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  • 1.
    Bal, Anjali S.
    et al.
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Styvén, Maria Ek
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    You know you've got to, express yourself: A comparative study of self-expression through brand, women in six Asian nations2015In: The Sustainable Global Marketplace: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing Science, Coral Gables, FL USA May 24-27, 2011 / [ed] Mary Conway, Cham: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 165-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers express themselves in a multitude of ways; one expression mechanism is brand consumption. Self-expression can be an important driver of consumer preference and choice. Despite the importance of self-expression, additional research is needed as to how brands are used as a means of self-expression. Previous studies indicate that the importance of brands for self-expression can differ across cultures. This study explores how female consumers in six Asian nations differ in the extent to which they express themselves through the use of their favorite brands.

  • 2.
    Bal, Anjali S.
    et al.
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Styvén, Maria Ek
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    You know you've got to, express yourself: A comparative study of self-expression through brand, women in six Asian nations2011In: The Sustainable Global Marketplace: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing Science, Coral Gables, FL USA May 24-27, 2011 / [ed] Mary Conway, The Academy of Marketing Science, 2011, p. 165-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers express themselves in a multitude of ways; one expression mechanism is brand consumption. Self-expression can be an important driver of consumer preference and choice. Despite the importance of self-expression, additional research is needed as to how brands are used as a means of self-expression. Previous studies indicate that the importance of brands for self-expression can differ across cultures. This study explores how female consumers in six Asian nations differ in the extent to which they express themselves through the use of their favorite brands.

  • 3.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Bentley University Waltham.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Campbell, Colin
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    (Un)believable blogs: Blogs, Skepticism and Product Reviews2010In: New Directions, New Insights: Conference Proceedings, GFA 2010, Fourth German-French-Austrian Conference on Quantitative Marketing, Vienna, September 16-18, 2010, p. 85-86Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blogs (short for "web logs") are websites, owned and written by individuals ("bloggers"). While most blogs serve merely as a way for individuals to record and report their thoughts and activities and have little commercial or organizational impact whatsoever, a smaller number enable those with more expertise to commentate on advanced and specialized phenomena, subjects, industries, products, and services. In doing so they reach very large audiences and become very influential. Blogs have become important marketing communication devices in recent years, because, used effectively, they can be very helpful relationship management tools. Blogger credibility in particular is of crucial importance from a communication perspective -recent research has demonstrated strongly that blogger credibility plays a positive role in relational trust. It begins to answer the issue: to what extent are readers skeptical about the content of blogs? This is an important question, because, if general skepticism is low, then blogs will prove to be effective ways of communicating with broad publics. If it is high, then marketing communicators need to factor this into their use of blogs as tools of communication and persuasion. In this research, a scale to measure advertising skepticism (STA) is adapted to a blogging context. Belief in a communication is a function of the both the source of that communication (source credibility) and the specific content of the communication (content credibility). Because the STA scale focuses primarily on the informational aspect of advertising, we integrate this into a more generalizable causal model of skepticism toward blogging. We argue that an individual's overall skepticism toward blogs impacts on their skepticism toward the information contained in blogs, and the extent to which they believe blogs are credible. This in turn influences the frequency with which they then read blogs. This structure is then tested empirically.

  • 4.
    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Believing the bloggers: some implications of consumer skepticism for PR professionals2010In: Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, ISSN 1440-4389, E-ISSN 1839-8227, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 79-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online blogs, specifically those that offer reviews of products, services and technologies, increasingly attract interest among practitioners of public relations as well as academic scholars. While the literature has addressed the significance of blogs as a public relations tool, limited research has been devoted to the responses of blog readers. This paper focuses on the extent to which online consumers exhibit scepticism towards these blogs. We validated a scepticism scale traditionally employed in advertising research to understand consumer scepticism towards blogs. The survey amongst Australian online consumers confirmed the relationship between selected demographics and blog reader scepticism.

