Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 481
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq..
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2020In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, article id 100276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Classification of groundwater based on irrigation water quality index and GIS in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, NE Iraq2016In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of groundwater for irrigation purpose is proposed using the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) within the GIS environment. The model was applied to several aquifers in the study basin. Water samples were collected from thirty-nine sites from both water wells and springs from the dry season (September 2014) and the wet season (May 2015). Samples were tested chemically and physically for several variables: EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+ and HCO3- and SAR. The accuracy and precision methods were applied to find out the uncertainty of the chemical analysis results and its validity of application for the geochemical interpretations. Based on the spatial distribution of IWQI, the groundwater quality of HSB classified into several classes of both dry and wet seasons in terms of its restrictions on irrigation purposes. The classes include, Severe Restriction (SR), High Restriction (HR) and Moderate Restriction (MR). The coverage areas of all three classes are 1.4%, 52.4% and 46.2% for the dry season and 0.7%, 83.3% and16% for wet seasons respectively. The considerable variations in all these classes have been noted from dry to wet seasons, this might be related to increasing the aquifer recharges from precipitation and decreasing the aquifer discharges by the consumers in the wet season. Then the model was validated based on the relation between the aquifer recharge and spatial distribution of IWQI, the result of this validation confirmed the outcome of this study.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Lineament Density on Standard DRASTIC Model: Case Study in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2015In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 644-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is the most important source of water in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin. In this study, to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied. Due to the close relation between lineament density and groundwater flow and yield, the lineament density map was applied to the standard DRASTIC model in order to ensure accuracy towards the consideration of the effects of potential vulnerability to contamination. A lineament map is extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) satellite imagery using different techniques in remote sensing and GIS. The lineament density map illustrates that only six classes of lineament density can be identified ranged from (0 - 2.4). The lineament density map was rated and weighted and then converted to lineament index map. This index map is an additional parameter which was added to the standard DRASTIC model so as to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in HSB. The standard vulnerability map, classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the modified model classified the area into four categories as well: very low (28.75%), low (14.31%), moderate (46.91%) and high (10.04%). The results demonstrate that there is no significant variation in the rate of vulnerability. Therefore, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it confirmed that the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant because of suitability in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this verification, it could be claimed that the effect of lineament density is weak on the vulnerability system in HSB, because of its low density value.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Using DRASTIC and COP Models: Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 741-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid groundwater from contamination, the groundwater vulnerability tool can be examined. In this study, two methods were applied, namely: DRASTIC (Groundwater depth, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil map, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and Hydraulic Conductivity) and COP (Concentration of flow, Overlying layer and Precipitation) to model groundwater vulnerability to pollution. The result illustrated that four vulnerability classes were recognized based on both models including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes. The coverage areas of each class are (34%, 13%, 48% and 5%) by DRASTIC model and (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) by COP model, respectively. The notable dissimilarity between these two models was recognized. For this reason, nitrate elements were selected as a pollution indicator to validate the result. The concentrations of nitrate were recorded in two following seasons in (30) watering wells; as a result, the substantial variation was noted. This indicates that contaminants can be easily reached the groundwater due to its suitability in geological and hydrogeological conditions in terms of contaminant transportation. Based on this confirmation, the standard DRASTIC method becomes more sensible than COP method.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaiman.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP andTritium Isotopes2018In: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwatercontamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that are more vulnerable to pollution is incredibly vital.  The objectives of this paper are to reveal weight modified of DRASTIC model based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process to estimate the proportional likelihood of groundwater resources pollution. Tritium isotopes analysis was chosen and applied as a pollution marker to confirm the result of this adjustment. Based on this modification, vulnerability classes that were achieved for the studied basin were alienated into five classes, including very low, low, medium, high, and very high, with vulnerability index value of (<100, >100–125, >125–150,>150–200, and >200), respectively.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models inHalabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017In: Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of European Water Resources Association ‘Panta Rhei’, 5-9 July 2017, Athens, Greece / [ed] George Tsakisis, Vassilakos A. Tsihrintzis, Harris Vangelis, Dimitris Tigkas, Athens: European Water Resources AssociationSSOCIATION , 2017, p. 1827-1834Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%).Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree

    and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using VLDA model in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq.2016In: IWA Specialist Groundwater Conference: Conference Proceedings & Book of Abstracts, 09-11 June 2016, Belgrade Serbia / [ed] Milan A. Dimkic, Belgrade: Jaroslav Cerni Institute for the Development of Water Resources , 2016, p. 72-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater considered being the most vital source of water in several regions in the world. Specifically in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, groundwater plays an important role as one of the essential source of water supplies. Therefore, it needs to be taken care of. In this study, VLDA method applied to model a map of groundwater vulnerability to contamination. The VLDA models classified the area into four categories with different coverage areas: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration on two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessing the Vulnerability of Groundwater to Pollution Using DRASTIC and VLDA Modelsin Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, NE, Iraq2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 1144-1159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater plays important roles as one of the essential source of water supplies of the studied area. Consequently, it needs to be prevented from contamination. In this study, two methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC (depth to groundwater, net recharge, aquifer media, soil map, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity) and VLDA (vadose zone lithology, land use patterns, depth to groundwater and aquifer media) to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination of the basin. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the VLDA model classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high(53%) and very high (1%). The results demonstrate that there is a significant dissimilarity in the rate of vulnerability. Validation of the constructed maps is required to confirm the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration of two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB (Halabja Saidsadiq Basin) is capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability level acquired using VLDA model is more sensible than that attained from the standard DRASTIC method .In addition, the DRASTIC models need to be modified based on the land use pattern, which clarifies the role of human activity on the vulnerability system.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin Saeed
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Kurdistan Region, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Seepage Velocity of Different Groundwater Aquifers in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin—NE of Iraq2021In: Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions (2nd Edition): Proceedings of 2nd Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI-2), Tunisia 2019 / [ed] Mohamed Ksibi; Achraf Ghorbal; Sudip Chakraborty; Helder I. Chaminé; Maurizio Barbieri; Giulia Guerriero; Olfa Hentati; Abdelazim Negm; Anthony Lehmann; Jörg Römbke; Armando Costa Duarte; Elena Xoplaki; Nabil Khélifi; Gilles Colinet; João Miguel Dias; Imed Gargouri; Eric D. Van Hullebusch; Benigno Sánchez Cabrero; Settimio Ferlisi; Chedly Tizaoui; Amjad Kallel; Sami Rtimi; Sandeep Panda; Philippe Michaud; Jaya Narayana Sahu; Mongi Seffen; Vincenzo Naddeo, Springer, 2021, p. 1683-1687Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For understanding and prediction of transport in different groundwater aquifers media, the groundwater flow velocity (magnitude and direction) has to be considered. Halabja Saidsadiq Basin is located in the northeast part of Iraq, which covers an area of 1278 square kilometers with population of more than 200,000 inhabitants. The climate of this area is hot in the summers and cold in the winters. Groundwater aquifers in this area provide approximately 90% of whole water requirements. Therefore, it is important to understand some groundwater features in the area such as groundwater flow velocity, to prevent contaminant transport toward the groundwater aquifers. The main aim of this study was to apply geographic information system technique to estimate the magnitude and direction of the groundwater seepage velocity based on several hydrological and hydrogeological data in the region. The results revealed that the seepage velocity magnitude ranged from (0 to 51) m/d, while the flow direction is from the eastern to the western part of the study area. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE..
