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  • 1.
    Blomberg, Jerry
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy efficiency and policy in Swedish pulp and paper mills: a data envelopment analysis approach2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 42, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and mill-specific input and output data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The empirical results are discussed in relation to the reported outcomes of the Swedish voluntary energy efficiency programme PFE. The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over the time period; it equals roughly 1 TWh per year for the sample mills and this is three times higher than the corresponding self-reported electricity savings in PFE. This result is largely a reflection of the fact that in the pulp and paper industry electricity efficiency improvements are typically embodied in the diffusion of new capital equipment, and there is a risk that some of the reported measures in PFE simply constitute an inefficient speed-up of capital turnover. The above does not preclude, though, that many other measures in PFE may have addressed some relevant market failures and barriers in the energy efficiency market. Overall the analysis suggests that future energy efficiency programs could plausibly be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the most important information and behaviour-related failures.

  • 2.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Assessing the competitive effects of convergence mergers: the case of the gas-electricity industries2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis has been to evaluate how the competitive effects following a convergence merger and in particular a gas-electricity merger, should be detected. This was done by employing and critically evaluating two methods proposed by Brennan (2001) and Hunger (2003), both specially designed for analysing convergence mergers and between gas and electricity utilities. The guidelines proposed by these methods were first employed on a merger in the context of a hypothetical gas-electricity market situations and secondly on the European merger between E.ON Energie AG and Ruhrgas. The German competition authority has already approved this latter merger. The analyses came to different conclusions regarding one of the hypothetical merger cases. The difference in outcome stems from a change in pre-merger market power between the gas supplier and the acquiring generator, and such a change is not recognised in the guidelines proposed by Hunger (2003). The analysis did not allow us to draw any conclusions about what guideline led to the correct conclusion regarding the competitive impacts of the merger. We can only stress the fact that these guidelines are more or less sensitive to changes in different relations in the markets where the merger takes place. The two methods also, at least partly, rely on different types of data, some of which can be more or less hard to obtain. This latter point became obvious in the analysis of the E.ON/Ruhrgas merger since some information needed to perform the analysis as proposed by Brennan (2001) was not available for the German market. This forced us to build the merger analysis on several assumptions based on the available information. However, given the information at hand the results in general suggest that the E.ON/Ruhrgas merger gives rise to anticompetitive concerns. Still, additional information about the markets and its would have allowed us to pinpoint in more detail areas where the risk for anticompetitive concerns was particular large. This indicates that one should be careful in basing convergence merger analysis on one single method.

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  • 3.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Convergence mergers in the energy sector: methodological issues2005In: 28th Annual IAEE international conference: conference proceedings : globalization of energy : markets, technology, and sustainability., International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE) , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of an introduction and five self-contained papers addressing the issues of industrial electricity demand and the role of energy efficiency policy. An important context for the study is the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs in which different types of tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. Paper 1 conceptually analyses the cost-effectiveness of voluntary energy efficiency programs targeted at the industrial sector. A broad methodological framework is outlined, and discussed in the empirical context of the Swedish PFE program. The results show that the presence of information inefficiencies and asymmetries represents one of the major motives for policy intervention in the industrial energy efficiency field, but the substitution of energy management systems for electricity taxes, such as that achieved in the Swedish PFE program, does not necessarily address these market failures cost-effectively. Paper II provides an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and mill-specific input and output data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over time, and it equals about 1 TWh for the sample mills. This result is largely a reflection of the fact that in the pulp and paper industry electricity efficiency improvements are typically embodied in the diffusion of new capital equipment, and there is a risk that some of the reported energy efficiency measures in PFE simply constitute an inefficient speed-up of capital turnover. Overall the analysis suggests that future energy efficiency programs could be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the most important information and behaviour-related failures. In Paper III the electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is analysed. A panel data set of 19 pulp and paper firms is employed within a Translog cost function, and the own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand as well as the impact of knowledge accumulation following private R&D on electricity use are estimated. The empirical results show that electricity use in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively own-price insensitive, but they also display that already in a baseline setting firms tend to invest in private R&D that have electricity saving impacts. The objectives of Paper IV are to: (a) analyse long-run electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish mining industry; and (b) contrast this to the reported outcomes of PFE. Methodologically, a Generalized Leontief variable cost function covering a panel data set of nine mining operations over the time period 1990-2005 is used. The empirical results indicate that long-run electricity demand in the mining industry is sensitive to changes in the own-price, but the estimated electricity use increases following the tax reduction in PFE do not overweigh the self-reported electricity savings of the program. Finally, Paper V analyses the presence of structural changes in the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and we pay particular attention to altering energy demand patterns and factor substitution possibilities over time. The paper employs a flexible Translog cost function, and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005. The results show evidence of more significant factor substitution possibilities over time, not the least between electricity and fossil fuels. In addition, fuel and labour demands have overall become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices.

