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  • 1.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Audio level alignment: Evaluation method and performance of EBU R 128 by analyzing fader movements2013In: 134th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2013: Rome; Italy; 4 May 2013 - 7 May 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, p. 724-735Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed for evaluating audio meters in terms of how the engineer acts with the fader as dependent on the meter and corresponding recommendation at hand. The proposed method is used to evaluate different meter implementations, three conforming to the recommendation EBU R 128 and one conforming to EBU Tech 3205-E. In an experiment, engineers participated in a simulated live broadcast show and the resulting fader movements were recorded. The movements were analyzed in terms of different characteristics: Mean fader level, Fader variability and Fader movement. Significant effects were found showing that engineers do act differently depending on the meter and recommendation at hand. The method was found useful and may complement other methods to give more perspectives when evaluating audio meters

  • 2.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Evaluating Live Loudness Meters from Engineers' Actions and Resulting Output Levels2018In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554, Vol. 66, no 7-8, p. 556-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualities of loudness meters were investigated by running a simulated live broadcast show, mixed by subjects with different degrees of audio engineering experience. The subject-induced fader movements and the resulting output levels were analyzed using a general linear mixed model and then interpreted according to a proposed set of quality criteria for live loudness meters. The results show that, for subparts of the program. meters with slower integration lime caused less dispersion of the resulting output levels and a smaller error to a given target level. The varying integration tunes of the meters did not cause any significant differences in reaction time. It is concluded that this type of data may be used in evaluation of loudness meters and the specific study provides insight into the effect of time scales and meter implementation for EBU R 128-compliant meters.

  • 3.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Evaluation criteria for live loudness meters2015In: 137th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2014: Los Angeles, California, USA 9-12 October 2014., Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2015, p. 866-878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a response to discrepancies in loudness levels in broadcast, the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union and the European Broadcasting Union state that audio levels should be regulated based on loudness measurement. These recommendations differ regarding the definition of meter ballistics for live loudness meters, and this paper seeks to identify possible additional information, needed to attain a higher conformity between the recommendations. This work suggests that the qualities we seek in a live loudness meter could be more differentiated for different time scales (i.e. Momentary and Short-term that is defined by two different integration times), and therefore also should be evaluated by different evaluation criteria.

  • 4.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Evaluation of loudness meters using parameterization of fader movements2014In: Audio Engineering Society Convention 135, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2014, p. 652-662Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EBU recommendation R 128 regarding loudness normalization, is now generally accepted and countries in Europe are adopting the new recommendation. There is now need to know more about how and when to use the different meter modes, Momentary and Short term, proposed in R 128, as well as to understand how different implementations of R 128 in audio level meters affect the engineers' actions. A method is tentatively proposed for evaluating the performance of audio level meters in live broadcasts. The method was used to evaluate different meter implementations, three of them conforming to the recommendation from EBU, R 128. In an experiment, engineers adjusted audio levels in a simulated live broadcast show and the resulting fader movements were recorded. The movements were parameterized into "Fader movement", "Adjustment time", "Overshoot", etc. Results show that the proposed parameters produced significant differences caused by the meters and that the experience of the engineer operating the fader is a significant factor

  • 5.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Evaluation of the Momentary Time Scale for Live Loudness Metering2020In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 193-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different ballistic definitions for the momentary time scale used in live loudness measurement were evaluated. Definitions from the ITU and EBU were compared as well as a faster version of the ITU version, two asymmetric time scales and the deprecated ballistics, defined in EBU Tech 3205-E, for peak program meters. The goal was to identify the ballistics definition that would function as the best complementary tool to a short-term time scale. Engineers within the broadcast industry and students in audio technology performed an audio alignment task in a simulated live broadcast environment using one ballistics definition per trial. Fader movements and output levels were recorded. After each trial, a set of assessment scales were rated by the subjects. Some results were: a decay time constant of 250 ms yielded better representation of the low-level parts of the dynamics in the signal compared to a 400-ms time constant; the present ITU version of the momentary time scale yielded an estimated less eye fatigue; effects on the resulting output levels, related the gate in ITU-R BS.1770 in conjunction with live compensation of unadjusted audio material were shown.