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017In: European Water, ISSN 1105-7580, Vol. 57, p. 353-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Magnitude and Direction of Groundwater Seepage Velocity in Different Soil and Rock Materials2020In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 242-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand and anticipate flow in various groundwater media, the magnitude and direction of groundwater flow velocity must be deemed. The studied area which is called Halabja-Sadiq Basin is in the northeastern part of Iraq and covers an area of approximately 128,000 square hectometers. There are several groundwater aquifers in this region that supply nearly over 90% of all water needs. Subsequently, it is of highly requirement to identify various groundwater behaviors in the area. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and direction of the groundwater seepage velocity with the aid of groundwater tool in Geographic Information System technology. Refer to the results of this analysis, the magnitude value of groundwater flow velocity ranged from 0 to 51 m/d, whilst the general flow movement is from the eastern part to the western part of the study area. The factor governing the direction of flow and velocity magnitude indicates the direction of dipping of the geological formation strata, the high head of groundwater in the eastern part, and the low transmissivity properties of aquifer materials in the western part.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13. Abitew, Aymiro
    et al.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit used as dam construction material at Aitik mine in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity and their correlation to geotechnical parameters affecting the hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit at Aitik mine have been determined. The investigation was carried out along three sections which cover approximately 3km2 of area and 4-5meters of thickness. 3-5 test pits have been excavated in each section and samples are collected from various levels. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity has been found to have a good relation with fraction of fine particles in the deposit and void ratio. However, similar to the results of Jantzer et al (2008) from the same mine, the vertical hydraulic conductivity did not correspond to void ratio. According to evaluation of existing empirical relations to estimate hydraulic conductivity from particle size analysis, Hazen formula (1911) gives 25 and 45 times the measured values of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity respectively. On the other hand, Chapuis et al (2003) has not been succeeded for prediction of hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed samples from the investigated area. However, it gives comparatively good prediction of hydraulic conductivity for disturbed samples which are compacted to their field dry density.

  • 14. Abitew, Aymiro
    et al.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic conductivity of tailings sand used for dam construction at Aitik mine in Sweden2012In: SWEMP 2012: International symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity and their correlation to geotechnical parameters affecting the hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit at Aitik mine have been determined. The investigation was carried out along three sections which cover approximately 3km2 of area and 4-5meters of thickness. 3-5 test pits have been excavated in each section and samples are collected from various levels. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity has been found to have a good relation with fraction of fine particles in the deposit and void ratio. However, similar to the results of Jantzer et al (2008) from the same mine, the vertical hydraulic conductivity did not correspond to void ratio. According to evaluation of existing empirical relations to estimate hydraulic conductivity from particle size analysis, Hazen formula (1911) gives 25 and 45 times the measured values of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity respectively. On the other hand, Chapuis et al (2003) has not been succeeded for prediction of hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed samples from the investigated area. However, it gives comparatively good prediction of hydraulic conductivity for disturbed samples which are compacted to their field dry density.

