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  • 1.
    Andersson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Reuse of manufacturing experience in product and process definitions2008Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's manufacturing industry faces hard competition, both in the form of competitor's low cost outsourcing and to reduce labour cost. Increased public consciousness for environmental pollution and stricter government legislation are also drivers for a more efficient product development process and companies competing on the global market must continue to improve there methods and tools to gain an advantage. The company's intellectual properties and the ability to capitalize on experience from earlier projects becomes a key factor when competing on the global market. This thesis work explores the mechanisms for knowledge reuse and suggests methods and tools involved in the product development process to improve the use of manufacturing experience in order to prevent manufacturing flaws to reoccur in new product development programs. The research is carried out in a project funded by the Swedish research agency VINNOVA together with the industry, through the MERA program. The project aims to improve the Digitally Linked Process and has a focus on Experience reuse. An initial research question was formulated to address the problem and guide the research towards a better understanding; "How can experience from manufacturing processes be tied and reused to impact the definition of governing product and process definition?" A study was set up to investigate the current practices and to aid the research in formulating an approach to improve methods and tools for Reuse of Manufacturing Experience (RoME). The study was conducted at two companies, one in the aerospace industry and one in the automobile industry. The "How" and "Why" questions supported a case study approach The study provided a better understanding of the problem and pointed at a number of opportunities to increase the use of manufacturing experience. One of the findings pointed out in the survey was the lack of a working process for preventing recurrence of a bad design in manufacturing. Furthermore, the study revealed a potential improvement in the use of capability data and problem reports that are captured and stored in databases, today more or less solely used in manufacturing. A new research question was formulized as the improvement of the RoME process where set in focus; "How can the process of experience reuse from manufacturing phases be improved to better impact earlier phases in product development?" The current process for finding and accessing process capability data from a Design Engineering perspective were investigated and described as well as the process to retrieve problem report notifications regarding specific design features of a component. The process where found to be both time consuming and tedious, and as a result of that, seldom used by design engineers. Key enablers having a significant impact on the RoME process where identified. The ability to find and access experience captured in the manufacturing phase. The ability to provide data in a context familiar for the receiver in order to facilitate the learning process. An improved process for reuse of manufacturing experience is proposed and includes methods and techniques to target system integration for search and access. A service oriented product life cycle management (PLM) architecture is proposed as a mean to address the topic of finding and accessing manufacturing data. The standard for PLM Services 2.0 provided by the Object Management Group (OMG) and the increased maturity of web service technology provide the possibility to integrate knowledge rich engineering application in a dispersed heterogeneous system environment. The ability to provide data in a context that is familiar to the receiver is addressed by developing a web based graphical user interface (GUI). The web based GUI presents the manufacturing data in a design context where manufacturing process capability data and problem report notifications are presented in a component view. This supports the design engineer when searching for relevant experience from earlier projects by associating the process capability data and problem reports to a specific design feature, e.g. a flange, and how it relate to the manufacturing process. A web based application is developed to demonstrate the concept. The application presents the product assembly (bill of material) together with the manufacturing process activities and corresponding process capability data in the same view, providing a contextual environment that is tailored for the receiver.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Support for re-use of manufacturing experience in product development: from an aerospace perspective2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization, public environmental concern and government legislation are challenging the Swedish industry to be more efficient and increase its efforts in research and in the development of methods and tools for product development and production. Furthermore, the manufacturing industry is changing from producing solely hardware products towards the inclusion of services or soft offers to add more value for the customer. As a result, there are an increased number of stakeholders involved in the early phases of product development that has an interest in the products design and performance during its life cycle. This challenges the way we manage and share experience internally as well as between companies.The intellectual property of a company is a key asset when competing on the global market; hence, the ability to capitalize on experiences from a company’s development processes as well as products in use becomes increasingly important. Also, the European manufacturing industry and the EU commission conclude that the industry has to move from being "Resource-based" to "Knowledge based" to add more value and avoid competing solely on low-cost. It is recognized that an expensive manufacturing solution has a negative effect on a products total life cycle cost and the ability to earn profit. Hence, manufacturing processes is constantly a target for improvement efforts and experience gained in manufacturing has a potentially high impact on design decisions in new projects.The aim of the research presented here is to improve manufacturability and avoid reoccurrence of design flaws in ongoing or new projects. The research has provided a better understanding of the mechanisms for experience re-use and developed methods and tools for feedback of experience from the manufacturing phase back to the earlier phases in the products life cycle. The work has been carried out within two projects funded by the Swedish governmental agency for Innovation Systems and industry. The first project was DLP-E, Digitally Linked Processes with a focus on Experience re-use and the second project was Robust Machining, aiming for more robust machining processes within manufacturing.The research approach has been to combine the design research methodology and participatory action research. These methodologies together with an initial research question have guided the work:RQ: “How can experience from manufacturing processes be tied and reused to impact the governing product and process definition?”Branches within engineering research committed to his area are concurrent engineering and design for manufacturing although this has usually been limited to general rules of thumb and qualitative methods for designers. Recently however, statistical methods such as Design for Six Sigma and other methods for Robust Design are introduced to affect earlier phases of PD to achieve improved manufacturability.Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE), represents a technology that provide the means to capture and automatically re-use engineering knowledge in an engineering design environment. Methods and tools from this area have been used as an initial approach in this research. A functional product perspective puts a focus on the activity where the product is used rather than on the tangible product itself. From an experience feedback perspective, experience is gained during these activities and possibly re-used if there is a learning process.This thesis presents an initial descriptive case study at two manufacturing companies that provided a better understanding of current practices for experience re-use and identified factors that influenced the feedback of manufacturing experience in product development. Based on initial assumptions and the results from the first descriptive study, a theory on the mechanism for experience feedback and requirements on a manufacturing system was formulated in a prescriptive study. A second descriptive study utilized a prototype to identify if the theory was applicable in an industrial environment and if it addressed the factors it was supposed to address. The research has been an iterative process, whereas results from the descriptive studies have influenced new prescriptive studies, delivering methods and tools, which in turn have influenced the ongoing work at the company where the research was conducted.The main contribution from the research is a framework to support re-use of manufacturing experience. The framework decompose the multifaceted task of experience re-use by identifying typical activities involved in the feedback process and categorizing the “elements of experience” in terms of knowledge, information and data. Combined with an engineering process improvement approach, processes are streamlined and value is added to the product. KBE techniques are used to capture and re-use product and process knowledge in an integrated manner. The applicability of the result has been validated in descriptive studies as well as within company improvement efforts.The research supports a frontloading approach in product development by enabling manufacturing experience to have an impact on the design definition in the early phases of product development. As a consequence, the risk for costly re-design later on in a project is reduced.