  • 6.
    Begnert, Fabian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Ekman, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Difference between the EBU R-128 meter recommendation and human subjective loudness perception2012In: 131st Audio Engineering Society convention 2011: New York, New York, USA, 20 - 23 October 2011, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2012, Vol. 1, p. 40-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast loudness span of broadcast sound can be reduced by the use of loudness meters. In an ideal case, the measured and the perceived loudness would be equal. A loudness meter fulfilling the EBU R-128 recommendation was investigated for its correspondence with perceived loudness. Several sound stimuli with large loudness differences representing five different types of broadcast program material were normalized to have equal meter measured loudness level. Subjects listened to pairwise presentations of the normalized stimuli, which they subsequently set to have equal perceived loudness. The settings were recorded and analyzed. The results show that the normalization yields both equal as well as different perceived loudness between program types. The maximum difference was ±2.8 dB

  • 7.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Concert Hall Acoustics’ Influence on the Tempo of Musical Performances2019In: 147th AES Convention / [ed] Areti Andreopoulou and Braxton Boren, New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2019, article id 10240Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustics of a concert hall is an integral and significant part of a musical performance as it affects the artistic decisions made by performer. Still, there are few systematic studies on the phenomenon. In this paper the effect of concert hall acoustics, mainly reverberation, on musical tempo for a selection of different genres and ensemble types is analyzed quantitatively. The study utilizes audio recordings made in a concert hall equipped with a movable ceiling enabling a variable volume and thus a variable reverberation time. The results show that there are cases where the tempo follows a change in acoustics as well as cases where it remains more or less unchanged.

  • 8.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality2005In: Proceedings 2005: July 10 - 13, 2005, Orlando, Florida, USA / [ed] Nagib Callaos, Orlando, Fla: IIIS , 2005, Vol. 1, p. 216-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  • 9.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality2006In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 10-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

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  • 10.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Lyssningstester: ett experimentellt sätt att fånga en upplevelse2012In: På tal om musikproduktion: elva bidrag till ett nytt kunskapsområde, Göteborg: Bo Ejeby förlag, 2012, p. 197-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    OPAQUE: a tool for the elicitation and grading of audio quality attributes2005In: AES 118th Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2005, Vol. nr 6480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of different aspects of audio quality can be realised by means of attribute scales. Studies have shown that the attributes selected are of great importance for the evaluation result. Consequently, the process whereby these attributes are generated has to be given careful consideration. It was previously shown that elements from the repertory grid technique facilitated the elicitation and grading of quality attributes, which resulted in a new audio quality evaluation method. The result from this work has now been implemented as a software prototype aimed to support listening tests. This paper reports on the results from a pilot experiment involving the OPAQUE software

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Software-aided elicitiation and grading of audio quality attributes2006In: Proceedings: International Audio Convention / VDT / [ed] Günther Theile, Bergisch-Gladbach: Verband Deutscher Tonmeister , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio quality evaluation can be accomplished by means of attribute scales and selection of the attributes is of great importance for the evaluation result. Hence, the process generating these attributes has to be given careful consideration. Previous research has shown that elements from the repertory grid technique facilitated the elicitation and grading of quality attributes. To simplify such an attribute generation process, a software-aided solution was utilised. The software was tested in an experiment where listeners considered differently processed audio samples. The results show that attributes relevant for describing the quality differences of the audio samples were generated.

  • 13.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Systematic evaluation of perceived spatial quality in surround sound systems2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to elaborate a method for the evaluation of perceived spatial quality in surround systems with emphasis on how to find and validate relevant attribute scales originating from verbal elicitation of personal constructs. The main question raised in this work was: Could a method utilising elicited personal constructs be used for finding a set of attributes with sufficient common meaning, thus enabling a group of experienced listeners to make significant judgements of spatial quality in surround sound systems? To investigate this, a method comprising a number of steps was employed. Initially, an elicitation experiment employing elements of the Repertory Grid Technique was performed. In the experiment, verbal data in the form of personal constructs were elicited from experienced listeners considering sounds reproduced through loudspeakers. Each listener rated the sounds on his/her personal constructs. The ratings and the constructs were structured by means of multivariate techniques and Verbal Protocol Analysis to find principal structures in the data set. These structures were examined for their meaning and they were subsequently used for deriving attributes on which scales were defined. The scales were verified in a validation experiment where a new group of experienced listeners considered a number of sound stimuli, which were rated on the attribute scales. The ratings were analysed for statistically significant differences between the stimuli. A new experiment was performed using a 5-channel surround sound system, on a new set of stimuli, in which refined attributes from the previous experiment supplemented by attributes from a new elicitation were utilised. The results showed that Personal constructs could be elicited from listeners in the context of reproduced audio A common perceptual pattern existed, expressed as attributes A list of attributes could be successfully derived Attribute scales derived from personal constructs enabled a group of listeners to make statistically significant judgements of spatial quality on reproduced sounds. It is concluded that a method utilising elicited personal constructs can be used for finding a set of attributes with sufficient common meaning, thus enabling a group of experienced listeners to make significant judgements of spatial quality in surround sound systems.