  • 15.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Sabah Hussain
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Mosul,Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dams Safety: Review of Satellite Remote Sensing Applications to Dams and Reservoirs2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 347-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote sensing is the collection and interpretation of information of an object, areaor phenomenon by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study. It generally refers to the use of satellite borne or airborne sensors to capture the spectral and spatial relations of objects and materials on Earth from the space. This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted electromagnetic radiation from the objects. A brief history of satellite remote sensing is given in this review but the bulk of it is devoted to the scientific satellites launched into orbit and their sensors tracking, and presenting changes in water resources fields. The used technologies and satellite systems for monitoring movements and changes include American GNSS, GPS, the Russian GLONASS, Europe’s European Satellite Navigation System (GALILEO), China’s COMPASS/BeiDou, the Indian (IRNSS); Japan’s (QZSS) and many others. Details are presented on the present (LANDSAT), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), and RADARSAT, JERS‐1, and ERS, which are developed by various countries, especially the USA. These sensors have the refined capability of providing estimates of variables, which depending on the purpose and design of the sensor, can follow critical issues related to water management problems. This review presents examples of actual studies carried out including; building databases of small dams and lakes on regional scale, derivation of volume vs. elevation and surface area vs. elevation of hundreds of reservoirs around the world, various bathymetric reservoir surveys, siltation of reservoirs and catchment areas erosion problems, monitoring of water quality changes, and above all monitoring dam deformation and stability problems of dams. The presented case studies cover the use of these different sensor together with the imagery used, their sources, methods of interpretation, validation and gives presentation of the end results. This review, which is only a very brief presentation of satellite remote sensing applications concludes that; in spite of the large volume of research done on this subject so far, which this review cites some of them , the expected future developments in satellite remote sensing technology coupled with advances in algorithms and models used in refining satellite imagery and validating the results will bring more accurate results and less laborious treatment work in addition to wider scope of applications.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Experts Proposals and Ideas on Mosul Dam2015In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 79-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During and after the construction of Mosul Dam, in Iraq, all the studies expressed a clear concern on the fact that the region of the dam suffers from extensive presence of soluble rock formations that might undermine the safety of the dam with its large reservoir. Most of the studies dealt with foundation treatment and safety hazards due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite. To overcome the problem, grouting operations were performed. The seepage of water continued and this highlighted the possibility of the dam failure. Different grouting techniques and methods were suggested but the results were the same. Finally, it was decided to limit the maximum operation water level to EL. 319 m (a.s.l.) instead of EL.330 m (a.s.l.). This recommendation has remained in force up to now with the loss of sizable storage of irrigation water and power potential

  • 17.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: Foundation Treatment during Construction2015In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam was constructed on the beds of Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene). The beds of the formation are about 250 m thick composed of Marls, chalky limestone; gypsum, anhydrite, and limestone form a layered sequence. They are highly karstified. As a consequence, plenty of grouting operations were carried out to fill all the cavities, fractures, joints and to stop the seepage under the foundation of the dam. The main grouting operations were Blanket grouting and deep grout curtain. It was necessary to perform an extensive maintenance program to control the seepage process within the grouted zone to stop dissolution of gypsum and protect the safety of the dam.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Maintenance Grouting2015In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite at the foundation of Mosul Dam continued after its construction since 1986 onwards. After impounding, acceptable residual permeability could not be reached and new areas of high grout takes appeared in some other locations. New grout mixes were tested and even methods of delivering and injecting large grout quantities were developed. Sandy mixes were developed by adding certain weight of sand to the cement mix. In addition, pouring gravel after completion of grouting in large takes' zones was performed. As a result of gravel addition, it was concluded that it was not effective and very difficult to pour. Massive grouting was used where bentonite was added to the mix. Piezometric observation was used for checking the conditions of the grout curtain and the detection of problematic areas where additional treatment was required. Massive grouting, however, did not stop the dissolution processes altogether and it seems that it is not likely to do so in the future. The continuation of this program year after year does not preclude some bad implications. More research work is required to improve massive grout durability by adding chemicals which may interact with gypsum beds and hinder dissolution. This can help to improve gypsum resistance and increase its stability. Mathematical models might also be used to understand the mechanism of cavities formation and collapsing.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: Problems Encountered During and after Impounding the Reservoir2015In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 47-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam was built on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq during the period 25th January, 1981 and finished on 24th July, 1986. The foundation of the dam lies on the Fatha Formation. This formation is composed of alternating beds of marls, limestone, gypsum and clay. The beds of this formation are highly karstified. After impounding, several sinkholes developed within the vicinity of the dam site. The surface expression of the sinkholes suggests that they are caused by underground collapse.The appearance of the downstream sinkholes is most likely related to fluctuations in the tail water level of the main dam during operation of the dam and the downstream regulating reservoir. In addition, water seepage also was noticed in various areas indicating the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite from the foundation. During the period February-August, 1986 the dissolution intensity ranged from 42 to 80 t /day.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Mosul Dam: A Catastrophe yet to unfold2017In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 263-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is multipurpose earth fill dam 3.4km long, 113m in height and its storage capacity reaches 11.11 km3 of which 2.95 km3 dead storage. The dam is located on the River Tigris in the northern part of Iraq about 60km north west Mosul city. The dam was built on highly karstified alternating beds of gypsum, marl and limestone. The dam was operating in 1986 and since then, seepage problems started due to the solubility of the gypsum beds, presence of karstification and the effect of the local groundwater aquifer. To stop the seepage insensitive grouting program was put to ensure the stability of the dam. Despite the injection of large quantities of grouting material, it did not stop the seepage. The situation became worse in 2014 when ISIS occupied the dam area and grouting operations were halted. Recent evaluation of the conditions indicates that the dam is in its worst conditions.

    The failure models of the dam indicate that 6 million people will be affected, and 7202km2 of land will be inundated. It is believed that to stop this catastrophe, grouting operations should be continued intensively to elongate the span life of the dam. As a permanent solution, another dam should be built downstream Mosul Dam so that it can take the wave of Mosul Dam in case of its failure.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Department of Geology, University of Kurdistan, Hewler.
    Risk Management Concepts in Dam Safety Evaluation:Mosul Dam as a Case Study2017In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 635-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gradual shift has been observed lately of dam safety procedures from the conventional technical based towards a widerscope of risk management procedure based on risk analysis. The new approach considers the likelihood level of occurrence of a multitude of hazards and the magnitude of the resulting possible consequences in case of failure using rational cause and effect arguments. Most dam owners are shifting towards the use of the new risk based procedures; and even governments themselves are moving towards formalizing the new trend. Legislations in the United States were promulgated [1] after serious dam failures and the adoption of stringent levels of scrutiny led such federal dam owners to pioneer in this field and in developing the concepts and methods required. The corner stone in risk analysis is the definition of the potential modes that may lead to failure and assessment of the likelihood levels of their occurrence and possible category of the consequences which, after thorough evaluation, will shape thedecision making. This type of analysis was applied to Mosul Dam as a case study and resulted in definite recommendations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq .
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Climate Change: Consequences on Iraq’s Environment2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq as a country is now suffering from Climate Change Impacts in similar or even worse ways than many other countries of the world. The manifestations of these climate changes are being felt in global warming, changes to weather driving elements and sea level rise. Increasing temperatures, declining precipitation rates and changed distribution patterns together with increasing evaporation are causing water stress in Iraq. However, they trigger other changes in a sort of chain reaction; such as droughts, desertification and sand storms. Iraq is not even safe from the consequences of sea level rise where the southern part of the Tigris- Euphrates delta is threatened by inundation and Iraq’s ports and sea coast line are endangered by such projected rise. So far the agricultural sector in Iraq has been hit very badly by the reduced water availability for arable lands; whether rain fed lands as in the northern part, or irrigated lands using the declining discharges of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers as in the southern and middle parts. These discharges have already been additionally strained by the unfair sharing practiced by Turkey from which most of the two rivers’ water resources originate. The present negative climate change trends seem to be continuing in the future as it is obvious from all projections and studies being performed so far. Loss of cultivable land to desertification, recurrent droughts and sand storms and declining agriculture are the pattern of change in Iraq’s already fragile environment; and this will result inevitably in much more distress for the population in the future and will lead to social unrest. These will add to the great pressures facing all future governments unless the government takes protective planning and solutions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River Tributaries’ Basins2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 75-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is hitting all parts of the world for the last fifty years due to Global Climate Change and it is expected to continue in the future in an increasing trend unless the present mode of CO2 emission is limited or reversed. This is manifested in the rising temperature over land and the changes induced in the general weather circulation patterns over land and oceans. The Tigris River catchment as most of other parts in the world is suffering from increased temperatures and reduced precipitation contributing to reduced water resources elements all over it and reduction of the river stream flow itself. Studies using the soil and water assessment tool SWAT were performed on the five Tigris River tributaries basins in Iraq in order to assess these impacts. This paper summarizes the results of those studies, the characteristics of each of the five basins, and illustrates the application of SWAT as a tool for future predictions. Moreover, it explains in more details the work done on one of the basins as an example, summarizes the results of the five studies and then analyzes these results and discusses the expected future outcomes. The final conclusion which can be drawn is that severe shortage in all water resources elements will occur over the five basins and the Tigris River stream flow will suffer a considerable decline. This situation demands that policy makers in Iraq should take steps immediately to improve water and soil management practices to try and reduce as much as possible the expected damage that will hit all water using sectors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, H awler, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood Wave Retention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology2019In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 189-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety and Dams Hazards2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 23-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam safety hazards towards human communities have increased tremendously during the last decades. They have resulted from dam safety problems leading to failure and being exasperated by the large losses at downstream areas due to increasing populations and land use. In this work, an attempt is being made to review the procedures being followed to reduces these hazards by improving dams safety standards. Classification of dams by their potential hazards are explained as used today for prioritize remedial actions in various countries of the world. The guiding principles of these classification are indicated and they are based on height of such dams and their storage and linked to the potential damage and harm they can create. Normally such classification and follow up actions are supported by various legislations and regulations issued by the respective governments. Moreover, conventions signed by riparian countries promote cooperation on mitigating safety problems of dams on transboundary rivers. Examples of such legislations and conventions are mentioned. Looking for having safer dams is an objective continually which is being pursued as more dams are needed in the future while existing dams continue to serve their objectives. Therefore, using lessons learned from previous failures is recommended taking the question of loss of life as a main doctrine.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety and Earthquakes2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 79-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earthquakes may cause failure or profound damage for dams. Factors contributing to this are, magnitude on the Richter scale, peak horizontal and vertical accelerations, time duration, in addition to the epicentral distance, nature of foundation rock, criteria of the design, and finally, if appropriate type of dam and materials has been used.  Extensive lists of dam failures and damaged once are presented with many case histories. Most failed dams were tailing dams or hydraulic fill dams or small earth fill dams, which reflect the weight of the design and construction factors. Embankment dams, normally, are less tolerant to ground shacking than concrete dams. While rockfill and RCC dams have shown good performance. The developments of design methods and criteria are traced here, from the early use of the pseudoptotic method to the more rational dynamic analysis, which is used nowadays making construction of very large safe dams in seismic regions possible. The method adopts peak ground accelerations from anticipated earthquakes as inputs to the analysis which produce a full spectrum of the factor of safety during any considered event. This has led to increased use of seismic instrumentation to produce seismographs of actual events in the free field, and on dams hit by earthquakes for comparison with outputs of this analysis and for future use for similar dams in similar circumstances, and to decide on rehabilitation measures. The safety levels to which any dam is to be designed are defined in terms of the Maximum Credible Earthquake, Safety Evaluation Earthquake, Maximum Design Earthquake and other similar terms. Dam repairs after sustaining earthquake damages are described in real cases and upgrading of older dams to withstand higher expected seismic events are also treated here and supported by case histories.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety and Οvertopping2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 41-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overtopping is one of the most serious modes of failures for all dams causing great numbers of human fatalities and material damages. Statistics show that overtopping failures are the highest, especially for embankment dams. The main reason for this is the erroneous prediction of the inflow design discharge, which has resulted from lack of realistic flow data and imperfect hydrological procedures. Failure in most cases occurs when the inflow exceeds the spillway design capacity, but to a lesser extent from the buildup of very high wave setup and runs up. This has led to active efforts in upgrading dams for such occurrences, by either upgrading spillways, adding auxiliary spillways, increasing freeboard by either heightening the dams or the parapet walls on the crest. Advancement in predicting the safe inflow discharges are also made by adopting such procedures as the calculation of the Probable maximum flood based on predicting the Maximum Probable Precipitation or using statistical methods by treating long records of available flow data. Recently, another challenge has come up facing dam owners and builders who are represented by the climate change impacts on the hydrological cycle; this has put a new responsibility to the governments to issue new regulations and plans to mitigate these impacts reducing failure possibilities and improve dam safety against overtopping.