  • 5.
    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Heerden, Gene van
    Trustworthiness of product review blogs: a source trustworthiness scale validation2012In: African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 1993-8233, E-ISSN 1993-8233, Vol. 6, no 25, p. 7498-7508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the introduction of Web 2.0, online blogging has established its place in the lexicon of public relations management. Especially blogs that offer reviews of products, services and technologies, have become essential to practitioners of public relations in their dialogue with the market place. From a public relations perspective, this paper addresses the source trustworthiness of product review blogs among online consumers, and whether consumer demographics have a significant impact on their level of trust. This paper reports the adaptation of a scale to measure the construct of source trustworthiness in the context of blogs. The results of a survey among 169 Australian online consumers confirmed the validity of the scale in the blogging context. Findings suggest that while source trustworthiness does not appear to be strongly related to either gender or level of education, younger consumers exhibit higher levels of source trustworthiness. Managerial implications are drawn from these findings and avenues for future research are identified.

  • 6. Halvorson, Wade S.
    et al.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Brand community as a strategy for conquering virtual worlds2009In: Proceedings: ANZMAC Annual Conference, Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Nel, Deon
    et al.
    Flinders Business School, Flinders University, Adelaide.
    Heerden, Gene van
    Chan, Anthony
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Halvorson, Wade
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eleven years of scholarly research in the Journal of Services Marketing2011In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The publication of papers in scholarly journals is an important channel for the dissemination of academic knowledge. Analyzing academic content provides useful insights into how services marketing evolves over a selected time frame. The purpose of this paper is to determine key trends published in the Journal of Services Marketing during the recent 11-year period from 1998 to 2008. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a content analysis of the papers published in the Journal of Services Marketing during the period 1998-2008. A total of 417 papers, excluding book reviews, were analyzed. Descriptive statistics provide an overview of the research contributions. Findings: The main finding is that most of the papers published in the Journal of Services Marketing during the recent 11-year period are researchbased papers. Other findings include a trend towards co-authorship, the use of surveys and empirical data, adults as research subjects, factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and analysis of variance as the most popular statistical techniques. Based on a keyword analysis most papers are related to service quality and customer service. Practical implications: Researchers who wish to publish in this journal can use the findings as a guideline in preparing for their submission. The study gives an overview of the types of papers published in this journal. The analysis also shows that there is no preference for a particular topic for publication which stimulates new and varied contribution from researchers. Originality/value: This is the first content analysis conducted of the scholarly contribution to this journal that shows the trends in services research topics

  • 8. Pitt, Leyland F.
    et al.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Chakrabarti, R
    Financial services and viewer response profiles: psychometric properties of a shortened scale2011In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 16, no 3-4, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schlinger's Viewer Response Profile is a widely used tool in advertising research, in both commercial and academic environments. It is used in ad testing to gauge viewer reactions to television commercials. Initial research on its psychometric properties was critical of the scale; however, more recent work using more sophisticated statistical techniques and larger, more realistic, samples has been much more complimentary. This article reports on the use of a shorter version of the Schlinger scale to test financial services advertisements. The findings generally indicate that the scale can be used with confidence in that environment, and that the shorter scale generally performed well. The limitations of the study are acknowledged, managerial implications are discussed, and avenues for future research are identified.

  • 9.
    Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Parent, M.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Bentley University, Waltham.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Aha! Research, Hong Kong.
    Event sponsorship and ambush marketing: lessons from the Beijing olympics2010In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponsorship of large sporting and cultural events has become a major marketing communication tool, particularly when firms obtain exclusive rights and garner the hype associated with this honor. Concomitantly, ambush marketing-defined as attempts by competitors to exploit the event-has also increased in prominence. This article outlines what is known as the Li Ning affair, whereby major Olympic sponsor Adidas was ambushed by lesser-known Chinese sportswear company Li Ning, whose namesake founder was the most decorated Chinese Olympian and who lit the Olympic flame at the 2008 Beijing Olympiad. Data collected immediately following the closing of the Beijing Games isolates what we call the Li Ning effect-or, being incorrectly identified as an official sponsor-and the positive effects this has on measures of brand attitude and recommendation likelihood. As presented herein, seven lessons about ambush marketing can be derived from the Li Ning affair, which sponsors and those considering sponsorship opportunity might wish to learn.