  • 14.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    The contrasting and conflicting definitions of envelopment2009In: 126th Audio Engineering Society convention 2009: Munich, Germany, 7 - 10 May 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, Vol. 2, article id 7808Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spatial audio, the term envelopment is not unambiguously defined and the different de facto definitions both overlap and contradict one another. This unclarity may pose a problem where the sensation of being surrounded by sound is subject for investigation and analysis. This paper reviews the different concepts of envelopment in order to point to where possible problems may occur. A tentative suggestion for a terminology that can serve the different contexts of enveloping sounds is also given.

  • 15.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Allan, Jon
    Effect of minimizing spatial separation and melodic variations in simultaneously presented two-syllable words2008In: Audio Engineering Society Convention 124th: Audio Engineering Society Convention Papers, Curran Associates, Inc., 2008, article id 7409Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study will examine two important factors for the conception Auditory Streaming defined by Bregman, pitch and localization. By removing one or two of these factors as possible identifiers to separate sound sources, the importance of each of them and the effect of reducing both of them will be studied. Stimuli with combinations of two-syllable words will be presented simultaneously in speakers to subjects and the number of correct identifications will be measured. In one category of stimuli speech melody will be removed and replaced with a monotonous pitch, equal for all words. One category will have all words presented from one speaker only. A significant effect was found for pitch as a factor for successful segregation of words. Conclusions will be related to earlier studies and common theories, the Cocktail party effect among others.

  • 16.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Bustad, Christofer
    Sveriges Radio.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Sveriges Radio.
    Mossberg, Lars
    Sveriges Radio.
    Nyberg, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Perceived audio quality of realistic FM and DAB+ radio broadcasting systems2013In: A E S, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 755-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived audio quality of a digital broadcasting system such as DAB+ is dependent on what type of coding and bit rates are applied. Due to bandwidth constraints, audio quality is prone to be in conflict with other service demands such as the number of channels and the transfer of ancillary data. Compared to DAB+, several other audio services have superior bit rates that challenge the audio quality of DAB+. This paper reviews audio-quality criteria and investigates how the perceived audio quality of different broadcasting systems complies with the criteria. Two studies were conducted: Test 1 where DAB+ codecs were tested at bit rates between 96 and 192 kbit/s and Test 2 where DAB+ systems between 48 and 192 kbit/s as well as FM systems were tested. The systems in Test 2 were designed to as far as possible model a realistic broadcasting signal chain including commonly used dynamic processors. The studies were realized through two listening experiments using the ITU-R recommendations BS.1116 and BS.1534 (MUSHRA) followed by a closing interview. The results showed that the currently highest available subchannel bit rate for DAB+ (192 kbit/s) was insufficient for attaining perceptually transparent quality for critical items, whereas it enabled a quality comparable to or in some instances better than a modern FM system. Extrapolation of data indicates that critical items may need to be coded at even higher bit rates to reach perceptually transparent quality. From the interviews, auditory features important for the subjects’ assessment of quality were observed. This study concludes that when making decisions on broadcasting systems, it is important to have well-founded and clearly defined criteria for minimum acceptable quality and/or perceptually transparent quality.

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  • 17.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Ekman, Håkan
    Difference between musicians and sound engineers in estimation of egocentric source distance in a concert hall stereophonic recording2006In: The Future of Audio Technology - Surround and Beyond: Proceedings of the AES 28th International Conference, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2006, Vol. Paper Number: 8-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sound recording, an important dimension is the perceived distance to the sound sources. This study investigates if there is a difference between sound engineers and musicians when they consider the perceived distance to sound sources recorded in a concert hall and reproduced by means of a two-channel stereo system. Also which distance is preferred is investigated for different instruments. The result shows that sound engineers perceive a greater distance to sources and that they prefer more close microphone distance than musicians.

  • 18.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Ekman, Håkan
    The three-dimensional acoustic environment as depth cue in sound recordings2005In: AES 118th Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2005, Vol. nr 6513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research on the perceived depth in a sound image mainly concerns the distance to the source. Observations on the three-dimensional environment, is generally of an anecdotal nature. In order to enhance the perceived spatial quality of reproduced sound, it is important to know more about how depth in recordings is perceived and generated. The aim of this study is to put focus on the concept of depth, i.e. define what sound engineers mean by depth in recordings. This has been studied through interviews with sound engineers. The most common thought is that depth is equal to the distance to the sound sources. This definition is still not enough to encompass the whole concept of depth. The experienced environment in front of the listener may also affect the perceived depth.