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: General Considerations2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dams construction is an old art practiced by man since thousands of years. History of dams shows great innovations in this field, but failure cases, however, indicate gaps in human knowledge of safety measures that could have stopped such failures. Available statistics show of a great boom in building dams during the past century and indicate at the same time large number of failures associated with losses in human lives and material damage. Uses of these dams during this period, apart from flood control and storing water for irrigation were also for hydropower generation, navigation, drinking water supply, recreation and in mining operations as tailing dams. Reduced dam safety leading to failures, accidents and higher safety hazards were caused by insufficient knowledge of the geological conditions and in using wrong or deficient foundation treatment. Dam safety was compromised in cases of insufficient hydrological data and design of inadequate spillways. Misinterpretation of the seismic conditions of the area and adopting seismic criteria compatible with such seismic conditions is also added as one more reasons of failures. Human mistakes and errors have undermined safety in many cases in the operation of dams leading to grave safety issues including many failures. Safety hazards also were exasperated by increasing population and land use in the downstream areas of dams and by failing to do necessary inspection and maintenance or upgrading works.  More emphasis over  dam safety measures is needed now in our existing dams and in their future development of dams if they are to continue delivering their benefit without causing harm to human communities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: Hazards Created by Human Failings and Actions2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 65-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam Safety and dam incidents are treated here looked at from the "Human Factors" perspective. An attempt is made to explore these factors as an important drive in impairing dams’ safety and increases their risks. Distinction is drawn between the "Normal Human Caused Incidents" and the "Extraordinary Human Caused Incidents" together with the description of their root origins and subsequent consequences. The first type includes unintentional mistakes, errors and flaws committed by the operators of dams inadvertently, in addition to negligence, lack of experience or overconfidence. Such failings can happen in manual operation of dams, or through the use of their Supervision, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems as in industrial control system (ICS). They can occur also due to flaws in software or even in the application of information and communication technology (ICT) in remote control operations. As for the second group; the extraordinary human factors, they are defined here as those committed by man with the full understanding of their possible damage. They are done purposely for destabilizing dams after thoughtful and carefully meditated decision making process and they are manifested in acts of war, sabotage and terrorists actions. In this modern age, these acts are characteristics of hackers’ attacks on dam(s) operating systems. This is done through the use of cyberspace by the widespread interconnected digital technology with the accompanying advances in the communication technologies. As such, these technologies have made remote control of such systems possible. Not limited to this, dams remain now, as they were always in the past, the obvious targets in wars and conflicts to inflict losses on the enemy and to use them as weapons, and for terrorism actions for challenging governments. Examples of the aforementioned threats are described with examples given from real cases to elucidate the dangers involved. Lessons to be learned from these incidents are derived and recommendations are presented to be followed to avoid risky situations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil..
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: Monitoring of Tailings Dams and Safety Reviews2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 249-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness to tailings dam safety monitoring and reviews has increased by the catastrophes resulting from failures of such dams worsened by increasing tailings waste and construction of larger dams. The losses born by the mining industry from high costs of compensations and environmental rehabilitation work have brought this matter into focus. In the present article the need for safety monitoring programs of tailings dam is highlighted and mode of failures and factors leading to them are described. Basic principles of such programs are investigated with all phenomena needing observation described and their impacts explained. As in conventional dams this work is carried out by visual inspections and use of similar methods and instruments. In similar manners in both types of dams’ observation and measurements are done for measuring seepage water quantity and quality, phreatic surface level and pore pressure and total earth pressure values in addition to deformation measurements; and all are done by similar devices and methods such as weirs, piezometers, inclinometers, settlement plates and geodetic surveying. Basic differences between safety monitoring systems of the two types of dam, however, are presented in a tabular form. The continuity of safety monitoring of tailings dams is emphasized not only during the long construction phase but also after that in the abandonment and closure phase which can last indefinitely in order to watch for possible adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem due to the winds eroding and carrying of poisonous tailings contents, in addition to

    contaminated seepage water entering surface water streams and ground water. Justifications for using real time monitoring systems for recording and transmitting all data to the control center are presented with emphasis given on savings in both labor and time and need for the discovery of warning signs enabling raising earlier the alarm of possible failure or incident and the early taking of preventive measures. In this article it is argued that, in spite of the large investment of installing and running cost of comprehensive dam safety monitoring systems in tailings dams, such costs are justified as they form only a small percentage of the total investment in the tailings facilities projects, and may save huge costs if failure does happen. Such systems may be considered as an additional insurance against such events.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety Problems Related to Seepage2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 191-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dangerous occurrences affecting dams take multiple forms, but seepage caused cases are the most numerous. Some of the cases are related to the geology of the foundation and the magnitude and type of discontinuities in the rock mass of the dam. Other are mainly due to of construction material in earth fill dams. Seepage occurs in all earth fill dams regardless of its materials, and seepage water can daylight at the downstream face causing erosion, piping and sloughing and instability; unless certain measures are taken. Instability can be controlled mainly by adding, filter material zones at the contacts with the clay core, chimney filter drain at the downstream part of the dam, filter zone or bench at the toe together with the drainage blanket under the downstream part of the dam. Seepage within the dam is enhanced by cracks which may result from uneven settlement of the dam due to different elastic behavior of the foundation materials, hydraulic fracturing, and differential settlement of parts of the dam or due to ground shaking in earthquakes. Preferential seepage paths can develop in such cracks, especially if the fill material is dispersive or suffusive. Similarly, such paths may develop along the contact surfaces of conduits installed under dams as outlet structures due to the low degree of compaction as a result of narrow trench dimensions. Using properly designed filter and drainages can reduce seepage quantities and the erosive force which causes internal erosion. In dam’s foundation grout curtains or other type of cutoffs can reduce the hydraulic head and hence uplift under the dam and hinder seepage.  Drainage, however, remains as the most efficient method in controlling this uplift in artesian conditions under dams, especially under concrete gravity dams. Generally, such drainage may take the form of drainage blanket and use of filters material. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: Sediments and Debris Problems2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 27-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedimentation of reservoirs has its negative impacts on dams, first by reducing useful storage, altering the benefit/cost ratio originally calculated for the dam, and second by reducing the dams’ capacity for flood routing; increasing flooding hazards on the dam itself and for the downstream. More problems can be created by sediments and floating debris during floods on outlet structures by clogging them and thus creating dangerous situations, or damage trash screens leading to even more problems. If these debris and coarse sediments are allowed in, then they may damage dam structures such as gates, spillways intakes in addition to chutes, stilling basins and power penstocks by the mechanical abrasion impacts of such sediments on them. Frequent inspections, especially after floods must be made to ensure proper functioning of such structure and take actions for reducing the damage. In small reservoirs, dredging; although it adds to maintenance cost, may ease the problem, but in very large reservoirs, this may prove unpractical. Designers, therefore, have a duty to consider sedimentation problem seriously in the initial stages of design by: checking the anticipated accumulation of sediments, allowing enough storage free from siltation, foreseeing their negative impacts on intakes and outlet structures and taking design measures to reduce these impacts. At the same time, dam stability calculations shall have to provision for the anticipated new conditions of silting up at the face of the dam. Operators of dams, on the other hand, shall have to keep open eyes for all the negative issues created by sediments and floating debris, repairing damages caused by them and take measures to reduce their impacts in the future.