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  • 5.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Structural changes in industrial electricity use: the case of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden2013In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse altering energy demand patterns and energy factor substitution possibilities over time in the pulp and paper industry in order to increase our understanding of suitable policy options for increasing energy efficiency. The investigation employs a flexible translog cost function and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005 in Sweden. Specifically, we test whether energy factor demand patterns in the industry for the period 1974-1990 differ from those during the latter period, 1991-2005. The empirical results reveal that even though the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively insensitive to changes in energy factor input prices in the short run, we find evidence of significant changes over time. According to the results, the own-price sensitivity of fuel has increased since the 1970s and the 1980s, thus indicating that fuel demand has become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices. The estimated cross-price elasticities between electricity and fuel also support the hypothesis of increased substitutability over time. However, the null hypothesis of an equal own-price elasticity of electricity demand across the two time periods cannot be rejected

  • 6.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The cost-effectiveness of voluntary energy efficiency programs2009In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptually analyze the cost-effectiveness of voluntary energy efficiency programs targeted at the industrial sector. In the paper a broad methodological framework for such an assessment is outlined, and this is applied empirically to discuss the potential cost-effectiveness of the ongoing Swedish energy efficiency program PFE. The focus lies on the presence of asymmetric information and bounded rationality, and the paper discusses how these factors may influence the cost-effectiveness of these types of programs. We also highlight the impact of the self-selection mechanism on the program's cost-effectiveness. The results show that the presence of information inefficiencies and asymmetries represents one of the major motives for policy intervention in the industrial energy efficiency field, but the substitution of energy management systems for electricity taxes-such as that achieved in the Swedish PFE program-does not necessarily address these asymmetries entirely cost-effectively. First, the presence of firm-government information asymmetries implies that electricity taxes could do a better job in energy-intensive companies while an energy management system could be more effective in companies with a low energy-intensive production process due to the lack of prior experience of energy efficiency measures. The current set-up of PFE induces the reverse situation. Second, although firm-internal information asymmetries may well exist in the participating energy-intensive companies-implying that energy management systems could do a good job in detecting cost-effective measures-this is likely to be even more true for the non-participating companies (again due to their comparatively low accumulated knowledge in the energy efficiency field). It should however also be acknowledged that this analysis is static, and in the long-run voluntary energy efficiency programs may lead to significant learning impacts and-given the public good characteristics of this new knowledge-to important spillover effects.

  • 7.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy: the case of the Swedish mining industry2014In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 477-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze long-run electricity demand behavior in the Swedish mining industry with special emphasis on the impact of energy prices and private research and development (R & D) on electricity use. Methodologically, we estimate a generalized Leontief variable cost function using a panel data set of nine mining operations over the time period 1990-2005. Since the lower boundary of a set of short-run cost functions confines the long-run cost function, we can compute the long-run own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand. The empirical results indicate that long-run electricity demand in the mining industry is sensitive to changes in the own price, and already in a baseline setting Swedish mining companies tend to allocate significant efforts towards improving energy efficiency, in part through private R & D. From a policy perspective, the results imply that taxes (and tax exemptions) on electricity can have significant long-run impacts on electricity use. Moreover, future evaluations of so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs must increasingly recognize the already existing incentives to reduce energy use in energy-intensive industries

  • 8.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy: The role of price changes and private R&D in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 47, p. 437-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze electricity demand behaviour in the Swedish pulp and paper industry in the context of the increased interest in so-called voluntary energy efficiency programs. In these programs tax exemptions are granted if the participating firms carry out energy efficiency measures following an energy audit. We employ a panel data set of 19 pulp and paper firms, and estimate both the own- and cross-price elasticities of electricity demand as well as the impact of knowledge accumulation following private R&D on electricity use. The empirical results show that electricity use in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively own-price insensitive, and the self-reported electricity savings following the voluntary so-called PFE program support the notion of important information asymmetries at the company level. However, the results display that already in a baseline setting pulp and paper firms tend to invest in private R&D that have electricity saving impacts, and our model simulations suggest that up to about one-third of the industry sector's self-reported electricity savings in PFE could be attributable to pure baseline effects. Future evaluations of voluntary energy efficiency programs must increasingly recognize the already existing incentives to reduce energy use in energy-intensive industries.

  • 9.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Electricity demand and factor substitution in the Swedish mining industry: an econometric approach2009In: 8th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD) and Securing the Future: Mining, Metals & the Environment in a Sustainable Society 2009: Skelleftea, Sweden, 22 - 26 June 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Stenqvist, Christian
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Lund University.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Voluntary energy efficiency programs: an interim evaluation of PFE in Sweden2009In: Energy, policies and technologies for sustainable economies: executive summaries of the 10th IAEE European Conference 7-10 September 2009 in Vienna, Austria / [ed] Reinhard Haas, Cleveland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Henriksson, Eva
    The cost-effectiveness of voluntary energy efficiency programs2008In: Bridging Energy Supply and Demand: Logistics, Competition and Environment: 31st IAEE International Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, June 18 - 20, 2008, IAEE , 2008, Vol. 31, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 12.
    Wårell, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Henriksson, Eva
    Program for improving energy efficiency in Swedish base industries: impact on electricty demand2008In: Bridging Energy Supply and Demand: Logistics, Competition and Environment: 31st IAEE International Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, June 18 - 20, 2008, IAEE , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
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    fulltext
1 - 12 of 12
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