  • 19.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Löfdahl, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    In-ear vs. loudspeaker monitoring for live Sound and the effect on audio quality attributes and musical performance2017In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A successful performance of live music is dependent on how well musicians can hear themselves and the other members of the ensemble. Sound reinforcement systems can offer monitoring either by on-stage loudspeakers or in-ear headphones. These two monitoring conditions were compared to search for perceived auditory differences that affect parts of musical performance. Four jazz/pop/rock bands made live performances where monitor sound was provided to the musicians. Each band repeated their performance, changing from one monitoring condition to the other. After every performance, the musicians responded to questionnaires covering musical performance and audio quality. Experts also assessed recordings of the performances. Results show that perceived differences exist in audio quality and musical performance between loudspeaker monitors and in-ear headphone monitors.

  • 20.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Jullander, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Sundkvist, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Kjekshus, Helge
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    The influence of room acoustics on musical performance and interpretation: A pilot study2016In: 140th Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2016, AES 2016, New York, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concert hall acoustics is an important factor that influences musical performance. Different acoustics lead to different musical results. For a musical performer, the artistic impression of a performance is paramount. Therefore, it is essential to study the relation between concert hall acoustics and musical performance. Such studies might also be relevant for architects and acousticians. A pilot study was devised, enabled by a unique concert hall with mechanically variable acoustics. A musician played the grand piano at four trials, each having a distinctive acoustic condition. The trials were recorded for later analysis. The performances were assessed by experts and the pianist himself. The results show that clear as well as subtle differences in interpretation and performance between the trials existed.

  • 21.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Adapting audio quality assessment procedures for engineering practice2016In: 139th Audio Engineering Society International Convention: AES 2015, Jacob Javits Center New York, United States, 29 October - 1 November 2015, New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio quality is of concern up and down the production chain from content creation to distribution. The technologies employed at each step - equipment, processors like codecs, downmix algorithms and loudspeakers - all are scrutinized for their impact. The now well-established field of audio quality research has developed robust methods for assessments. To form a basis for this work, research has investigated how perceptual dimensions are formed and expressed. The literature includes numerous sonic attributes that may be used to evaluate audio quality. All together, these findings have provided benchmarks and guidelines for improving audio technology, setting standards in the manufacture of sound and recording equipment, and furthering the design of reproduction systems and spaces. They are, however, by comparison rarely used to inform recording and mixing practice. In this paper quality evaluation and mixing practice are compared on selected counts and observations are made on what points these fields may mutually inform one another

  • 22.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nyberg, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    A qualitative approach to evaluation of perceived qualities of audio and video in a distance education context2014In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 154-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a qualitative method for collecting and analysing data to describe audio and video quality. Used in the social sciences, arts, and humanities, this approach relies on phenomenology and hermeneutics and uses interviews and questionnaires to assess the audio and video quality of master classes in classical music taught via the Internet. Although this study is only exploratory, it provides evidence that the method could successfully be used to gather descriptions of perceived qualities.

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  • 23.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nyberg, Dan
    Listener envelopment: what has been done and what future research is needed?2008In: 124th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2008: Audio Engineering Society Convention Papers, Curran Associates, Inc., 2008, article id 7379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In concert hall acoustics, the perceived spatial impression and/or spaciousness are characterized by the two attributesapparent source width (ASW) and listener envelopment (LEV). For LEV there are no clear consensus across theresults of previous work. This paper aims to discuss the research performed on LEV and how these research resultsare confirming or contradicting each other. There is a consensus on the arrival angle of the later sound energy and itsinfluence on LEV, whereas there is no clear agreement on the delay time and frequency content of the latereflections.

  • 24.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Correlation between Emotive, Descriptive and Naturalness Attributes in Subjective Data Relating to Spatial Sound Reproduction2000In: 109th AES Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2000, Vol. Preprint 5206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experiment, inspired by aspects of the Repertory Grid Technique, to find the dimensions forming the perceived spatial impression of a sound reproducing system, subjects frequently described their experiences as being either natural or artificial. These results are analyzed using multivariate methods to investigate the correlation between attributes relating to naturalness and other more descriptive attributes.