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: Technical Problems of Ageing Concrete Dams2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 241-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete dams age as all man-made structures. Being subject to various external influences and internal reactions their ability to withstand them diminishes with time. Description of these factors are given here. The manifestations of aging signs are cracking, expansion, spalling and scaling of concrete surfaces, change of color and efflorescence, gelatinous discharge, crumbling of concrete masses, in addition to abrasion and cavitation of surfaces. The mechanisms of the actions leading to these damages are described and supported by many examples and case studies. The general conclusion drawn is that nothing can be made to extend the lives of old dam indefinitely, but a lot can be done to elongate their useful service with repair and upgrading works until technical considerations prove them unfeasible or their cost become prohibitive.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: Technical Problems of Aging Embankment Dams2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 281-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embankment dams undergo aging process due to the impact of different factors which can be attributed to geology of the site, design of the dam, materials selection and procedures followed in constructions. In the foundation the presence of faults or shearing planes, karst, compressible clayey material, soluble rock, and soft rock may establish conditions leading to high total settlement or differential settlements of the dam and its cracking. Deficient and deteriorating seepage control measures such as grout curtains or diaphragms enhance seepage flow leading to internal erosion and piping which endanger dams’ stability. Improper filling materials used such as dispersive clays and gap graded granular material show their bad influence after long time by creating conditions inducive to internal erosion and piping. Use of improperly designed and placed filter zones and drainage blankets can end in clogging of such filters and drainage blankets leading to the rise of the phreatic surface level and increasing uplift causing again conditions of internal erosion and piping and undermine stability. This work attempts to give an overview of these conditions and cite many case studies of rehabilitation works carried out in dams after long years of service. The conclusion reached is that rehabilitation works if done early when problems are discovered play well to elongate the service life of dams, but normally they require large investments. Sooner or later owners of such old dams will come to realize that more rehabilitation works, neither technically nor economically, are feasible and that more of such works are not possible. In which case they will come think seriously of decommission such expired dams.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: Use of Instrumentation in Dams2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 145-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam safety concerns do not stop at site selection, or the design and construction stages of a dam, but continue throughout its whole life. Seeing to safety issues of any dam is done by following up its behavior through visual observation supplemented and enriched by data collection from all the devices installed on or implanted in a dam to follow its reactions to the forces and conditions in action. Analysis of the accumulated data will show the safety level and the need or, otherwise, of any remedial works. Using measuring devices to quantifying seepage conditions at any dam and correlating this with water levels’ fluctuations is the first main issue that concerns dam safety. Added to this, measurement of pore water and total earth pressure in earthfill dams, temperature measurements in concrete dams, uplift and displacement measurements, and measurements of stresses and strains can all give good pictures of what is happening inside the dam and/or its foundation in both types of dams. In the following work, a summary of typical instrumentations and monitoring used in evaluating causes of common problems is given. Moreover, requirements for good instrumentation program are explained and the methods of data collection, whether manual, or use of stand-alone loggers and real-time monitoring networks are touched upon. The various devices in current use are described in more details. Actual examples of monitoring systems in existing dams are presented to show the value and importance of these systems to the safety of these dams.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dam Safety: Use of Seismic Monitoring Instrumentation in Dams2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 203-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seismic instrumentation of dams and reservoirs sites is accepted today as a valuable tool to understand significant seismic hazards facing existing dams or future planed dams. With the advent of digital seismic accelerometers and recorders, it can now be used today as an integral part of dam safety monitoring systems. Outputs of these instruments help in understanding the dynamic response of dams during earthquake, assessing the damage caused by such events and determining required upgrading works necessary for existing dams and designing of safer dams in the future. Measuring and recording by strong motion seismographs covers the induced Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), velocity and displacement recorded on time scale to indicate the intensity and frequency of ground vibration at the site during seismic events. Seismometers for such measurements and recordings have undergone considerable evolution and there exist today a variety of these instruments with high degree of refinement which can even provide for remote sensing. In this work, this development is outlined and examples of seismic instrumentation in strategic dams are described. Damages to actual concrete and embankment dams of various types are described indicating the associated PGAs experienced during the mentioned earthquakes. Damages in the form of cracking, increased seepage, additional settlements and displacements are described to show type and extent of possible consequences of such events on dams. The reached conclusion is that seismic instrumentation systems are desirable and highly recommendable for all types of dams; existing and future ones and their high cost is justified by the service they provide.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dams Safety and Geology2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 133-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological hazards that can face dams are very important in deciding their safety and successful performance during their lifetime without excessive and costly repairs. Recognizing such hazards must be made at an early stage of the investigation works. Geological hazards which have caused dam failures or resulted in redundant reservoirs can vary between presence of karsts in the reservoir or in dam foundation, presence of soluble rocks, hidden faults, or the presence of hazardous materials. Learning from case histories of dam failures and incidents is important to avoid problems raised by these hazards. Many such cases are presented in the preceding paragraphs to show the variety of such problems and help understand their nature. These case histories, can help the designer in the selection of the most appropriate type of dam suited for a particular geological condition, avoiding dangerous situations such as but not limited to excessive or differential settlement. Understanding the real conditions of foundation decides also the efficiency, scope and type of foundation treatment. The Teton dam failure given in this paper illustrates one case when such understanding was missing. In any case, the active participation of geologists working with the designers in all stages of dam construction process is very important to eliminate or reduce to safe limits any geological hazard that can the future dam.