  • 3. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A process improvement approach to capitalize on manufacturing experience in engineering design2009Ingår i: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl, Gkasgow: Design Research Society, 2009, s. 287-298Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to capitalize on company knowledge and experience earned in various projects is recognized as key assets in the competition on the growing global market. Methods and tools are constantly evolving, still there is a frustration over repeated design flaws and design engineers has a difficult task to find and use manufacturing experience from earlier projects. This paper outlines a process improvement approach where the engineering process is described andanalysed to find bottlenecks. Examples from other engineering processes are presented along with a prototype of a knowledge application to resolve identified issues with the manufacturing feedback process.Experience and knowledge are closely related, hence a knowledge life cycle explain the different stepswith a "capturing" and "deploying" side.The feedback processes for manufacturing experience is analysed where search & find together with contextualisation of experience data are recognised as key mechanisms. A knowledge application is presented that presents experience data from different repositories in a way that is logic for the receiver. This reduces the lead-time and increase the quality of the feedback process.

  • 4. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Manufacturing system to support design concept and reuse of manufacturing experience2008Ingår i: Manufacturing systems and technologies for the new frontier: the 41st CIRP conference on manufacturing systems / [ed] Mamoru Mitsuishi; Kanji Ueda; Fumihiko Kimura, London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2008, s. 137-140Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle responsibility for manufacturing companies increases the service content coupled to the product. One consequence is that transferring knowledge gained from all life cycle phases has an even more decisive impact on the definition of the product concept, here referred to as the functional product. The paper focuses on transferring experiences from the manufacturing phase and how to account for these in the design phase. Based on an empirical study at two companies, an automotive and one aeronautical company, current practices were identified. Manufacturing experiences are captured and managed in a manufacturing context whereas the use of experience in the design phase is discussed. Finally a generic approach to support the use life cycle experiences in earlier phases of product development is suggested, where the design and manufacturing case serves as an example.

