot projects have been suggested to provide platforms for learning, where for example communication can be enhanced across actors and domains, and changes in practices can be supported. However, they have also been associated with a limited diffusion of project outcomes to mainstream practice as well as difficulties fulfilling project intentions and demands regarding sustainability. In an on-going study of a pilot project for the planning and design of a housing area in a sub-arctic environment, the advancement in the understanding and use of sustainable building practices in a sustainable building pilot project is explored. Interviews were conducted with representatives of the five local contractors that participated in the pilot project, addressing their retrospective descriptions and reflections from a personal and an organizational viewpoint. In keeping with earlier sustainable building research, the project initiators' intention was to develop a shared and holistic understanding of sustainable building. Multiple stakeholders were invited to participate and during interviews the cooperation among contractors was generally put forth as a positive pilot project experience. However, our findings expose tensions between sustainable building intentions and sustainable building as operationalized in the pilot project. Three types of barriers to the advancement of the understanding and use of sustainable building practices are recognised: a skewed balance of sustainability domains; neglect of local context; and a skewed balance of stakeholder perspectives. While intangible pilot project outcomes such as these are commonly neglected, their further study could provide valuable insights into the advancement of sustainable building. Acknowledging the complexity of defining and applying sustainable building, we also propose that more attention should be paid to managing stakeholders' multiple and conflicting views in sustainable building projects.

  • 10.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Grandjean, Mathilde
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Potential for acid leachate formation from air-cooled blast-furnace slag used in road construction2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air-cooled blast-furnace slag (ACBFS) has suitable physical properties for use as an unbound aggregate in road bases. Results of laboratory leaching tests have also indicated that ACBFS can be used without posing any risk of negative environmental impacts. However, monitoring of drainages from a full-scale road test section with ACBFS has indicated that acid leachates (pH<6) with associated increased releases of constituents can occur under field conditions. In this paper, the potential and responsible mechanisms for acid leachate formation from ACBFS used in road construction are discussed. Analysis of a 10-year time series of drainage samples and 12 year old ACBFS from the road section indicates that acidity might develop from the oxidation of reduced sulphides released from the ACBFS. Currently, the impact of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on the weathering of minerals and leaching over time from ACBFS is investigated under controlled laboratory conditions to verify the field observations. A combination of chemical and mineralogical analyses is used to analyse the results.

  • 11. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of secondary construction materials: literature review2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process industry, construction and other comparable activities generate large quantities of wastes, which are potentially suitable for use in geotechnical applications. This review presents the current status of reuse and recycling of secondary construction materials in Sweden. Also, different assessment methods to judge the environmental suitability of different utilisations are overviewed. Several driving forces for reuse and recycling of wastes have been introduced recently. For example, the alternative costs, e.g. for landfilling, have increased due to raised taxes on waste deposited on landfills. However, the amounts of wastes made use of as construction materials are lower than the potential. Uncertainties about potential risks and demanding permit processes are often hindering recycling. Approval practices also vary in different regions, causing confusion for users as well as authorities. Wastes of high utilisation rates are commonly produced in urban areas where the demand for construction materials is high and are released from the permit obligation based on earlier experience. Current environmental assessment practice is unfavourable to the use of secondary materials. The surrounding environment is often not considered which may lead to environmental damage of sensitive recipients. The methods applied vary and the results are rarely related to corresponding investigations of conventional materials, although shown to have a high leachability of certain pollutants. The lack of a general procedure to assess the suitability of an intended use leads to inconsistent assessments. Laboratory leaching tests can be used to assess fundamental leaching properties of materials, but do not necessarily reflect the actual field conditions. Risk assessments can provide a link between the leaching behaviour of a material and the recipient/-s of concern, but requires large amounts of data. Life-cycle assessments can be used for comparative studies of different materials, but are often irrelevant for specific utilisation scenarios. Further work is needed on how to improve the quality and the consistency in environmental assessments. The effect of different factors on the release and transport of contaminants from different materials in different utilisation scenarios need to be evaluated. Also, simplified assessment methods are lacking to account for characteristics in the surrounding environment and to address resource management at the strategic level.