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dams Safety: Inspections, Safety Reviews, and Legislations2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 109-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a dam is built, its safety becomes a constant concern for the owner, the public and for governments. Therefore, continuous observation through routine inspections and safety reviews become necessary. Acting as protectors of public safety, governments and professional organizations save no effort in the promulgation of legislations and laying out guidelines for such inspections and reviews. These issues are discussed here starting with the basic first step of visual inspections by the operators and the follow up of detailed safety reviews by specialists. Careful visual inspections assisted by instrumentation measurements may reveal an early negative issue such as, but not limited to, increased seepage, increased uplift pressure, signs of weakness like cracking in the body of the dam, or dams’ slope sloughing, and even damaged hydraulic control equipment. Documenting and reporting these observation helps in taking remedial measures in good time and may lead to more intensive safety reviews. Suggested check lists for the inspection engineers are given here, but these may be tailored for each dam according to its needs. These lists cover issues common to both embankment and concrete dams, and include other specific issues related to each type of them. Metal equipment take their share by listing such areas as corrosion, fatigue and cracking, tear, and wear and so on. Instrumentation measurements are also given their due consideration by giving brief mention of types of measurements needed and points to be observed in instrumentation control work. Finally, guidelines, rules, and legislations for Dam Safety Reviews are generally discussed giving examples from four countries in the world.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dams Safety: the Question of Removing Old Dams2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 323-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many old dams in the world today may not be safe enough and represent threats to the communities they serve. They have reached the end of their technical and economic lives making upgrading them questionable. This raises the question of decommissioning or removing them open for further discussion. In this paper the issues related to keeping old dams are discussed showing with one example that the soaring costs of upgrades make it impossible to perform for countries with limited resources without outside financial support. An explanation is also given to show how even in rich countries this is met by budgeting obstacles. Other objections to the presence of these dams, added to the safety question which support of dam’s removal are discussed. They include the accumulated damage they have caused to the ecosystems such as siltation and fish migration. An emphasis is put on the need for intensive studies required before removing any such dam in order to mitigate any negative impact subsequent to such removal; and many actual examples are given to illustrate this.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan Hewler and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Geophysical Methods and their Applications in Dam Safety Monitoring2021In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 291-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of geophysical methods in dam sites investigations and safety monitory has proved their good value and versatility in many earthfill dam sites as early as the 1920s. In the following years great development has occurred in the methods, application procedures and tools used. They may be considered today as good ways for carrying out observation tasks on existing dams in non-intrusive and much faster and cheaper ways than the traditional geotechnical methods. It is possible using them to discover anomalies in the dam body or its foundation at an early stage and allowing quick intervention repair works. These methods seek to register and present variations in the basic geotechnical material properties in dams such as; bulk density, moisture content, elasticity, mechanical properties of rocks, electrical resistivity and mineralogy and magnetic properties and so forth. Such variations can indicate increasing seepage flow, progression in cracks’ sizes, formation of voids, caverns and other instability manifestations. Depending on how any investigation is carried out and the targeted anomaly, there is now selection of these methods such as: Electromagnetic Profiling (EM), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Self- Potential (SP), Ground Penetration Radar (GPR), variety of Seismic Methods (SM) which can be applied using such equipment as in Seismic refraction, Seismic Reflection, Multi Analysis of Rayleigh surface waves (MASW) instruments, or using Refraction Micrometer (ReMi), macro-gravity method, and Cross-Hole Seismic Tomography. In addition, Temperature Measurements and other less used methods can be used like Microgravity measurement, Magnetic Profiling and Radio

    Magnetotelluric methods. An attempt is made here to cover the details of these methods, their advantages and limitations and to prove their usefulness in many dam sites all over the world. One observed issue is their adaptability to embankment dams more than to concrete dams and their popularity for checking seepage related problems and material changes within dam bodies and their foundations such as formation of voids and sinkholes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns2019In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 151-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Future of the Tigris and Euphrates Water Resources in view of Climate Change2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 59-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Change which results from global warming is affecting the Tigris and Euphrates River basins in similar ways to all other parts of the Middle East and the East Mediterranean region. This contains also what is historically known as the “Fertile Crescent”, which is threatened in the same way as the other parts and may disappear altogether. The climate change is manifested in increased temperatures, reduced precipitation in addition to erratic weather patterns and decreased annual stream flow of the two rivers. These phenomena have been markedly noticed during the last decades of the last century. Studies show that these changes are linked also to the variations of North Atlantic Pressure Oscillation (NAO) induced by Global Climate Change. Modeling studies on the future trends, in trying to define the magnitude of the changes to be anticipated, reveal clearly that these negative impacts are continuous in the future. But, the widely ranging projections and interpretations of different sources depict an uncertain future for the basin’s climatic conditions and indicate theneed for further modeling studies to reach more definitive conclusions. These studies show however, a drastic decline of the Euphrates and Tigris water resources at the end of this century by something like (30 to 70) %; as compared to their resources in the last three decades of the previous century. The wide variations in the projections emphasize the need of further future work on this matter. All in all, these studies should bring alarm to all responsible governments in the region to resort to long range planning by adopting rational policies in soils and water resources management to mitigate the adverse impacts that could hit human societies in these events.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams in Iraq: Different Construction Materials Contribute to Different designs2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 71-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Badush Dam: Controversy and Future Possibilities2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 17-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is believed to be the first dam in the world which is designed to protect from the flood wave which could result from the collapse of another dam; in this case Mosul Dam.  Badush Dam construction was started in 1988 but it was stopped two years later due to unexpected reasons. From that time on many attempts were made to resume construction without success. Its value was stressed in a multitude of studies and technical reports amid conflict of opinions on how to do this.  The original design of the dam as a protection dam was intended to have a large part of the reservoir empty to accommodate the volume of the expected flood wave for only a few months during which time it’s content are released in a controlled and safe way to the downstream. The lower part of Badush Dam which has a limited height continues before and after this event to act as a low head power generation facility. Among the later studies on the dam, there were suggestions to introduce changes to the design of the unfinished dam which covered the foundation treatment and also asked for constructing a diaphragm in the dam. A long controversy is still going on with many possibilities but with no hope to reach a final solution soon. Any rational solution must consider both Badush Dam and Mosul Dam together as the safety issue involves both of them. This paper may be seen in six paragraphs. The first three describe in brief the history, the outline design and foundation treatment of the dam, therefore, setting the background to follow the conflicting views over its purpose and future which is discussed in the following two paragraphs. The final paragraph is devoted to discussion and our conclusions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Foundation Treatments in the Two Dams2018In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Al Dahaan, Saadi
    et al.