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  • 25.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Identification of Perceived Spatial Attributes of Recordings by Repertory Grid Technique and Other Methods1999In: 106th AES Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 1999, Vol. Preprint 4924Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the spatial performance of sound reproducing systems, various research methods from the fields of psychology and the behavioural sciences may be considered. Selected approaches are briefly reviewed, with particular emphasis on the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT). Further analysis of a pilot experiment relating to spatial parameters, inspired by RGT, is described

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  • 26.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Institute of Sound Recording, University of Surrey.
    Identification of quality attributes of spatial audio by repertory grid technique2006In: A E S, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 365-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of the perceived spatial quality of an audio system has become more important as the technical possibilities to render spatial information increase. In recent years the field of spatial quality evaluation has been the subject of more thorough investigations than previously, one of the problems being the development of attribute scales appropriate for this purpose. The generation of attributes of spatial audio by means of elements from the repertory grid technique is investigated. In an experiment personal constructs in the form of verbal descriptors were elicited. The constructs were classified by verbal protocol analysis and reduced to a limited number of attributes by cluster analysis. The results show that the repertory grid technique enables a number of attributes of spatial sound quality to be extracted from a group of subjects and that these attributes correspond well with attributes found in other studies. The results also indicate the importance of a definition of the part-the whole or a subset-of the auditory scene to which a specific attribute is referring.

  • 27.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    In Search of the Spatial Dimensions of Reproduced Sound: cluster analysis and verbal protocol analysis of scaled verbal descriptors2000In: Proceedings of AES 108th Convention, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2000, Vol. Preprint 5139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the spatial performance of a sound reproducing system, knowledge of the dimensions forming the perceived spatial impression is important. In this search, methods from the behavioral sciences have to be considered. This paper describes an analysis of an earlier experiment, inspired by aspects of the Repertory Grid Technique, which focuses on finding common patterns among a group of subjects.

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  • 28.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Spatial Attribute Identification and Scaling by Repertory Grid Technique and Other Methods1999In: Spatial Sound Reproduction: Proceedings of the AES 16th International Conference, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 1999, Vol. Paper Number: 16-005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for suitable ways to assess the spatial performance of sound reproducing systems, various research methods from the fields of psychology and the behavioral sciences may be considered. Selected approaches are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT). A pilot experiment relating to spatial parameters, inspired by RGT, is described.

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  • 29.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Systematic evaluation of perceived spatial quality2003In: Multichannel Audio, The New Reality: Proceedings of the AES 24th International Conference, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2003, p. 184-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of perceived spatial quality calls for a method that is sensitive for changes in the constituent dimensions of that quality. In order to devise a method accounting for these changes, several processes have to be performed. This paper shows the development of scales by elicitation and structuring of verbal data, followed by validation of the resulting attribute scales.

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  • 30.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Institute of Sound Recording, University of Surrey.
    Validity of Selected Spatial Attributes in the Evaluation of 5-channel Microphone Techniques2002In: 112th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2002, Vol. Paper 5593Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the spatial quality of reproduced sound is becoming more important as the number of techniques and systems affecting such quality increases. The presence of dimensions forming spatial quality has been indicated in earlier experiments by using attributes as descriptors for the dimensions. These attributes have been found relevant for describing the spatial quality of stimuli subjected to different modes of reproduction. In this paper, new attributes are elicited and the applicability of these and previously encountered attributes for assessment of spatial quality is tested in the context of new stimuli, recorded by means of 5-channel microphone techniques and reproduced through a 5.0 system.

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  • 31.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Perceived properties of parameterised music for interactive applications2006In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional implementations of sound and music in interactive contexts have their limitations. One way to overcome these and to expand the possibilities of music is to handle the music in a parameterised form. To better understand the properties of the musical parameters resulting from parameterisation, two experiments were carried out. The first experiment investigated selected parameters' capability to change the music; the second experiment examined how the parameters can contribute to express emotions. From these experiments, it is concluded that users without musical training perform differently from musicians on some of the parameters. There is also a clear association between the parameters and the expressed basic emotions. The paper is concluded with observations on how parameterisation might be used in interactive applications.

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    fulltext
  • 32.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Relations between selected musical parameters and expressed emotions: extending the potential of computer entertainment2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, IEEE Communications Society, 2005, p. 164-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental aspect of music is its ability to express emotions. To develop and extend the potential of music in computer entertainment, a deeper understanding of music's emotional aspects is essential. An experiment was designed to explore the suitability of a specially designed interface (REMUPP) as a means to investigate how musical parameters can contribute to expressing the emotions of 'happiness' and 'sadness'. In the experiment, a number of subjects listened to music examples where the musical performance was governed by a set of musical parameters that were controlled by the subject. The subjects adjusted the parameter settings to best express a given emotion. These settings were recorded and analyzed. The experiment verifies the REMUPP tool as a valid means for the investigation of musical parameters and emotion. Issues of importance for realization of music in the computer entertainment context are also addressed.

  • 33.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Liljedahl, Mats
    Sonic Studio, Interactive Institute.
    Lindberg, Stefan
    Sonic Studio, Interactive Institute.
    Perceived properties of parameterised music for interactive applications2005In: Proceedings 2005: July 10 - 13, 2005, Orlando, Florida, USA / [ed] Nagib Callaos, Orlando, Fla: IIIS , 2005, Vol. 1, p. 409-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional implementations of sound and music in interactive contexts have their limitations. One way to overcome these and to expand the possibilities of music is to handle the music in a parameterised form. To better understand the properties of the musical parameters resulting from parameterisation, two experiments were carried out. The first experiment investigated selected parameters' capability to change the music; the second experiment examined how the parameters can contribute to express emotions. From these experiments, it is concluded that users without musical training perform differently from musicians on some of the parameters. There is also a clear association between the parameters and the expressed basic emotions. The paper is concluded with observations on how parameterisation might be used in interactive applications.

  • 34.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Audio software development: an audio quality perspective2008In: Audio Engineering Society Convention 124th: Audio Engineering Society Convention Papers, Curran Associates, Inc., 2008, article id 7438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing audio applications, different choices on software implementation aspects influence the total audio software signal path and can be of importance from an audio quality perspective. The field is not well documented in the literature. A study was carried out aiming at identifying relevant questions that must be considered. The general development perspective was on audio software written in C++ to be run on general purpose CPUs. A research review, comprising literature from different fields such as audio engineering, computer science and software engineering, was conducted to summarize and integrate an overview of the field. The result can be viewed as a map of questions for future research activities, consisting of further literature studies and experiments with software prototypes.

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    fulltext
  • 35.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A balanced incomplete block design experiment for ranking criticality of stimuli for listening testsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Criticality of audio stimuli for listening tests: listening durations during a ranking task2014In: 136th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2014, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2014, p. 114-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of selecting critical audio stimuli for listening tests is known from the literature to be both labor-intensive and time-consuming, and has been described as more of art than science. Explicit accounts of systematic procedures are not the most commonly encountered. In a previous study a ranking-by-elimination method was investigated, resulting in a rank order that could be used as a guide for critical stimuli selection. This paper presents a further exploratory analysis of data on the subjects’ listening durations, both as a function of number of stimuli left on screen and individually per stimulus. A strong negative correlation was found between the rank order of criticality and playing duration.

  • 37.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ranking criticality of stimuli for listening tests2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Ekeroot, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Selection of audio stimuli for listening tests2011In: 130th Audio Engineering Society convention 2011: London, United Kingdom, 13 - 16 May 2011, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2011, Vol. 2, p. 1211-1217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two listening test methods in common use for the subjective assessment of audio quality are the ITU-R recommendations BS.1116-1 for small impairments and BS.1534-1 (MUSHRA) for intermediate quality. They stipulate the usage of only critical audio stimuli (BS.1116-1) to reveal differences among systems under test, or critical audio stimuli which represents typical audio material in a specific application context (MUSHRA). A poor selection of stimuli can cause experimental insensitivity and introduce bias, leading to inconclusive results. At the same time this selection process is time-consuming and labour-intensive, and is difficult to conduct in a systematic way. This paper reviews and discusses the selection of audio stimuli in listening test-related studies.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Martin Ljungdahl
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Soundscape attribute identification2009In: 126th Audio Engineering Society convention 2009: Munich, Germany, 7 - 10 May 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, Vol. 2, p. 753-759Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In soundscape research, the field's methods can be employed in combination with approaches involving sound quality attributes in order to create a deeper understanding of sound images and soundscapes and how these may be described and designed. The integration of four methods are outlined, two from the soundscape domain and two from the sound engineering domain.

  • 40.
    Hallberg, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Symphony orchestra recording for interactive opera performances2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network technology and its applications open the possibilities for conventional art forms to find alternative ways of expressions leading to new user experiences. A significant feature is interactivity, which enables the user to become a co-creator of the experience. One of the more traditional art forms is the opera, which thus can be enhanced and developed. In order to provide content that allows for interaction, specific strategies and techniques have to be utilized from the start of the production. When user influence over a symphony orchestra sound is desired, the different parts of the orchestra have to be recorded separately. In this paper considerations regarding the recording process involving a real full-scale symphony orchestra are reported. It is concluded that such a production requires either compromises in the recording process or new ways of doing the recordings in order to fully utilize the potential of interactivity.

  • 41.
    Jullander, Sverker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Sundkvist, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Kjekshus, Helge
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Nelson, Karin
    Norges musikkhøgskole.
    Room for interpretation: methodological aspects of a music research project2018In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, E-ISSN 2002-021X, Vol. 100, p. 89-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The artistic research project ‘Room for interpretation’ addresses questions concerning the influence of room acoustics on the performance of Western art music from the performers’ perspective. The empirical core of the project is a number of experimental performance sessions carried out in Studio Acusticum, Piteå, a concert hall with mechanically variable acoustics. The authors discuss issues relating to the project’s design and methodology; the focus of the article is thus the research process rather than the results. A presentation of the project, its preconditions, goals, design and methodology is followed by an overview of previous research, mostly in acoustic science, on the same or closely related topics. In the third part of the article, characteristics of the present project are compared to those of the previous studies. In the following part, ’Room for interpretation’ is related to the ongoing discussion on the purposes and means of artistic research. The authors argue that the project, while showing certain similarities to previous studies, differs considerably with respect to aims and important aspects of design, and that its characteristic features agree well with those usually regarded as typical of artistic research. The article concludes with a summary of the most important results concerning: differences between performers’ reactions in the live situation and when listening to their own recordings; differences between chamber ensembles, conducted ensembles and soloists as to the influence of the acoustics on the performance; and the prevalence of sound over other musical parameters in performers’ comments on their recorded performances.

  • 42.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    From practice to research and back again: research skills in audio engineering education2013In: Proceedings of the 50th International Conference: Audio Education (July 2013), Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2013, p. 166-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the rate and nature of change in media technology, future audio engineers should expect to manage production scenarios of greater complexity using less proven techniques. Meeting these challenges will require— in addition to knowledge of essential recording technology and established methods— analytical skills, the ability to self-direct inquiry and flexible, open-ended capacities in problem solving. We have designed an undergraduate audio technology course that provides opportunities to develop these capacities. Our approach situates students in an authentic research environment. By deconstructing and assessing published research, contrasting varied approaches, vetting solutions, evaluating results and designing their own research plans, students gain knowledge and skills that support professionalism in both the research lab and the recording studio.

  • 43.
    Liljedahl, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindberg, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Digiwall, an Interactive Climbing Wall2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, IEEE Communications Society, 2005, p. 225-228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digiwall is a climbing wall enhanced with hardware and software. It combines the computer game with sport climbing, and extends both concepts with new features. Digiwall frees the user from focusing on a computer screen. Instead sound and music are used to convey the gaming experience. The Digiwall concept is designed to support a large number of games, competitions, challenges and even aesthetic experiences. It is an example of how technology can promote physical activity and engage people's senses and capabilities in a way that traditional computer gaming and sport climbing do not.

  • 44.
    Nykänen, Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Modelling perceptual dimensions of saxophone sounds2009In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 539-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, musical instruments were developed over long periods of time by skilled craftsmen. Today, most instruments are mass-produced. Design of musical instruments as mass-produced products requires using strategies which make it easier to identify customer needs and develop exact specifications. To develop useful specifications it is necessary to convert general descriptions into something which can be commonly understood and also be interpretable in terms of acoustic metrics. In this study, methods for analysis and specification of steady state parts of alto saxophone sounds were developed. Saxophonists' use of verbal descriptions of saxophone sounds was investigated. Sound stimuli were binaurally recorded. Judgements upon perceived qualities were made by saxophonists and non-saxophonists using the method of verbal attribute magnitude estimation. Perceptual dimensions were identified using principal component analysis of listening test data. Three prominent dimensions were found and described using the verbal attributes: 1) warm/soft, 2) back vowel analogues and 3) sharp/rough. The perceptual dimensions were modelled as linear functions of acoustic metrics. The results were validated through listening tests with new subjects and new stimuli. Based on the findings, the method was seen as an approach which can enhance the musical instrument design process.

  • 45.
    Nykänen, Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Örjan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Perceptual and acoustical dimensions of saxophone sound2005In: Forum Acusticum Budapest 2005, 4th European Congress on Acoustics: 29 August - 2 September 2005, Budapest, Hungary, 2005, p. 519-524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specifications of product sound qualities may contain both perceptual and acoustical descriptions. The perceptual descriptions are most helpful when they contain adequate detail and utilises understandable wording. To facilitate the product design process the descriptions should also be interpretable as acoustical quantities. The objectives of the study reported upon here were to investigate how musicians use verbal descriptions of sound and to interpret these descriptions in terms of commonly used acoustical quantities. Musicians' use of verbal descriptions of saxophone sound was investigated through interviews. The most frequently used words were evaluated through listening tests. The subjects were asked to judge how well the words described the timbre of test sounds. To find the most significant perceptual dimensions for the test sounds Principal Component Analysis was used. Four significant dimensions were found and described by 9 words. To interpret the perceptual dimensions in terms of physically measurable indices, models for how acoustical quantities relate to the perceptual dimensions were developed. Dimension 1 was described by full-toned/warm/soft. The psycho-acoustical quantity sharpness correlated negatively with this dimension. Dimension 2 was described by the term [o]-like. Sharpness and specific roughness (9-11 Bark) correlated negatively with this dimension. Dimension 3 was described by sharp/keen/rough. Sharpness and roughness correlated with this dimension. Dimension 4 was described by the term [e]-like. No model for prediction of this dimension was found. To validate the models the effect of a changed design of the tone holes of a saxophone was predicted with the model and validated with new listening tests.

  • 46.
    Nykänen, Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Löfdahl, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Do In-ear monitors protect musicians' hearing?2017In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-ear monitors for live performances are commonly considered to give better sound quality than loudspeaker monitors. They are also often assumed to reduce sound exposure. Because of lack of evidence for this, sound exposure for pop/rock/jazz musicians was compared between performances with in-ear and loudspeaker monitors. Equivalent sound pressure levels at the musicians' ears were 94 to 105 dBA with loudspeaker and 86 to 108 dBA with in-ear monitors. Many participants used earplugs when using loudspeaker monitors. Therefore, the recommendation, from a pure hearing protection perspective, is to use loudspeaker monitors and earplugs. However, the large spread in levels between musicians using in-ear monitors suggests that with better training and measurements of sound exposure, in-ear monitors could be used safely.

  • 47. Rumsey, Francis
    et al.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Verification and correlation of attributes used for describing the spatial quality of reproduced sound2001In: Proceedings of the AES 19th International Conference: Surround Sound - Techniques, Technology, and Perception, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2001, Vol. Paper Number 1932Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the spatial quality of reproduced sound is to be assessed, knowledge of the dimensions forming the quality is essential since the quality is known to be multi-dimensional. The dimensions could be indicated by attributes describing them. Attributes encountered during a previous experiment are considered by a group of subjects and their responses are analysed for finding the attributes' applicability and dimensionality over an extended number of sound stimuli.

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  • 48. Röijezon, Ulrik
    et al.
    Berg, Jan
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Sundkvist, Petter
    Sitting postures’ effects on movement behavior and musical performance among high string musicians – a pilot study2018In: Musicians' Health and Performance 3rd Conference 2018 (MHPC2018), Helsinki, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The posture has a major influence on the body; e.g., a slumped posture can lead to increased tissue loading but also altered movement behavior. Musicians, including violinists/violists, have a high prevalence of upper body musculoskeletal disorders. Biomechanical risk factors include repetitive movements, altered muscle activation and awkward postures. Changes in posture may have implications for both injury risk and the musical performance. Ideally, a healthy posture leads to the desired qualities of the performance, but this is still to be investigated. This multidisciplinary study takes an initial step to unravel the impact on both movement behavior and musical quality related to playing posture among high string musicians.

  • 49.
    Sikström, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Designing auditory display menu interfaces: cues for users' current location in extensive menus2009In: 126th Audio Engineering Society convention 2009: Munich, Germany, 7 - 10 May 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, Vol. 2, p. 726-734Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the current research in auditory display in search for design guidelines for presenting the contents in audio-only menu interfaces. The aim of the review is to find new directions for auditory display menu interface design. Among several techniques for representing individual menu items the preliminary results show that the spearcon seems to be the most suitable method. For the layout of menu items, studies have shown that spatial separation, different timbres, and staggering onset between the items improves recognition rates, particularly for concurrently presented items. A remaining issue to be investigated is how to remind the user of her current location in the menus of extensive menu interfaces.

  • 50. Sjömark, Cecilia
    et al.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Axelsson, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Musical parameters for promoting relaxation and stress-reduction in listeners2005In: Ambience05 Proceedings, Tampere University of Technology, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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