  • 5. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Reuse of manufacturing experience to support development of product/service systems2010Ingår i: Industrial product-service systems (IPS²): proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference [2010, Linköping, 14-15 April] / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to learn from ongoing and previous projects is important for companies to become, and maintain, competitive. Hence efficient methods and tools for both capturing and reusing experience in all life cycle phases of the product is a key enabler to keep and gain an advantage in product development companies. By definition, PSS combines "features" applicable to different life cycle phases, e.g. reusability when disposed, serviceability in aftermarket, manufacturability in manufacturing, etc. The "total offer" must take into account all aspects and coherently map these into a receiver context to support the design engineer in his work. In particular - the design phase is important since both the products, its realization and accompanying services are to a large extent decided in the early phases. This paper presents an industrial case demonstrating the mapping and contextualization of manufacturing experience to provide engineers relevant context when defining and designing the PSS

  • 6. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    A case study of how knowledge based engineering tools support experience re-use2011Ingår i: Research into Design: Supporting Sustainable Product Development / [ed] Amaresh Chakrabarti, Bangalore, India: Research Publishing Services, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A manufacturing company’s unique intellectual capital is to a largeextent built on experience from its own product development andmanufacturing processes. Thus, methods and tools to utilize and benefit fromthis experience in an efficient way have an impact on a company’s ability tostay competitive and advance on the global market. Knowledge BasedEngineering (KBE) is an engineering methodology to capture engineeringknowledge systematically into the design system. Hence, KBE tools areconsidered to support experience re-use and improve engineering activities.This paper presents the results from a study where the objective was toinvestigate the support for experience re-use in KBE applications in anaerospace company. A proposed framework is presented to analyze thecapturing and use of experience in a company’s processes identifying gaps andpropose improvements. The study revealed weaknesses in the process steps forexperience feedback which can be used to improve KBE applications further.

  • 7. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Isaksson, Ola
    Project: Robust Machining2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    New generations of environmentally friendly and safe vehicles require manufacturing of light weight materials with higher strength and, as a consequence, tougher machining conditions and increased machining robustness. There is a lack of practical and reliable methods and tools to meet these challenges in the automotive industry. The very complex system of machine tool, fixture, cutting tools and the machined part is almost impossible to model without complementary measurements of the real system at the factory floor in full production. Using Virtual Engineering together with studies of machining processes the project team will assess these challenges.

  • 8. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Ludvigsson, Malin
    Volvo Aero.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Automated CFD blade design within a CAD system2006Ingår i: Integration of numerical simulation into the product development process (FEA and CFD): 3rd NAFEMS Nordic seminar; 2nd - 3rd November 2006, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Conference proceedings, Grafing: NAFEMS Contact Nordic Countries , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Wolgast, Amanda
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Current industrial practices for re-use of manufacturing experience in a multidisciplinary design perspective2008Ingår i: Design 2008: 10th International Design Conference, May 19-22, 2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nenad Bojcetic, Zagreb: University of Zagreb , 2008, s. 885-892Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Boart, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Andersson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Elfström, Bengt-Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Knowledge enabled pre-processing for structural analysis2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management / [ed] Johan Malmqvist; Fredrik Berglund, Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola , 2006, s. 89-97Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Catic, Amer
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Manufacturing experience in a design context enabled by a service oriented PLM architecture2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference - 2008: presented at 2008 ASME International Design Engineering Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, August 3 - 6, 2008, New York City, New York, USA, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2009, Vol. 5, s. 257-265Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased competition on the product development market pushes the industry to continually improve product quality and reduce product cost. There is also a trend towards considering a products life cycle aspects including environmental sustainability. The manufacturing process is a major cost driver in the product life cycle; hence, there are many initiatives to improve manufacturability and reduce production cost. Learning from earlier projects is essential to avoid recurrence of problems and is generally realized through use of concurrent engineering and design for manufacturing (DFM). Other research provides general DFM principles which state detailed guidelines for how different geometries combined with different manufacturing processes affect component quality and cost. The real competitive edge lies however in the development and application of company specific DFM principles that are based on manufacturing experiences. To do so requires an overview of and access to the collected manufacturing experiences. The aim of this paper is to point out key enablers for efficient reuse of manufacturing experience, which is considered to contribute to lower product cost and higher product quality. A study performed at an automotive and at an aerospace engine manufacturer pointed out the apparent need and lack of reuse of manufacturing experiences in product development. Applications supporting reuse of manufacturing experience through embedded DFM knowledge in designer's CAD system were found in the literature. However the issue of integrating these applications with the enterprise environment, in order to capitalize on existing sources of manufacturing experience, is not addressed in a wider extent. A concept for this integration, applying a service oriented PLM architecture and using the standard PLM Services 2.0 provided by Object Management Group, was proposed. In addition, a graphical user interface visualizing the manufacturing experience in as well a design as manufacturing process and activity context, was proposed. The validation of these concepts was done through interviews and workshops. The conclusions are that visualization of manufacturing experiences in a process and activity context provides improved understanding of how the experiences relate to each process and activity history and that a key enabler for integration is the use of standard architectures and neutral formats.

  • 12.
    Krogstie, Lars
    et al.
    Gjøvik University College (HiG), Department of Technology and Management.
    Andersson, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A case study on reuse of manufacturing knowledge: comparing defense practices with automotive & aerospace practices2012Ingår i: 45th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems: Innovation: the challenge for the manufacturing of the future, Elsevier, 2012, s. 330-335Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In product development, one critical source of knowledge is experience made in the manufacturing phase of a products lifecycle. Hence, the collaborative interaction between design and manufacturing is explored. Results from a descriptive case study of practices for reuse of manufacturingknowledge are compared with data from a previous study. Together they provide a comparison between three different business areas (automotive, aerospace and defense). The studies reveal similar problems in utilizing the full potential of knowledgereuse. This paper contributes to the research area by describing current practices within knowledgereuse. Furthermore, proposals for improved practices of knowledgereuse are identified.

  • 13. Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Andersson, Petter
    Isaksson, Ola
    Project: MERA DLP-E2007Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    MERA - Manufacturing Engineering Research Area Digitalt Länkad Processtyrning - Erfarenhetsåterkoppling

  • 14. Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Andersson, Petter
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Concept automation and decision support in a functional product development perspective2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional product development is dedicated to, primarily, concept development, where the development of hardware components and services meet in a global, distributed business oriented process. The focus is set on knowledge based,information driven and simulation support in a life cycle perspective to enable the design of a total offer. This focus, in combination with the industries’ need to reduce cost by shorten product development lead time, results in a need for methods and tools for managing requirements from the whole products life cycle, including aftermarket parameters, for instance maintenance, recycling, operation etc. This paper aims to describe knowledge based methods and tools and how they can support functional product development.Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) (Stokes, 2001) is an engineering method that enables creation of and changes to the product definition, tightly linked with the geometry model. Knowledge is captured trough various sources such as design specifications, standard documentation, optimization routines etc. The methodology is used in both small feature applications as well as larger models where sub-applications can be included to form a more complex generative model. Sandberg, et al.(2005) describes an application to design flanges that automatically executes rules based on thestandard specifications where parameters are adjusting the design for standard sizes to minimize the number of different standard components used in the design, this in order to satisfy customer aftermarket requirement for serviceability. Boart, et al. (2006) describes a method to automatically update a derived context model including the mesh that is based on engineering experience from earlier analysis on a component level. This enables CFD-, Weld-, and life cycle-, analysis and simulation for decision support in a functional product perspective. Knowledge based applications combined and implemented as subapplications form a more complex generic model, capable of topological changes and inheritance of "intelligence" from sub applications.In the Aero engine business the aftermarket can have time spans of up to 30 years, thus aftermarket parameters such as maintenance, recycling, operation, education, services etc. and the knowledge from their design processes need to be available in the early product development stage so that the designer can take aftermarket issues into account when designing the product or total offer. When feeding back downstream knowledge there is a bit of uncertainty inherent; how well known is it? Are all parameters known? Knowing where there is uncertainty and the magnitude of the uncertainty enables designers to take corrective action regarding the uncertainty and thus reduce risk. This is where the measurement of maturity can be used as a way to assess this knowledge. Maturity is about knowing with which certainty a parameter has a specific value.KBE, the methodology and applications support Functional Product Development in the sense that it brings awareness to the designer of downstream processes and also enables simulation and evaluation of design decision impact on the product life-cycle. Finding important aftermarket parameters that affect the total offer and incorporating them into the early stages of the design needs to be investigated to ensure maturity and consistency with the design.

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