  • 10.
    Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Parent, Michael
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Berthon, Pierre
    McCallum Graduate School of Business, Bentley University.
    Money, Arthur
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    The social media release as a corporate communications tool for bloggers2011In: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, ISSN 0361-1434, E-ISSN 1558-1500, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 122-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the impact of a new communications tool, the Social Media Release (SMR), on bloggers. Specifically we seek to determine what factors will influence bloggers' intents to use SMRs or their components. Our global survey of 332 bloggers finds that bloggers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the SMR, and the use of SMRs by companies positively affect their decisions to use SMRs now and in the future. We also find that bloggers' current use of SMRs influences their decisions to continue using SMRs. Implications on the use of SMRs as corporate communications tools are drawn.

  • 11. Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Steyn, Peter
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Heerden, Gene van
    Terblanche, N.
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Consumer skepticism and blogs: implications for marketing communicators2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Online brand relationship building: Asia pacific perspectives2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology is empowering consumers through the availability of information, interactivity of online communication tools, and the connectivity with others. The newly empowered consumer is a co-creator of brand communications and is rapidly developing a sense of co-ownership in brands. Consumers are increasingly imposing themselves on the marketing function leaving many practitioners perplexed and unsure about how to respond. This thesis reports on five studies conducted to address specific challenges to marketers. The proactive marketer needs to respond to the adjustment in the marketing equilibrium by initiating and sustaining a meaningful dialogue with the marketplace. It was found that to initiative online brand communications, bloggers and event sponsorship can be effective means, but both have specific requirements and sponsorship is subject to ambush marketing. Consumers may respond to brands by creating their own online brand content which has a source-effect on online advertising. As consumer's brand communications rely on their relationships with the brand, the use of brands as means of self-expression is investigated.

  • 13.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Online recommendation as the ultimate yardstick to measure sponsorship effectiveness2009In: Journal of Sponsorship, ISSN 1754-1360, E-ISSN 1754-1379, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 316-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponsorship measurement traditionally placed much emphasis on ‘visibility' measurements; however, standard measures of brand awareness, recall and recognition are borrowed from conventional advertising research. These measures may be insufficient to measure sponsorship effectiveness in the digital age as they do not themselves serve to facilitate an understanding of the consumer's online engagement with sponsor brands. Absent has been a measurement of the extent to which consumers will promote, or demote, the sponsor brand through online social media. This paper explores the applicability of brand recommendation as a measurement of the effectiveness of sponsorship-linked marketing activities in the digital age. It further explores the effect of sponsor brand recognition on brand recommendation and brand image.

  • 14. Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Ewing, Michael T.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Windisch, Lydia
    Heerden, Gene van
    University of Pretoria.
    From whence it came: Understanding source effects in consumer generated advertising2011In: International Journal of Advertising, ISSN 0265-0487, E-ISSN 1759-3948, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 133-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web 2.0 technologies are empowering consumers to co-produce online brand communications and thereby co-create brand meaning. As both consumers and marketers are increasingly using video-sharing websites to showcase their brand communication efforts, viewers of these ads are inadvertently becoming part of the co-production process as they create context around the ads (in the forms of reviews, comments and ratings). The environment in which such online advertisements are viewed has significant effects on consumer perceptions of the ad message, and ultimately impacts the persuasive properties and efficacy of the ad. This study reports on research conducted to test the source effects of consumer-generated advertising. Schlinger's Viewer Response Profile (VRP) is used to assess the impact of three source variables: ad creator, ad popularity and motivation for creation of the ad. Findings confirm the importance of popularity ratings on consumer ad evaluation, and also suggest that certain source effects result in consumers being more critical in their evaluation of the ads

  • 15.
    Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Heerden, Gene van
    Pitt, Leyland
    Boshoff, Christo
    Meet the bloggers: some characteristics of serious bloggers in the Asia-Pacific region and why PR professionals might care about them2008In: Public Relations Quarterly, ISSN 0033-3700, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Strasheim, Arien
    University of Pretoria.
    Boshoff, Christo
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Abratt, Russell
    Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship.
    A cross-cultural study of the perceived benefits of a retailer loyalty scheme in Asia2010In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 355-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore loyalty, loyalty schemes, and loyalty cards, as well as the internationalisation of loyalty schemes. We focus on loyalty schemes in Asia to define the primary objective of our study: to assess the impact of perceived benefits on the feelings of participants of a specific retailer's loyalty scheme, as well as customer loyalty towards the retailer. A literature review of loyalty schemes and loyalty cards is undertaken as well as the internationalisation of these cards. A survey was conducted in five Asian countries in which Toys'R'Us operates, namely Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Thailand. Data was collected among members of the Toys'R'Us Star Card loyalty programme. Structural equation modelling was used to build a model that can be used to explain the simultaneous structural relations between perceived benefits, emotional feelings, and loyalty behaviours. Invariance testing was applied in order to test whether the model holds across the five countries. Our findings suggest that perceived benefits have a weak direct effect on loyalty behaviours. However, perceived benefits have a much stronger effect on feelings, which in turn have a strong effect on loyalty behaviours. We also found subtle differences between the countries in the study, which could either be attributed to cultural differences, to marketing practices, or to both, which can only be ascertained through further research.

  • 17. Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Parent, Michael
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Berthon, Pierre
    The social media release as a public relations tool: intentions to use among B2B bloggers2010In: Public Relations Review, ISSN 0363-8111, E-ISSN 1873-4537, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 87-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Social Media Release (SMR) is emerging as a potentially powerful public relations tool in a world of social network media, particularly when targeted at influential bloggers. The research described here studies the factors that influence bloggers to use SMRs, using the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical framework, concentrating specifically on their perceptions of usefulness and ease of use.

  • 18. Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Consumer-generated content and source effects in financial services advertising: an experimental study2010In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although advertising has previously been under the control of organizations and their advertising agencies, recent advances in technology have seen the emergence of what has come to be known as ‘consumer-generated advertising' . Consumers are now creating their own ads for the brands they love and hate, using inexpensive software and powerful personal computers, and then distributing these via social networks such as YouTube. The consequences for traditional advertisers are profound. Although services marketing scholars have begun to pay attention to this phenomenon, little is known about the source effects of these types of ads, for example whether viewers think they were created by firms, or consumers like themselves. This article describes a series of experiments designed to test source effects in the context of consumer-generated ads in a fi nancial services context, in which it is found that some source effects are present. Implications for marketers as well as future research directions are identified.

  • 19.
    Wallström, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Steyn, Peter
    Pitt, Leyland
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Expressing herself through brands: a comparative study of women in six Asia-Pacific nations2010In: Journal of Brand Management, ISSN 1350-231X, E-ISSN 1479-1803, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 228-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers express themselves through the brands they desire, purchase and consume. Self-expression, therefore, can be an important driver of consumer preferences and choices. Despite the importance, few multi-country comparative studies have examined how people use brands to express themselves, although there are indications that the importance of brands for self-expression differs across cultures. This study investigates whether female consumers, on average, in six Asia-Pacific nations differ in the extent to which they express themselves in using their favorite brand of beauty care products. We conducted an email survey, which shows that the importance of these brands as a vehicle of self-expression differs significantly across the six countries, and three clusters could be found. Women in India, China and the Philippines, on average, perceived these brands as more important for self-expression than women in Malaysia, Japan and Australia. Women in Japan and Australia, on average, perceived these brands as less important for self-expression than Malaysian women. We discuss whether economic similarities between the countries can explain these results, which could indicate a high negative correlation between brand expression and wealth. We also consider cultural differences across countries in the form of power distance and uncertainty avoidance as a possible explanation

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