  • 12. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of leachate emissions from crushed rock and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in road construction2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1356-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three years of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock in a full-scale test road were evaluated. The impact of time, construction design, and climate on the emissions was studied, and the predicted release from standard leaching tests was compared with the measured release from the road. The main pollutants and their respective concentrations in leachate from the roadside slope were Al (12.8-85.3 mg l-1), Cr (2-125 μg l-1), and Cu (0.15-1.9 mg l-1) in ash leachate and Zn (1-780 μg l-1) in crushed rock leachate. From the ash, the initial Cl- release was high (≈20 g l-1). After three years, the amount of Cu and Cl- was in the same range in both leachates, while that of Al and Cr still was more than one order of magnitude higher in ash leachate. Generally, the release was faster from material in the uncovered slopes than below the pavement. Whether the road was asphalted or not, however, had minor impacts on the leachate quality. During rain events, diluted leachates with respect to, e.g., salts were observed. The leaching tests failed to simulate field leaching from the crushed rock, whereas better agreement was observed for the ash. Comparisons of constituent release from bottom ash and conventional materials solely based on such tests should be avoided.

  • 13. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock used in road construction2005In: BCRA Workshop : Recycled materials in road and airfield pavements - overcoming barriers, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash in road construction may possess a risk to the environment due to the release of e.g. salt and heavy metals. In this study, two years of leachate data from a test road built of MSWI bottom ash and crushed rock in northern Sweden were evaluated. It was found that Cu, Cr, Al, Na, and Cl- were leached in higher amounts from the bottom ash, while the release of Zn, Mg, Ba, and Ca was higher from the crushed rock. The difference between ash and crushed rock leachates decreased over time, mainly due to changes in the ash leachate composition. The road pavement reduced the release rate of most pollutants from the bottom ash compared to the release from the uncovered parts of the road, whereas the release of pollutants from the crushed rock was less affected by the presence of a pavement.

  • 14. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Larsson, A.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Barriers for the use of secondary construction materials2003In: Sardinia 2003: Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. CISA. 6 - 10 October 2003, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of secondary materials in geotechnical applications is regarded as favourable but is often hindered by uncertainty about the potential environmental impact of the utilisation. In this paper, the main hurdles restricting the use of waste derived construction materials in Sweden are analysed, and means to overcome these are discussed. Standard test procedures and limit values for the assessment of environmental compliance of waste materials have not yet been established in the legislation. This has lead to confusion both for prospective users and for authorities. Also, a risk assessment system developed for the use of the secondary materials is lacking. Formalising the way data on e.g. material properties is collected and structured facilitates the judgement if and how a waste derived material can be used in a specific project. A web based information system could be used to gather, store and communicate information regarding secondary materials used for construction purposes. The proposed information system may form a basis for a simplified evaluation of risks related to the use.

  • 15.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Macsik, Josef
    Ecoloop Stockholm.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Leaching behaviour of copper slag, construction and demolition waste and crushed rock used in a full-scale road construction2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 695-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The leaching behaviour of a road construction with fayalitic copper slag, recycled concrete and crushed rock as sub-base materials was monitored over ten years. All studied materials used in the road construction, including crushed rock, contained concentrations of several elements exceeding the guideline values recommended by the Swedish EPA for total element concentrations for waste materials used in constructions. Despite that, leaching from the road construction under field conditions in general was relatively low. The leachates from the recycled materials contained higher concentrations of several constituents than the leachates from the reference section with crushed rock. The leaching of the elements of interest (Cr, Mo, Ni, Zn) reached peak concentrations during the second and fourth (Cu) years and decreased over the observation period to levels below the Swedish recommended values. Carbonation of the concrete aggregates caused a substantial but short-term increase in the leaching of oxyanions such as chromate. The environmental risks related to element leaching are highest at the beginning of the road life. Ageing of materials or pre-treatment through leaching is needed prior to their use in construction to avoid peak concentrations. Also, the design of road constructions should be adjusted so that recycled materials are covered with low-permeability covers, which would minimize the exposure to atmospheric precipitation and weathering.

  • 16. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Management of iron stabilised CCA contaminated soil2006In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials: WASCON 2006 / [ed] Marina Ilic, Belgrade: ISCOWA , 2006, p. 665-676Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical stabilisation of trace element contaminated soil may be used as pre-treatment prior to landfilling or re-utilisation. Three different treatments with iron amendments were evaluated for their efficiency in reducing trace element mobility in chromate copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil. The amendments tested were two industrial by-products from steel production industries, viz. blaster sand, containing mainly zerovalent iron (Fe0), and oxygen scarfing granulate, with mainly iron oxides. Batch, column, and lysimeter leaching tests were conducted on untreated and treated soils. The tests were used to firstly evaluate the potential of the amendments as stabilising agents, and secondly to assess the potential management of the treated soil. Soil amendments lowered concentrations of As, Cu, Cr, and Zn in soil pore water and leachate, whereas Fe, Mn, and Ni showed tendencies towards increased concentrations. The treatment efficiency can be ranked as 1% Fe0 < 4% iron oxides < 8% iron oxides. While iron oxides may be used as effective amendments to reduce As leaching from soil, their effects on leaching of e.g. Ni warrant careful consideration. Further, impurities of the iron oxides increased soil concentrations of e.g. Cr, potentially limiting re-utilisation of the treated soil. Lowered As leaching from column and lysimeter tests on treated soil indicated aerobic soil conditions and, hence, stability of iron oxides. This may, however, be an artefact of a too short testing period for anaerobic conditions to establish.

  • 17. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    To assess arsenic leaching from iron stabilised CCA contaminated soil2006In: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 131-132Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Munck, Kajsa Flodberg
    NCC Construction Sverige AB.
    Byggentreprenörens energisignatur2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det gängse måttet på en byggnads energiprestanda, kWh/m²,år för uppvärmning, tappvarm-vatten och fastighetsel, beskriver en del av byggnadens totala energianvändning som ofta bestäms utifrån schablonmässiga antaganden om t.ex. inom- och utomhustemperaturer och brukarnas energianvändning. Måttets storlek påverkas inte bara av byggnadens förmåga att hushålla med energi utan även av i hög grad av brukar- och driftbeteenden. Det blir med detta mått också svårt att dra gränsen mellan bygg- och installationsentreprenörernas ansvars-områden och brukarnas inverkan. Detta arbete handlar om en annan, kompletterande metod att uppskatta en byggnads energiprestanda som fokuserar på byggentreprenörens ansvarsområde, dvs. prestandan hos själva byggnaden och dess klimatskal oberoende av temperaturvariationer och byggnadens användning. Metoden innebär att byggnadens energisignatur analyseras, där energisignaturen bestäms utifrån mätningar av använd värmeffekt för uppvärmning som funktion av temperaturskillnaden över klimatskalet under den mörka, kalla vinterperioden. Det är teoretiskt möjligt att med metoden ta fram både ett mått på byggnadens totala värmeförlust-faktor, dvs. värmeförluster via klimatskal och ventilation, och ett separat värmeförlustmått för klimatskalet i form av transmissionsförluster (inklusive luftläckage). Projektets mål var att bidra till en vidareutveckling av energisignaturmetoden genom att:• Ta fram en detaljerad beskrivning av de mätningar och analyser som metoden kräver så att en byggentreprenör har möjlighet använda metoden och ta fram avsett resultat. • Testa metodens tillämpbarhet på lågenergihus genom att identifiera och analysera energisignaturen för tre utformningsmässigt identiska passivhusvillor med FTX och ett flerbostadshus med FVP. En förutsättning för projektet var att inga nya mätningar skulle utföras utan undersökningarna utgick från befintliga mätdata för byggnaderna.Separat bestämning av ett värmeförlustmått för klimatskalet kräver tillgång till mätdata för tilluftsflöde och -temperaturer, vilket fanns för villorna. För flerbostadshuset kunde endast total värmeförlustfaktor bestämmas. Metoden gav robusta uppskattningar av värmeförlust-måtten för båda lågenergihustyper med medelfel ner till 3%. Robustheten i uppskattningarna påverkades av val av mätperiod och metod för förbehandling samt tillgången till data.För att erhålla robusta uppskattningar användes mätdata från den mörkaste vinterperioden (1,5 till max. 4 månader i anslutning till vintersolståndet) för att eliminera solens bidrag och mätdata förbehandlades för att reducera inverkan från värmelagring. Jämförelser av olika förbehandlingsmetoder visade att glidande medelvärdesbildning gav en betydligt säkrare bestämning av värmeförlustmåtten än traditionell medelvärdesbildning. En metod för parning av data befanns vara ett effektivt alternativ för längre mätperioder (3-4 månader runt vintersolståndet) där solens bidrag inte helt kunde försummas.Metodens tillämpning på lågenergihus kräver hög tidsupplösning på mätdata. Resultaten indikerar t.ex. att det inte är tillräckligt med månadsvärden för hushållsel eftersom det introducerar osäkerheter i uppskattade värmeförlustmått. Detta blev uppenbart för passivhusvillorna där spillvärme från hushållsel tillgodoser en relativt sett stor andel av värmebehovet. Tillgång till relevanta och spårbara mätdata, särskilt mätdata som kräver brukarnas medgivande, begränsar därmed möjligheterna att använda metoden på byggnader som endast följts upp enligt Svebys rekommendationer.Behov av fortsatta studier har identifierats avseende huruvida uttorkning av byggfukt kan förändra energisignaturen, och därmed värmeförlustmåtten, för en ny byggnad över tid. Eftersom resultaten indikerar att både brukar- och driftbeteenden kan ha en indirekt påverkan på de från energisignaturen uppskattade värmeförlustmåtten för lågenergihus föreslås fördjupade studier avseende hur mycket detaljeringsgraden på data för brukar- och drift-beteenden kan påverka resultaten. Med tillgång till relevanta mätdata kan metoden användas för att uppskatta klimatskalets effektiva U-värde (inkluderande transmissionsförluster och okontrollerat luftläckage mot uteluft). På så sätt är det möjligt att särskilja byggentreprenörens ansvarsområde från installationsentreprenörens när det gäller en byggnads energiprestanda. Den har därmed potential att utgöra ett komplement till gängse uppföljningar enligt Sveby som är tillämpligt för både äldre, mindre energieffektiva hus och lågenergihus. Vidare studier rekommenderas för att bygga erfarenhet av metodens praktiska tillämpning för olika typer av hus och brukare. Föreliggande rapport kan där användas som stöd vid insamling och analys av mätdata.

  • 19.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Evaluation of leaching from four recycled materials used in full-scale road constructions2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Engineering for Waste Valorisation: June 3-5, 2008, Patras, Greece / [ed] Gerasimos Lyberatos; Ange Nzihou, Patras: University of Patras , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The medium-term (5-10 years) elemental leaching from five different materials used in full-scale road applications was evaluated. Two materials, fayalite slag and blast-furnace slag, leached high concentrations of trace metals such as Cu and Zn throughout the study period. At several occasions, the blast-furnace slag generated leachates with acidic pH-values (<4). Leachate from crushed concrete and MSWI bottom ash contained elevated concentrations of e.g. Cr and Cu during the first 2-3 years. Enrichment of trace elements occurred in sediments of roadside drainage ditches, but the respective contribution from leachate and road surface runoff is unclear. Migration of the elements through subsoil and plants in the ditches was limited, but clear anthropogenic signals were observed for e.g. Cu and Zn at the BA section. Further studies are recommended to verify if laboratory tests used for impact assessments are able to predict the observed field leaching and how the road environment is affected by leaching from the road materials in the longer term.

  • 20. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Leffler, Per
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Maurice, Christian
    Field trials to assess the use of iron-bearing industrial by-products for stabilisation of chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 387, no 1-3, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two industrial by-products with high iron contents were tested for their effectiveness in the stabilisation of arsenic and trace metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil. Steel abrasive (SA; 97% Fe0) and oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG; 69% Fe3O4) were applied at levels of 1% and 8% (w/w) respectively to two soils with different organic matter contents. Field lysimeter measurements indicated that SA and OSG treatments decreased the arsenic concentration in pore water by 68% and 92%, respectively, for the soil with low organic matter content, and by about 30% in pore water of soil with high organic matter content. At pH ≤6, the amended soil with low organic content contained elevated levels of manganese and nickel in their pore water, which were sufficient to induce cytotoxic effects in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The industrial by-products have significant potential for soil amendment at field-scale, but caution is required because of the potential release of their chemical contaminants and their reduced capacity for sorption of arsenic in organic-rich soils.

  • 21. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Stabilization of CCA-contaminated soil with iron products: a field experiment2005In: Kalmar ECO-TECH '05: conference on waste to energy, bioremediation and leachate treatment : the Second Baltic symposium on environmental chemistry : the First Kalmar nanotechnology workshop / [ed] William Hogland, Högskolan i Kalmar, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical stabilization of metals is lately considered as a possible pretreatment for soil contaminated with average levels of trace elements. The element mobility in soil can be altered by adding soil amendments that can adsorb, complex, or co-precipitate trace elements. As a consequence, pollutant spreading from the contaminated soil and effect on the recipient can be reduced. The different contaminants originating from wood impregnation chemicals, e.g. Cu, Cr, and As limit the choice of amendments because e.g. large pH fluctuations and consequent mobilization of Cu or As should be avoided. The results show that the leaching of arsenic is lowest in the lysimeter with 15% Fe3O4. In both lysimeters with untreated soil and with 1% Fe0, the arsenic leaching seems to decrease with the sampling depth. The leaching of copper is generally low. Further the addition of iron seems to increase the leaching of manganese and nickel but to reduce the leaching of zinc. Results from the laboratory experiment show that the arsenic content in the leachate is lowest with the highest mixture of magnetite. Mixing is one of the key issues when discussing the treatment efficiency and possible use of the treated soil. The results so far indicate that magnetite can be used for treatment of CCA contaminated soil also at a large scale. Reduction of both arsenic and copper using a single amendment is challenging as they behave opposite. Magnetite seems to be a promising amendment even though a high amount of amendment needs to be added. Moreover, the potential establishment of reducing conditions at larger depths in the soil is of concern since this might lead to a rapid increase in arsenic leaching.

  • 22.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Assessment of redox-sensitive element mobility: discrepancy between laboratory and field data2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching tests have become popular tools to assess the environmental effect of materials containing pollutants e.g. wastes, construction materials, soils. Batch (EN 12457-3) and column (prEN 14405) leaching tests are both standardised. The standardisation regulates how the test should be performed i.e. the procedure, the amount of material to be used and how to handle the leachate. However, standardisation is often misinterpreted as quality insurance that the results of the test are relevant for any type of material and application. The EN 12457-3 test has thanks to the standardisation and its relatively low price become the most popular tests used to assess if waste material could be used in constructions. Basically waste materials fulfilling acceptance criteria for landfill for inert waste are often regarded as acceptable to reuse in the society.The aim of the presentation is to discuss the risk of using tests without a critical assessment of their relevance and limitations. Materials containing sulphides, iron and arsenic are specially challenging to assess as the standard batch leaching test underestimates the risk for leaching.The leaching of arsenic was underestimated by the EN 12457-3 test and the effect of open filtration, sample preparation and test conditions are discussed. The results showed that a material fulfilling criteria for landfill for inert waste leached more arsenic than was acceptable at a landfill for hazardous waste. In the second example, the documented generation of acidic leachate from blast furnace slag in field conditions has never been observed in the laboratory. The main hypothesis is that the development of unsaturated conditions caused the oxidation of sulphidic minerals in the blast furnace slag heap and generation of acid leachate.The selection of appropriate leaching tests should be done with regard to the real conditions that are to be assessed. Standardisation does not mean that the test is automatically adapted to the need. A relevant assessment requires therefore understanding of the geochemical process controlling the pollutant mobilisation and immobilisation in the actual material and its application. Such comprehension is a prerequisite to the selection of appropriate leaching procedures.

  • 23.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Lättström, Anders
    Umeå university.
    Ragnvalssson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Leffler, Per
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå university.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå university.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Techniques for the stabilization and assessment of treated copper- chromium- and arsenic-contaminated soil2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 430-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remediation mainly based on excavation and burial of the contaminated soil is impractical with regard to the large numbers of sites identified as being in need of remediation. Therefore alternative methods are needed for brownfield remediation. This study was conducted to assess a chemical stabilisation procedure of CCA-contaminated soil using iron-containing blaster sand or oxygen scarfing granulate. The stabilisation technique was assessed with regard to the feasibility of mixing ameliorants at an industrial scale and the efficiency of the stabilisation under different redox conditions. The stability was investigated under natural conditions in 1-m3 lysimeters in a field experiment and the effect of redox conditions was assessed in a laboratory experiment (10 l). The treatments with high additions of ameliorant (8 and 17%) were more successful in both the laboratory and field experiments, even though there was enough iron on a stochiometric basis even at the lowest addition rates (0.1 and 1%). The particle size of the iron and the mixing influenced the stabilisation efficiency. The development of anaerobic conditions, simulated by water saturation, increases the fraction of AsIII and, consequently, arsenic mobility. The use of high concentrations of OSG under aerobic conditions increased the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the pore water. However, under anaerobic conditions, it decreased the arsenic leaching compared to the untreated soil and Ni and Cu leaching was not critical. The final destination of the treated soil should govern the amendment choice, e.g. an OSG concentration around 10% may be suitable if the soil is to be landfilled under anaerobic conditions. Alternatively, the soil mixed with 1% BS could be kept under aerobic conditions in a landfill cover or in situ at brownfield site. In addition, the treatment with BS appeared to produce better effects in the long term than with OSG.

  • 24.
    Nordström, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    HRV-Systems in the Energy-Signature method2013In: Proceedings of SB13 Dubai Conference: Advancing the Green Agenda, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy use for the residential sector in Sweden is about 40% of Sweden’s total energy use. European Union has specified that al new buildings by the year 2020 shall be close to zero energy buildings. But what happens in a house when heating comes from non-measurable or hard to measure sources such as heat from household electricity, people, sun or HRV-systems. All these sources are becoming more and more important in standard houses of today and especially in low energy houses of today and the future. This paper deals with a Data-driven technique based on an Energy-Signature model to investigate how single family houses with HRV systems installed preforms by comparing the Effective U-value based on the heat loss factor and envelope area for each house. The results show that no distinct difference between the HRV and non-HRV houses can be seen in this study by using an energy signature method as presented in this paper which is surprising.

  • 25.
    Nordström, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Using the energy signature method to estimate the effective U-value of buildings2013In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12), Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, p. 35-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oil crisis of the 1970s and the growing concern about global warming have created an urge to increase the energy efficiency of residential buildings.Space heating and domestic hot water production account for approximately 20% of Sweden’s total energy use. This study examines the energy performance of existing building stock by estimating effective U-values for six single-family houses built between 1962 and 2006. A static energy signature model for estimating effective U-values was tested, in which the energy signature was based on measurements of the total power used for heating and the indoor and outdoor temperatures for each studied house during three winter months in northern Sweden. Theoretical U-values for hypothetical houses built to the specifications of the Swedish building codes in force between 1960 and 2011 were calculated and compared to the U-values calculated for the studied real-world houses. The results show that the increasingly strict U-value requirements of more recent building codes have resulted in lower U-values for newer buildings, and that static energy signature models can be used to estimate the effective U-value of buildings provided that the differences between the indoor and outdoor temperatures are sufficiently large.

  • 26.
    Nordström, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Comparing energy signature analysis to calculated U-values in wooden houses in cold climate2012In: Eco-Architecture IV, WIT Press, 2012, p. 411-419Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the housing sector stands for about 40% of the energy usage. About 20% of total energy usage goes to heating and hot tap water. Since 1920, the dominant building technology for single family houses in Sweden is a light timber-frame structure with studs at even spacing. This study aims to investigate how the static energy signature model can be used to estimate the effective U-values in existing wooden buildings and compare them to calculated U-values based on the thermal properties of the building parts. The results show that the energy signature model gives reasonable estimates of the U-value in a building. It is important though that a large difference in temperature can be achieved.

  • 27. Ore, Solvita
    et al.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Ecke, Holger
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Toxicity of leachate from bottom ash in a road construction2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 1626-1637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A test road constructed with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was monitored over a period of 36 months. Using chemical and toxicological characterisation, the environmental impact of leachates from bottom ash was evaluated and compared with leachates from gravel used as reference. Initial leaching of Cl, Cu, K, Na, NH4-N and TOC from bottom ash was of major concern. However, the quality of the bottom ash leachate approached that of the gravel leachate with time. Leachates from the two materials were compared regarding the concentration of pollutants using multivariate data analyses (MVDA). A standardized luminescent bacteria assay using Vibrio fischeri did not show any toxicity, most likely because saline contamination can mask the toxic response and stimulate luminescence in these marine bacteria. A mung bean assay using Phaseolus aureus revealed that the toxicity of bottom ash leachate collected at the very beginning of the experimental period (October 2001 and May 2002) might be attributed to the following components and their respective concentrations in mg l-1: Al (34.2-39.2), Cl (2914-16,446), Cu (0.48-1.92), K (197-847), Na (766-4180), NH4-N (1.80-8.47), total-N (12.0-18.5), and TOC (34.0-99.0). The P. aureus assay was judged as a promising environmental tool in assessing the toxicity of bottom ash leachate.

  • 28.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Development of drainage water quality from landfill covers built with ashes and sewage sludge2009In: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative to virgin and artificial materials in landfill cover can be various types of waste materials like ashes and sewage sludge. From the environmental point of view, the most interesting question to study is the quality of the drainage water generated above the liner in landfill cover built with waste materials. Thus, the main aim of this paper is the evaluation of drainage water quality and time required for its treatment. Results from a full scale test, physical models and a column test were used in the evaluation of the drainage water quality development. The main contaminants identified in drainage water were N-tot, As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni. The laboratory tests showed higher concentrations of N-tot, NH4-N, TOC, As and Pb, but lower values of Cl, Zn, Ba and Ni in comparison with drainage water from the field.  It was probably a result of different factors that may have influence on leaching but interactions of the protection layer with the vegetation layer and the liner surface are expected to influence the results from the field. According to results from the laboratory experiments, drainage water will probably need treat­ment for at least two-three decades after covering.

  • 29.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1336-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl-, nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, <3-30 l (m2 yr)-1. Geochemical modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  • 30.
    Viking, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Exploring industrialised housebuilders' interpretations of local requirement setting using institutional logics2015In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 33, no 5-6, p. 484-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized housebuilding contractors use standardized processes and building systems to improve time and cost efficiency. Recent governmental investigations argue that Swedish local planning authorities’ requirement setting practices stifle the potential for increased industrialization. Yet, no previous research has accounted for the industrialized housebuilders’ perspective. We aim to explore industrialized housebuilders’ interpretationsof local requirement setting, using institutional logics to increase the understanding of how structure and human agency influence the emergence of local requirements. Interviews were conducted with representatives of fiveindustrialized housebuilders who together span the Swedish multi-family housing market. Findings indicate that industrialized housebuilders do not perceive intentional local requirement setting as problematic, yet struggle tocope with interpretive local requirement setting. Findings also necessitate distinguishing local requirement setting in the exercise of public authority from local requirement setting in public procurement. The agency structure dualism contributes an understanding of interpretive local requirement setting in the exercise of public authority as an expression of agency and of local requirement setting in public procurement as one of structure. Furthermore, using an institutional logics approach is found to provide an accentuation of human agency and the individual level of analysis that is often absent from construction management research.

  • 31.
    Viking, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Exploring industrialised house-builders' perceptions of local requirement setting: An institutional logics perspective2014In: Procs 30th Annual ARCOM Conference: 1-3 September 2014, Portsmouth, UK / [ed] Ani Raiden; Emmanuel Aboagye-Nimo, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2014, Vol. 2, p. 1133-1142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised house-builders (IHBs) are housing contractors who use standardised processes and building systems as a means to time and cost efficiently address the current housing shortage in Sweden. Recent governmental investigations argue that the mandate for local planning authorities (LPAs) to intentionally set stricter requirements than those prescribed in the national building code can stifle the potential for increased industrialisation. The aim of this paper is to explore IHBs’ perceptions of local requirement setting (LRS). It seeks to use the concept of institutional logic to advance the understanding of how LRS affects IHBs. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with representatives of five IHBs encompassing a mix of building systems spanning the Swedish multi-family housing market. From the data we identify three distinct categories of LRS: intentional, interpretive and public procurement-related. The respondents' perceived issues with LRS are found to relate more closely to the process of setting requirements than to the requirements themselves. The political debate about LRS has entirely neglected interpretive LRS, LRS in public procurement as well as the entire process perspective. Institutional logics is shown to offer new and interesting perspectives on the agency/structure dominated cognitive and intra-organisational processes that shape the emergence of local requirements in interpretative LRS and LRS in public procurement respectively. Since LRS is affected both by individual planning officers (agency) and the LPA organisation (structure) further studies will explore their perceptions of LRS.

  • 32.
    Windt, L. De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, D.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, R.
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Reactive transport modeling of leachate evolution of MSWI bottom ash used as road basement: Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) sites2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste of incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires a better characterization of the evolution of leachate chemistry over a timescale of many decades. In this paper, a common reactive transport model is applied to the Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) pilot roads whose leachate emissions have been sampled during 10 and 6 years, respectively. The model considers simultaneously the hydrodynamic processes (rain water infiltration, advective and diffusive transport), pH-buffering and solubility-controlled processes by secondary minerals, ageing by atmospheric carbonation, and the leachate chemistry (major elements and trace metals such as Al, Cu, Pb). The evolution of pH is fairly well simulated with the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), ettringite and, finally, calcite. The quantity of CO2 dissolved in the percolating rain water is generally not sufficient to explain the pH evolution and carbonation processes, requiring atmospheric gaseous inputs. The relation between pH evolution and element release is discussed for both sites. Calculated Pb release is overestimated when based on solubility-controlled mechanisms only. Edge effects are shown to be important at both sites with an emphasis of carbonation and release of non reactive elements. Temperature has no significant effect on the calculated leachate chemistry in the range of 5 - 30° C, except at high pH.

  • 33.
    Windt, Laurent De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, David
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, Rabia
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    MSWI bottom ash used as basement at two pilot-scale roads: comparison of leachate chemistry and reactive transport modeling2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 267-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires assessing the long-term evolution of leachate chemistry. The Dåva (Sweden) and Hérouville (France) pilot-scale roads were monitored during 6 and 10 years, respectively. Calculated saturation indices were combined to batch test modeling to set a simplified geochemical model of the bottom ash materials. A common reactive transport model was then applied to both sites. At Hérouville, pH and the concentration of most elements quickly drop during the first two years to reach a set of minimum values over 10 years. The decrease is less pronounced at Dåva. The evolutions of pH and major element concentrations are fairly well related to the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, C-S-H phases or pseudo-wollastonite and, finally, calcite in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. Al(OH)3, barite, ettringite and monohydrocalcite may also control leachate chemistry. Cu release is correctly modeled by DOM complexation and tenorite equilibrium. Temperature has no significant effect on the modeling of leachate chemistry in the range 5-30 °C, except at high pH. Effects at road edges and roadside slopes are important for the release of the less reactive elements and, possibly, for carbonation processes.

1 - 33 of 33
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