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  • 1. Berglund, Christer
    Burning in moral, drowning in rationality?: Ethical considerations in forming environmental policy2005In: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have experienced an increasing use of both economic and political instruments in attempts to induce households to contribute to sustainable development. However, there is a lack of understanding of how these tools interplay with the motives held by households and the daily constraints they face. The purpose of this paper is to give some anecdotal evidence on how moral motives may affect different policies in force, and to give some insights on how to proceed in designing policy instruments compatible with sustainable household behaviour. I conclude that some households have learned to appreciate the reward of economic incentives, but that we also need to acknowledge that environmental morale may affect the support of such economic instruments.

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  • 2.
    Berglund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Do economic incentives demoralize recycling behavior?2006In: Trends in conservation and recycling of resources, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2006, p. 229-240Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3. Berglund, Christer
    Economic efficiency in waste management and recycling2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers that all deal with economic efficiency issues with respect to recycling behavior and waste management policies. Paper [1] provides an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of inter-country differences in waste paper recovery and utilization rates. The paper concludes that relative waste paper recovery and use depend largely on long-standing economic factors such as population intensity and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. We also find evidence that supports the conjecture that rich countries tend to recover relatively more waste paper than low-income countries, which reflects the higher demand for waste management and environmental policies in more developed economies. As recovery and utilization rates are determined by economic and demographic characteristics the degree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. In particular, an ambitious utilization rate target may be very costly to enforce as it can conflict with existing trade patterns of paper and board products as well as with other environmental goals. Paper [2] builds and extends upon paper [1] and provides a critical analysis of Van Beukering and Bouman’s article in World Development on global paper recycling and trade. We first question their notion that developing countries specialize in waste paper utilization and developed countries in recovery activities primarily because of different patterns of waste paper trade. An increased focus on relative waste paper availability, we argue, provides us with a better understanding of global paper recycling. We also criticize some of the implicit assumptions made in their regression analysis of waste paper utilization rates. In contrast to the approach used by Van Beukering and Bouman our analysis: (a) is consistent with basic microeconomic theory; (b) distinguishes clearly between short- and long-run impacts; and (c) produces results that support our initial conjecture that waste paper availability is the most important determinant of waste paper use. Paper [3] analyzes the spatial cost efficiency of the Swedish legislation regarding waste disposal handling. We focus on the case of corrugated board and recognize that the different counties in Sweden possess different economic prerequisites in terms of waste paper recovery and utilization potential. We employ data for six corrugated board mills and 20 counties and a non-linear programming model to identify the least cost strategy for reaching the politically specified recycling target of a 65 percent recovery rate for corrugated board. That is, the total costs of recovering a minimum of 65 percent in each county are calculated and compared with the case when the country as a whole recovers 65 percent cost effectively. The conclusion is that from an efficiency point of view the recovery efforts should be concentrated to the highly populated and urbanized counties, and not be uniformly divided throughout the country. In the base case the results suggest that the cost efficient county-specific recovery rates should range from 51 percent to 72 percent. Paper [4] analyzes households' perceptions of recycling activities in a municipality in northern Sweden, Piteå. The purposes of the paper are to analyze whether moral motives matter for: (a) the assessment of households' waste sorting costs; and (b) for the efficiency of introducing economic incentives for stimulating households' recycling efforts. We employ an economic model of moral motivation with possible motivation crowding-out and econometric techniques. The empirical results support the notion that moral motives significantly lower the costs associated with household recycling efforts. Specifically, the average hourly willingness to pay to let others sort household waste at source was found to be significantly lower than the corresponding income after tax (i.e., the opportunity cost of time). Furthermore, moral motives can in some cases be the cause of inefficient policy outcomes when introducing economic incentives to promote recycling efforts.

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  • 4. Berglund, Christer
    Economic efficiency issues with respect to recycling behavior and waste management policy2005In: International Journal of Sustainable Development, ISSN 0960-1406, E-ISSN 1741-5268, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 222-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like motherhood and apple pie, recycling is often thought of as an unquestionable 'good'. However, the economic, management and environmental issues involved are complex; there are numerous factors that need to be considered if recycling is to be efficient. The purpose of this paper is to analyse a number of economic efficiency issues with respect to recycling behaviour and waste management policy in a non-technical fashion aimed at an interdisciplinary audience. Among the main findings is that the degree of policy flexibility in affecting recovery and utilisation rates is limited, so additional policy targets are desirable.

  • 5. Berglund, Christer
    Ska vi sortera lika mycket över allt?2004In: Sopor hit och dit: på vinst och förlust, Stockholm: Statens råd för byggnadsforskning , 2004, p. 61-72Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Berglund, Christer
    Spatial cost efficiency in waste paper handling: the case of corrugated board in Sweden2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 367-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the spatial cost efficiency of the Swedish legislation regarding waste disposal handling. We focus on the case of corrugated board and recognize that the different counties in Sweden possess different economic prerequisites in terms of waste paper recovery and utilization potential. We employ data for six corrugated board mills and 20 counties and a non-linear programming model to identify the least cost strategy for reaching the politically specified recycling target of a 65% recovery rate for corrugated board. That is, the total costs of recovering a minimum of 65% in each county are calculated and compared with the case when the country as a whole recovers 65% of all old corrugated board is collected but there exist no uniform target for each county. The conclusion is that from an efficiency point of view the recovery efforts should be concentrated to the highly populated and urbanized counties, and not be uniformly divided throughout the country. In the base case, the results suggest that the cost efficient county-specific recovery rates should range from 51 to 72%.

  • 7. Berglund, Christer
    Spatial issues in economics and econometrics2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers, divided into two parts where the first part considers issues in economics and the second discusses spatial issues in econometrics. In paper [1] the different waste disposal options, with emphasis on recycling and incineration, is examined and evaluated, using earlier research. This paper concludes that the literature reveals a range of results regarding the economics of waste paper recycling and incineration, respectively, and that the conceptual and empirical basis on which to determine efficient waste paper policy is still seriously incomplete. The effort in paper [2] is to identify and analyze determinants of inter-country differences in recovery and utilization rates, respectively. The paper concludes that the degree to which policy can affect these rates are limited since relative waste paper recovery and use are largely market-determined, and consequently depend on long-standing factors such as population density and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. Paper [3] explores the differences in inferences that one would draw from different econometric models in a spatial econometric setting. The study notes that ordinary least squares to a very large extent produce biased estimates due to spatial correlation in the data set. Hence, one would draw very different inferences from ordinary least squares and general spatial model estimates. Finally, paper [4] builds on paper [3] but explores some Bayesian estimation methods, i.e. heteroscedastic models, which take into account non-constant variance or spatial outliers. The data set used in these studies were limited because of censoring. The objective of this paper was to obtain Bayesian estimates that account for outliers and sample censoring. We found that ignoring the spatial autoregressive nature of the data, outliers and sample censoring would produce different inferences than the Bayesian models.

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  • 8.
    Berglund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The assessment of households' recycling costs: the role of personal motives2006In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 560-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes households' perceptions of recycling activities in a municipality in northern Sweden, Piteå. The purpose of the paper is to analyze whether moral motives matter for the assessment of households' waste sorting costs. Data were gathered using a mail-out survey to 850 randomly chosen individuals in the municipality of Piteå, Sweden. We employ an economic model of moral motivation and econometric techniques. The main result that follows from the analysis is that the results support the notion that moral motives significantly lower the costs associated with household recycling efforts.

  • 9. Berglund, Christer
    What the numbers said: recovery and utilization of waste paper2004In: Waste Management World, ISSN 1476-1394, no Nov/Dec, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Berglund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Återvinning och samhällsekonomi2006In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 49-61Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 11. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Elfdahl, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Linhardt, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Why do so few companies list on the Dar es Salaam stock exchange?: an investigaton of the institutional underspinnings2002In: Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, ISSN 1651-9728, Vol. 21, no 3/4, p. 84-103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Höglund-Isaksson, Lena
    Wagner, Fabian
    Klaassen, Ger
    Tohka, Antti
    Winiwarter, Wilfried
    Amann, Markus
    Least cost abatement of greenhouse gases in the Greenhouse & Air pollution Information and Simulation (GAINS) model2005In: Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-4), science, control, policy and implementation: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, NCGG4, Millpress , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Johansson, Tommy
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Jamaican deforestation and bauxite mining: the role of negotiations for sustainable resource use2004In: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bauxite mining is considered to be one of the most significant reasons behind deforestation in Jamaica. During the last decades, large areas of forest have been cleared on the island due to open pit mining for bauxite. Because private landowners own the bauxite land, the operating mining companies are in many cases forced to bargain with the private landowners to obtain access to the desired land. Several economic theories present solutions to the problem of sustainable resource use. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the Coase theorem can be applied to analyze if the deforestation caused by bauxite mining in Jamaica can be amended towards optimal resource management. The paper concludes that there exist no practical obstacles for bargaining to take place. However, since the market for bauxite mining is not characterized by perfect competition, an efficient allocation of the Jamaican forests according to the Coase theorem is not achieved. Yet we find that the antiquated Coase theorem can help us gain knowledge into some fundamental aspects of the prevailing market conditions surrounding Jamaican bauxite mining.

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  • 14. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Klaassen, Ger
    Wagner, Fabian
    The GAINS model for greenhouse gases: Version 1.0: Carbon dioxide (CO2)2005Report (Other academic)
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  • 15. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Citizen and consumer: the dual role of individuals in environmental policy2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the dual role - exemplified by the ideal-types of the consumer and the citizen - individuals' face in contemporary environmental policy. As crowding-out theory highlights the implications of using ‘wrong' incentives or controlling means, examining the match between policy and those value-systems guiding individuals' decision-making process in practice should indeed be a relevant undertaking. Sweden provides the empirical example for the article, in which a text analysis of policy documents is compared with the results of a mail-out survey to 4000 individuals in four different counties. The article finds that external motivations are perceived as being highly relevant for the promotion of ecological sustainability in Sweden and, thus, that the notion of the consumer-role as guiding individuals' behaviour in the environmental field is rather strong. However, at the same time people tend to ascribe the motivational values included in the Self-transcendence cluster (altruism) a far greater importance as guiding principles in life than the opposing values of Self-enhancement (egoism), indicating that the citizen-role indeed is important to account for in policy-making. Hence, clearly there is a mismatch between Sweden's contemporary policy documents and the general value orientation held by Swedish people in general.

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  • 16. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Citizen and consumer: the dual role of individuals in environmental policy2006In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 550-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the dual role – exemplified by the ideal types of the consumer and the citizen – individuals face in the contemporary environmental policy context. As crowding-out theory highlights the implications of using the ‘wrong’ incentives, examining the match between policy and the value systems guiding individuals' decision-making process in practice is a relevant undertaking. Sweden provides the empirical context for the article, in which official environmental policy-discourse in Sweden is compared with the results of a mail-out survey to 4,000 individuals in four different counties. It is suggested that external motivations are perceived as highly relevant for the promotion of ecological sustainability, so the consumer element as a motivating feature of individuals' behaviour in the environmental field is indeed of considerable importance. However, at the same time people tend to ascribe far greater importance to the motivational values included in the self-transcendence cluster (altruism) as guiding principles in life than to the opposing values of self-enhancement (egoism), indicating that the citizen-role is also important to take into account in policy design. It is concluded that there is a mismatch between the content of Sweden's policy documents and the general value orientation held by the Swedish citizenry.

  • 17. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Evaluating new institutional settings: a pilot study of new common property forest in Tanzania1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, ISSN 0280-2791, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the creation of institutions concerned with common forests in an economy in transition, Tanzania. The paper uses a framework developed by Ostrom [1990]. Focusing on successful community-oriented, organized irrigation networks Ostrom defines eight design principles. These eight principles are tools that can be used in evaluating common pool resource systems. The initial experiences of the two villages Duru and Ayasanda help to illustrate how the common forests of the villages will work in the future. In evaluating these forests, using Ostrom's framework, the paper finds that most of the fundamental requirements are fulfilled.

  • 18.
    Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Otterheim, Fredrik
    Sverige och de internationella råvarumarknaderna2007In: Råvarumarknaden, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2007, p. 265-287Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An econometric analysis of global waste paper recovery and utilization2003In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 429-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide aneconometric analysis of the most importantdeterminants of inter-country differences inwaste paper recovery and utilization rates. Byemploying pooled time series and cross-sectiondata over 49 countries worldwide and sevenyears, the paper concludes that relative wastepaper recovery and use depend largely onlong-standing economic factors such aspopulation intensity and competitiveness in theworld market for paper and board products. Wealso find evidence that supports the conjecturethat rich countries tend to recover relativelymore waste paper than is the case in low-incomecountries, reflecting the higher demand forwaste management and environmental policies inmore developed economies. As recovery andutilization rates are determined by economicand demographic characteristics the degree ofpolicy flexibility in affecting these rates maybe limited. In particular, an ambitiousutilization rate target may be very costly toenforce as it can conflict with existing tradepatterns of paper and board products as well aswith other environmental goals. Additionalpolicy targets may therefore be desirable,especially since paper recycling is motivatedprimarily by environmental concerns and seldomis a benign activity in itself.

  • 20. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Complementing empirical evidence on global recycling and trade of waste paper2003In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 743-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comment provides a critical analysis of Van Beukering and Bouman’s [World Development 29 (2001) 1717] article on global paper recycling and trade. We first question their notion that developing countries specialize in waste paper utilization and developed countries in recovery activities primarily because of different patterns of waste paper trade. An increased focus on relative waste paper availability, we argue, provides us with a better understanding of global paper recycling. We also criticize some of the implicit assumptions made in their regression analysis of waste paper utilization rates. An alternative regression model is therefore derived and estimated. In contrast to the approach used by Van Beukering and Bouman our analysis (a) is consistent with basic microeconomic theory; (b) distinguishes clearly between short- and long-run impacts; and (c) produces results that support our initial conjecture that waste paper availability is the most important determinant of waste paper use.

  • 21. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Källsortering i Eskilstuna Kommun: hushållens aktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med insamling efter materialströmmar2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket har utsett Eskilstuna som försökskommun för att testa ett nytt system för avfallshantering. Syftet är att studera hur insamlingen påverkas av att hushållen källsorterar efter materialströmmar till skillnad från idag efter förpackningar. Försöket inbegriper hårdplast och metall och innebär att dessa material utöver alla hårdplast- och metallförpackningar, t ex diskborstar, kastruller, bestick, mm., ska slängas vid återvinningsstationer och/eller i behållare i de fastighetsnära utrymmena. Försöket pågår från september 2007 till september 2008. Ett viktigt mål är att ett eventuellt nytt system baserat på materialströmmar ska vara lättillgängligt och betraktas som legitimt utifrån hushållens synvinkel. Syftet med denna rapport är att göra en så kallad "nollmätning", dvs. en undersökning av hushållens källsorteringsaktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med materialinsamling. Resultaten bygger på en postenkät som skickades ut i augusti 2007 till 798 hushåll i de bostadsområden i Eskilstuna som omfattas av försöket. Undersökningen inbegriper hushållens erfarenheter av och attityder gentemot källsorteringen i Eskilstuna i stort, men speciellt utrymme ges åt hushållens källsortering av avfall baserat på metall och hårdplast.

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  • 22. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-up energy models2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1344-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aimed at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options—which is absent in many top-down models—they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they often fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector as well as the energy sector's endogenous responses to policy, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to the energy sector). Some suggestions on how innovation and diffusion modeling in bottom-up analysis can be improved are put forward.

  • 23. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-upenergy models2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and acritical analysis of the recent literature on incorporatinginduced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasisis put on surveying recent studies aiming at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-calledlearning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curveanalysis for understanding the process of innovation and technologydiffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this modelwork represents a major advance in energy research, and embedsimportant policy implications, not the least concerning the costand the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emissionconstraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenouslearning are also limited in their characterization of technologydiffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed accountof technical options - which is absent in many top-down models -they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that arecaptured in top-down representations. For instance, they fall incapturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energysector, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts(such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to theenergy sector). For these reasons bottom-up and top-down modelswith induced technical change should not be viewed as substitutes but rather as complements.

  • 24. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish Competition Authority.
    A note on inter-country differences in waste paper recovery and utilization2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries worldwide express waste paper recycling targets in terms of recovery and utilization rates. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the most important determinants of inter-country differences in these waste paper rates. By employing two regression models and using data for 89 and 81 countries, respectively, the paper concludes that relative waste paper recovery and use are largely market-determined, and depend thus on long-standing economic factors such as population intensity and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. We also find evidence that supports the conjecture that rich countries tend to recover relatively more waste paper than is the case in low-income countries, reflecting the higher demand for waste management and environmental policies in more developed economies. As recovery and utilization rates are determined largely by long-standing economic and demographic characteristics the degree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. In particular, an ambitious utilization rate target may be very costly to enforce as it can conflict with existing trade patterns of paper and board products as well as with other environmental goals. Additional policy targets may, therefore, be desirable, especially since paper recycling is motivated primarily by environmental concerns and seldom is a benign activity in itself.

  • 25. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Sandberg, Krister
    SIKA.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Household plastic waste collection in Swedish municipalities: a spatial-econometric approach2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of spatial econometric methods based on cross-sectional data for 282 Swedish municipalities in 2005. The empirical results suggest that the collection of plastic packaging is positively related to collection in neighboring municipalities. The analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which volume-based fees are used. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations, both measures that facilitate recycling efforts by creating the infrastructural and logistic mechanisms that enable people to translate their motivation into recycling action, provide important explanations for why some municipalities perform better than others. Overall the impacts on collection outcomes of a number of important regional cost variables, such as distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density, turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. An important explanation for this is that the (fixed) monetary compensations from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs in Sweden vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be performed in a cost ineffective manner.

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  • 26. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Norms and economic motivation in household recycling: empirical evidence from Sweden2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of recycling efforts in Swedish households, and focuses on the case of packaging waste (i.e., paper, glass, plastic, and metal). The analysis builds on a theoretical framework that integrates norm-motivated behavior into a simple economic model of household choice by assuming that the individuals have preferences for maintaining a self-image as morally responsible, and thus norm-compliant, persons. A postal survey was sent out randomly to 2800 households in four different Swedish municipalities, and in the paper self-reported information on recycling rates at the household level is analyzed in an ordered probit regression framework. The results indicate that both economic and moral motives influence inter-household recycling rates. Specifically, convenience matters in the sense that property-close collection in multi-family dwelling houses leads to higher collection rates. The strength of moral (self-enforced) norms explains a large part of the variation across households, but the importance of such norms in driving recycling efforts partly diminishes if improved collection infrastructure makes it easier for households to recycle. Recycling rates at the household level are also positively influenced by the felt ability to favourably affect environmental outcomes as well as by others' recycling efforts. The paper discusses a number of policy implications that follow from the empirical results.

  • 27. Klaassen, Ger
    et al.
    Amann, Markus
    Berglund, Christer
    The extension of the RAINS model to greenhouse gases2004Report (Other academic)
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  • 28.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Hushållens konsumtionsmönster under femtio år: statlig inverkan och de strukturella kontexterna2009In: Hållbara hushåll: Miljöpolitik och ekologisk hållbarhet i vardagen : Slutrapport till Naturvårdsverket från forskningsprogrammet SHARP, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket, 2009, p. 28-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
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