    University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Influence of Groundwater Hypothetical Salts on Electrical Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 823-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A relationship between electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) was tested for solutions of same salinity levels with respect to different artificial salts with their combinations. Results showed remarkable jumping at the order of the artificial salt sequence specially that of the magnesium type. A computer model is designed with an input of EC and TDS. The output will be the possible prevailing artificial salts. The accuracy of the model was tested by using the groundwater data of Safwan-Zubair area south of Iraq and it proved to be significant at 95% matching. The 5% unmatched results are due to the possibility of having more than one type of prevailing salt.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dagli, Deniz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Literature review on potential geochemical and geotechnical effects of adopting paste technology under cold climate conditions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize the recent research regarding geochemical and geotechnical stability of paste tailings, identify knowledge gaps and future research needs. The present study has been conducted by the Division of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering together with the Division of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering at Luleå University of Technology on behalf of Boliden Mineral, LKAB and Outotec.A survey conducted by MEND (Mine Environment Neutral Drainage) in 2006 on the environmental effects related to the use of paste tailings summarizes that only a few studies had been performed about long-term effects on the surface and groundwater quality. Instead, the focus had been on the additives and the strength of the paste. It is still uncertain how the paste technology affects the long-term environmental stability from a geochemical point of view. Concerns regarding the stability of paste with high sulphide content are still relevant. Studies performed indicate that sulphide oxidation occurs within cemented paste as well as on the surface of non-cemented paste and cracks formed on the surfaces could induce oxidation. For cemented paste, metals released by sulphide oxidation might be sequestered due to high pH induced by the alkaline additives, but anion such as Se has been shown to be mobilized. The leachate has been shown to be near-neutral initially, but the neutrality decreases with time and probably metals sequestered in the matrix will also be released. Again, it should be noted that no long term study was performed on leaching of paste, cemented or uncemented. The longest leaching study was performed for one year. Arsenic has been proven to be retained in Ca-arsenates in cemented paste, but the long term stability of these precipitates is relatively unknown. Expanded secondary phases e.g. gypsum and ettringite have been observed to form when there is sulphate in the process or drainage of water. These phases could crack the paste, but, on the other hand, can also fill former cracks when deposited in layers. The effects of the formation of these phases are relatively uncertain in a long-term perspective. Presence of different elements such as ammonium, sulphates and metals in the water has been shown to negatively affect the curing process and therefore water is suggested to be treated before use. The presence of carbon dioxide during the paste formation could also affect the curing process, but could sequester metals in carbonate phases.Geotechnical and rheological properties of paste is well defined and documented. Several case studies have been found in literature providing valuable information about the details of the works being carried out. However, a difficulty has been noted during the investigation of the effects of cold climate conditions when current practice is applied in the colder parts of the world. It is not certain how some specific and vital parameters are going to be affected by cold temperatures. Parameters such as deposition slopes and deposition scheme, strength development of the paste are expected to be responsive to cold climate conditions. There are predictions about which properties are going to be affected in what way, but there is also a need to establish a scientific base for discussion. These have been highlighted as research needs and information gaps at the end of the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 48.
    Alanbari, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Altaee, S.A.
    Babylon University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Application of Simapro7 on Karbala Wastewater Treatment Plant, Iraq2014In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of treated wastewater is becoming more popular especially in countries suffering from water shortages despite the fact that wastewater plants have some environmental implications. For this reason there are various software designed to do the assessment. Among these is SimaPro software package designed to make a valuable contribution. It is a powerful tool for analyzing the environmental impact to products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, Simapro was used to analyze and evaluate the impacts that result from Karbala Wastewater treatment plant. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) show that Karbala WWTP has an impact and damage on the environment of the order of 171 point for each 1 cubic meter of wastewater. The most environmental impacts potential were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy. The study also showed that most of the effects were as a result of the phase of construction more than of the operational phase.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Alanbari, Mohammad A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Rahman, Israa
    College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Comparison of Potential Environmental Impacts on the Production of Gasoline and Kerosene, Al-Daura Refinery, Baghdad, Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 767-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil represents the main energy sources used by mankind. In addition, petroleum products serve as feedstock for several consumer goods, thus playing an important growing role in people’s lives. For this reason there are various software applications designed to do the environmental assessment to see their impact on the environment. Among these is SimaPro software package designed to make a valuable contribution. It is a powerful tool for analyzing the environmental impact of products during their whole life cycle. In this study, it was pplied to analyze and evaluate the impacts for Al-Daura refinery for the gasoline and kerosene fuel production. This refinery located in Baghdad, Iraq was analyzed. The results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) show that gasoline has a (single score) of the order of 11.1 point for each 1 cubic meter produce from gasoline fuel compared with 4.83 point for each 1 cubic meter produce from kerosene. Global warming, respiratory inorganics and nonrenewable energy were the most effective environmental impacts.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Alanbari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Babylon University.
    Alazzawi, Hind
    Babylon University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Application of SimaPro7 on Al-Hilla City Sewerage Network, Iraq2015In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 224-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SimaPro is a software package designed to make a valuable contribution for analyzing the environmental impact on products during their whole life cycle. A huge amount of knowledge about the environment is built into the program and database, enabling to analyze a product with a minimum of specialized knowledge. In this study, SimaPro was used to analyze and evaluate the impacts that resulted from sewerage network in Al-Hilla city, Iraq. The results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) showed that sewerage network had an impact and damage on the environment by 291 points for every cubic meter of collect wastewater. The most potential environmental impacts were global warming, respiratory inorganics and non-renewable energy, contributing to the sewerage network. The study also showed that most of the effects were as a result of energy consumption in the pumping of wastewater, pipes used and diesel using for network operation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
1234567 1 - 50 of 481
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf