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  • 1.
    Borris, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Future trends in urban stormwater quality: effects of changes in climate, catchment characteristics and processes and socio-economic factors2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and progressing urbanization cause numerous environmental concerns, including the impacts on urban drainage. Such impacts were addressed during the last two decades with focus on hydraulic overloading of drainage systems and the means of overload remediation by stormwater management. However, modern urban drainage also serves to provide and protect broad environmental services chiefly by controlling stormwater quality. During the past 40 years, a sizeable investment has been made in urban drainage systems to improve stormwater quality and protect receiving water ecosystems. Such investments are at risks, because of impaired performance of stormwater quality controls now and in the future for the following reasons: (i) Hydraulic and Pollution overloading (ii) the aging of stormwater management systems and (iii) insufficient attention paid to socio-economic issues. The primary objectives of the thesis that follows is to address the above issues by examining future trends in stormwater quality and the influential factors affecting these trends. Trends in urban stormwater quality, in response to projected changes in the climate, urban catchments and their drainage systems, and environmental practices and policies, were studied by systematically describing these changes by a set of scenarios, which were then applied to several test catchments in simulations with two well-established computer models of urban drainage (US EPA SWMM and WinSLAMM). In runoff simulations, stormwater quality was described Total suspended solids (TSS) and three heavy metals, namely Cu, Pb and Zn. The assessment of uncertainties in the simulation process and potential changes in sewer pipe materials further inspired two additional studies: Potential improvements in modelling trace metal transport and control by clarifying the role of coarse sediments on road surfaces, and water quality implications of using sewer pipes made from three different materials. Simulations with up-scaled rainfall data produced changes in stormwater quality, depending on the type of storm events. Generally pollutant loads increased due to climate changes characterized by higher depths and intensities of rainfall in future scenarios. Storms with low to intermediate depths and intensities showed the highest sensitivities to climatic changes, because runoff producing areas increased with higher storm intensities (i.e., leading to contributions of pervious areas), and sufficient pollutant supplies on catchment surfaces; for high intensity events, such supplies were quickly exhausted. TSS loads exported from catchments with low imperviousness were most sensitive to climatic changes, but the magnitudes of TSS loads were low compared to those from catchments with high imperviousness. Furthermore, potential changes in catchment characteristics and drainage systems were identified to be of importance. Future scenarios combining changes in climate and socio-economic factors showed that the impacts on stormwater quality caused by climatic changes were smaller than those caused by changes in socio-economic factors. However, future urbanization impacts on stormwater quality could be controlled by incorporating modern stormwater management measures in future catchments. Simulations of such controls indicated that they were highly effective in protecting the stormwater quality. Finally it was noted that the two applied computer models produced somewhat different results and high uncertainties when assessing the future stormwater quality. This was due to their different descriptions of the underlying processes. Hence, it was desirable to examine the feasibility of improving stormwater quality modelling, particularly with respect to heavy metals. During laboratory experiments coarse particles were identified to potentially release significant amounts of heavy metals (mostly in the particulate bound phase) during runoff events. Site/runoff event specific factors (e.g., traffic intensity and street sweeping routines) and characteristics of the particles (i.e. organic content) were identified as influential factors affecting the release of heavy metals. This finding may help improve the description of pollutant transport processes in stormwater quality models. Laboratory experiments showed that various pipe materials (PVC, concrete and corrugated steel) affected the stormwater quality differently, depending on the characteristics of the stormwater used in experiments. The concrete pipe contributed to increase pH of the transported stormwater. Metal concentrations were mostly unaffected in the PVC pipe, decreased in the concrete pipe (due to particle deposition and metal adsorption to the pipe surface), and while Zn concentrations increased in the corrugated steel pipe due to elution, Cu and Pb concentrations were reduced (due to particle deposition in the corrugations). Since the impact of climatic changes on stormwater quality was relatively small compared to changes in socio-economic factors, future efforts to maintain or improve stormwater quality should focus on implementing pollutant abatement strategies, including implementation of well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment measures.

  • 2.
    Borris, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Influential factors in simulations of future urban stormwater quality: Climate change, progressing urbanization and environmental policies2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is regarded as one of the main future challenges implyingchanging hydrological conditions in urban areas. At the same time many urbanareas are expected to grow due to increasing population, which will most likelycause a higher level of urbanization. Combined effects of climatic changes andprogressing urbanization will have an impact on the abundance of pollutantsand the capacity for their transport. Due to this it is most likely that stormwaterquality will change as well. Effects of climatic changes, progressingurbanization and changing environmental policies on urban stormwater qualitywere studied by means of computer simulations for different test catchments inSweden. Scenarios accounting for such changes were developed and simulatedwith the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), in which stormwaterquality was described by total suspended solids (TSS) and two heavy metals,namely copper and zinc. The simulation results showed that pollutant loadsdepended mainly on rainfall depth and intensity, but not on antecedent periods.Storms with low to intermediate depths and intensities showed the highestsensitivities to climatic changes and the reason for that was the contribution ofpervious areas and pollutant supply limited conditions. Catchments with lowimperviousness were most sensitive to climatic changes, but the total TSSloads were low compared to catchments with high imperviousness. Generallypollutant loads increased due to climatic changes characterized by higherdepths and intensities of rainfall in future scenarios. Furthermore stormwaterquality changed significantly for scenarios considering a progressingurbanization. A changing catchment area and impervious fraction caused highchanges in runoff volumes and pollutant loads. Thus changes in suchcatchment characteristics were identified as the most influential factors; inmost of the cases changes caused by climate change were exceeded.Environmental policies, as for example the reduction of directly connectedimpervious areas were effective in reducing runoff volumes and consequentlypollutant loads. Furthermore pollutant source controls, including materialsubstitution, were identified to be an effective tool for reducing pollutant loadsand improving stormwater quality. Generally changes produced by climaticchanges were small compared to the effects of changes in land use and this hasimplications for the management of stormwater quality.

  • 3.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Continuous simulations of urban stormwater runoff and total suspended solids loads: influence of varying climatic inputs and catchment imperviousness2014In: Journal of Water and Climate, ISSN 2040-2244, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 593-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential implications of climate change for future stormwater management were addressed by undertaking continuous simulations of runoff and total suspended solids (TSS) loads for three urban catchments, with imperviousness varying from 23 to 63%, which were exposed to five rainfall regimes during the snow-free part of the year: the current climate and four climate change scenarios projecting higher rainfalls. Simulated runoff volumes increased in all the future scenarios, particularly in the sub-arctic climate and the fixed uplift scenario (plus20) indicating appreciable rainfall increases. Simulated runoff volumes increased depending on the projected increases in rainfall and increasing runoff contributions from pervious areas when more intense future rainfalls exceeded hydrologic abstractions. The increased runoff volumes then contributed higher TSS loads, which were highly variable for the rainfall regimes tested. In cold climate regions, residues of solids from winter road maintenance may contribute to high initial accumulations of TSS on the catchment surface and high washed off loads. In general, the study suggests that intermediate design-life stormwater management facilities require flexible design allowing for future step-wise adaptation by gradually increasing design capacities and modifying treatment trains.

  • 4.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Source-based modeling of stormwater quality response to projected future changes in climatic and socio-economic factors2015In: Urban Drainage Modelling 2015: Poster presentations : Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Urban Drainage Modelling, Mont-Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada 20-23 Swptember 2015 / [ed] Thomas Maere; Sovanna Tik; Sophie Duchense; Peter A. Vanrolleghem, 2015, p. 73-78Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors2016In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 223-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  • 6.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada.
    Modelling the effects of changes in rainfall event characteristics on TSS loads in urban runoff2014In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1787-1796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of changes in rainfall event characteristics on urban stormwater quality, which was described by total suspended solids (TSS), was studied by means of computer simulations conducted with the Storm Water Management Model for a climate change scenario for northern Sweden. The simulation results showed that TSS event loads depended mainly on rainfall depth and intensity, but not on antecedent conditions. Storms with low-to-intermediate depths and intensities showed the highest sensitivity to changes in rainfall input, both for percentage and absolute changes in TSS wash-off loads, which was explained by the contribution of pervious areas and supply limitations. This has significant implications for stormwater management, because those relatively frequent events generally carry a high percentage of the annual pollutant load

  • 7.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Simulating future trends in urban stormwater quality for changing climate, urban land use and environmental controls2013In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 2082-2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of climatic changes, progressing urbanization and improved environmental controls on the simulated urban stormwater quality in a northern Sweden community were studied. Future scenarios accounting for those changes were developed and their effects simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). It was observed that the simulated stormwater quality was highly sensitive to the scenarios, mimicking progressing urbanization with varying catchment imperviousness and area. Thus, land use change was identified as one of the most influential factors and in some scenarios, urban growth caused changes in runoff quantity and quality exceeding those caused by a changing climate. Adaptation measures, including the reduction of directly connected impervious surfaces (DCIS) through the integration of more green spaces into the urban landscape, or disconnection of DCIS were effective in reducing runoff volume and pollutant loads. Furthermore, pollutant source control measures, including material substitution, were effective in reducing pollutant loads and significantly improving stormwater quality

  • 8.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Using urban runoff simulations for addressing climate change impacts on urban runoff quality in a Swedish town2012In: Urban Drainage Modelling: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, Belgrade, Serbia, 4-6 September 2012, Belgrade: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of climate change on urban stormwater quality was studied by means of computer simulations conducted with the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) for common climate change scenarios developed for northern Sweden. The simulation results showed that stormwater quality depended on rainfall characteristics; a climate scenario implying increased rainfall depths and intensities produced higher pollutant loads carried by stormwater, but reduced concentrations, particularly for medium to high intensity storm events. This type of stormwater quality response was explained by pollutant supply limited transport processes and the resulting dilution of such pollutants. Medium intensity events showed the highest sensitivity to climatic changes, since such events strongly affected the contributions of pervious surfaces. This has significant implications for stormwater management, because those relatively frequent events generally carry a high percentage of the annual pollutant load.

  • 9.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    An exploratory study of the effects of stormwater pipeline materials on transported stormwater quality2017In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implications of three sewer pipe materials (concrete, galvanized corrugated steel, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) for stormwater quality were explored in laboratory experiments, in which three types of stormwater, SW1-SW3, were circulated in 0.5 m long sewer pipe sections. SW1 and SW2 represented synthetic rainwater, without and with fine street sediment added (CTSS = 150 mg/L), respectively, and SW3 was actual stormwater with the same sediment addition as SW2. Following 20-min runs, with an equivalent distance of 500 m travelled by water particles, a number of statistically significant changes in the stormwater chemistry were observed: (i) pH of all the simulated stormwaters increased in the concrete pipe (from 7.0-7.3 to 8.1-9.3), (ii) turbidity decreased in two stormwaters with sediments (SW2 and SW3) in concrete and galvanized corrugated steel pipes (by 50 and 85%, respectively), (iii) the type of stormwater affected the observed copper (Cu) concentrations, with Cudiss concentrations as high as 25.3 μg/L noted in SW3 passing through the PVC pipe, and (iv) zinc (Zn) concentrations sharply increased (Zntot = 759-1,406 μg/L, Zndiss = 670-1,400 μg/L) due to Zn elution from the galvanized steel pipe by all three stormwaters. Such levels exceeded the applicable environmental guidelines.

  • 10.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Contribution of coarse particles from road surfaces to dissolved and particle-bound heavy metal loads in runoff: A laboratory leaching study with synthetic stormwater2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 212-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory leaching experiments were performed to study the potential of coarse street sediments (i.e. > 250 μm) to release dissolved and particulate-bound heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) during rainfall/runoff. Towards this end, street sediments were sampled by vacuuming at seven sites in five Swedish cities and the collected sediments were characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. In the laboratory, the sediments were combined with synthetic rainwater and subject to agitation by a shaker mimicking particle motion during transport by runoff from street surfaces. As a result of such action, coarse street sediments were found to release significant amounts of heavy metals, which were predominantly (up to 99%) in the particulate bound phase. Thus, in dry weather, coarse street sediments functioned as collectors of fine particles with attached heavy metals, but in wet weather, metal burdens were released by rainfall/runoff processes. The magnitude of such releases depended on the site characteristics (i.e. street cleaning and traffic intensity), particle properties (i.e. organic matter content), and runoff characteristics (pH, and the duration of, and energy input into, sediment/water agitation). The study findings suggest that street cleaning, which preferentially removes coarser sediments, may produce additional environmental benefits by also removing fine contaminated particles attached to coarser materials

  • 11.
    Viklander, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Müller, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Borris, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Kunskapssammanställning: Dagvattenkvalitet2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes stormwater pollutants, their sources, concentrations, and variations in concentrations. Practical guidance for field data collection, adoption of standard data from the literature and computer modelling are given. Furthermore, the effects on health, the environment and society, and associated regulations are discussed.

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