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  • 1.
    Ryman, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    On the use of process integration methods: evaluation of energy and CO2 emission strategies in blast furnace ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with sustainable resource utilisation in integrated (iron ore based) steelmaking, with special emphasis on how to analyse process adaptation and developments aiming towards lowering of the emission of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), to the atmosphere. Climate change and management of CO2 are real issues for the steel industry these days. Much of the research and development within the CO2 area take place internationally, often in co-operation between academic and applied research groups at universities, institutes and the industry. This work has therefore been influenced by ongoing national and international research programmes even if it is not always stated in the individual papers. Profitability is one of the foundations for industrial sustainable development. In general, cost and performance have to be balanced in an industrial system. This is one of the incentives for developing systematic and all-embracing methods to analyse the trade-offs between two or more objectives, i.e. emissions and costs, energy utilisation, material efficiency, and other resources. This thesis consists of five papers covering Process Integration aspects of energy, CO2 emission, and cost minimisation in integrated steelmaking. The concept of Process Integration, and the two methods pinch analysis and mathematical programming, are described. A method based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and the MIND method has proved to be particularly useful for optimisation and/or simulation of integrated iron- and steelmaking systems. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) represents the industrial system as a network of process nodes, connected by energy and material flows. This type of optimisation models for an industrial system can therefore be used to manage complexity, to manage changes, to facilitate faster decisions, and is a powerful complement to other tools with only a simulation capacity. In this phase of the work, the main process focus has been on the blast furnace ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking processes since these processes in principal are the characteristic processes of integrated steelmaking. The processes are also energy intensive, and well-described in the literature, both with respect to theory and practice. The interaction between these processes, and other parts of the integrated steelmaking system, is however not so much discussed in the literature as one would expect. The Process Integration approaches have been used in several studies of the material and energy utilisation for the integrated steelmaking system. From the modelling results, some conclusions and strategies have been drawn on costs, energy and environmental aspects.

  • 2.
    Ryman, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Process Integration as a tool for decision-makers in the steel industry2010In: Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference: May 3 - 6, 2010, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A / [ed] Ronald E. Ashburn, New Dehli: Allied Publishers Ltd , 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1177-1186Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Franck, Per-Åke
    CIT Industriell Energianalys AB.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    Similarities between pinch analysis and classical blast furnace analysis: possible improvement by synthesis2005In: Proceedings of the International Green Energy Conference: IGEC-1, Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo , Dept. of Mechnical Engineering , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pinch analysis originated at UMIST in the 1970's. It has since then been used as a method for energy analysis and optimisation of industrial systems. The blast furnace process for reducing iron oxide to molten iron is a very important process unit in the metallurgical industry. It is a counter-current shaft process with a wide temperature range and gaseous, solid and liquid phases present in different zones. Because of this the blast furnace acts as a system of different sub-processes rather than a single process. The analysis tools developed to describe the process are in some respects similar to the tools of pinch analysis. The exchange between the two fields of knowledge has yet been negligible. In this paper the methods are described and compared. Problems, possibilities and advantages with an exchange and synthesis of knowledge are discussed.

  • 4. Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Model based evaluation of sustainability indicators in integrated steelmaking: a Swedish case study2007In: Proceedings: AISTech 2007 : May 7 - 10, 2007, Indianapolis, Ind., USA, Warrendale, Pa: Iron and Steel Society , 2007, p. 919-927Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex structure of the energy and mass flows in steelmaking has resulted in many attempts to describe the process dynamics by models. Swedish steelmaker SSAB Tunnplåt has long practical experience on how to use optimisation models for planning and decision-making related to energy and material utilisation. Sustainable development is development aimed at improving the quality of life for everyone, and is a factor of increasing importance in the industry. This paper exemplifies how optimisation models can be used for systematic analysis, design and balancing of steelmaking systems, and how it can be used for optimisation of sustainability indicators such as energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and material utilisation with a limited effort and time. The methodology can also be extended to include cost optimisation

  • 5. Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    The MIND method for analysis of resource efficiency in industrial systems for materials production2008In: Proceedings of 2nd International seminar on Society & Materials (SAM2): Nantes, 24-25 April 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are strong associations between standard of living, and energy and material use in the society. In fact, a higher "consumption" of energy and materials is often regarded as synonymous with human wellbeing. To make this fit in with the ideas of the sustainable society, it is important to assure that the industrial systems are designed in an energy and material efficient way, and to enhance the understanding of which barriers or bottlenecks we must do something about to become even more efficient in the future.The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) has been developed to model different types of industrial energy systems. The method can also be used to model and analyse other aspects of industrial systems, not only the energy issues. The system to be analysed with the method is represented as a network of process nodes, and nodes representing auxiliary units, connected by energy and material flows. The MIND method is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP), meaning that relationships in the system are normally described as linear functions. The potential of the MIND method is that it enables a simultaneous representation of the total industrial system, a production site, or several aggregated production sites. By focusing on the larger system, the centre of attention can be drawn from optimisation of the production processes one by one, as in traditional process development. Instead, it is possible to focus the analysis on the flexibility and the most favourable interactions between different parts of the system.Examples on industrial systems for material production, which have been modelled using the MIND method, are pulp and paper production and steelmaking. Both types of material production involve several processing steps with a high degree of heat and material management. Another likeness is that both materials can be produced from recycled materials and that the recycling rates from the society are among the highest, compared to other materials. The MIND method has shown grand potentials for analysis of these productions system, and also for other systems, such as food manufacturing and chemical industries. It can also be used for analysis of possible synergies between neighbouring industries, or between an industry and the nearby society. In this paper the methodology will be described and references will be made to projects where MIND has been used in pulp and paper production and steelmaking.

  • 6.
    Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Adaptation of process integration models for minimisation of energy, CO2-emissions and raw material costs for integrated steelmaking2007In: Chemical engineering transactions / [ed] Klemes Jiri, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. , 2007, Vol. 12:1, p. 495-500Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of the energy and mass flows in steelmaking is rather complex with a lot of connections between the unit processes. A further developed optimisation model for integrated steelmaking based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is described. The system includes today's dominating steel production route, basic oxygen steelmaking, based on iron ore, steel scrap, and carbonaceous reducing agents. Multi or single objective minimisation problems in steelmaking are represented by energy use, CO2 emissions and raw material cost to produce steel slabs. Finally the paper briefly discusses the effects of process and product related constraints on the modelling results.

  • 7.
    Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Reduction of CO2 emissions from integrated steelmaking by optimised scrap strategies: application of process integration models on the BF-BOF system2006In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 1752-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In integrated steelmaking there are a number of means to reduce CO2 emissions. One approach is to increase the metallic Fe input to the production system. A common belief is that scrap works as a CO2 diluent when introduced in iron ore based steelmaking. It is not necessarily so. Scrap is a key supplementary charge material in oxygen steelmaking converters, but scrap can also be utilised in ironmaking where it will decrease the use of reducing agents and with that also the specific CO2 emissions. By the use of a process integration model which basically includes the primary processes of cokemaking, sintering, ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking the overall influence of scrap input on CO2 emissions is demonstrated and commented. The influence of hot metal silicon content is elucidated by calculations with different material and process constraints. The results show that at moderate scrap rates, the reduction of CO2 emissions is favoured by increased scrap additions to the oxygen converter. When the scrap additions to the converter balances the actual heat capacity of the bath, other means to achieve an increased scrap melting capacity can be taken into account. This include combinations of scrap addition to the blast furnace, increased silicon content in tapped hot metal, and/or addition of Ferro-silicon combined with further scrap additions to the oxygen converter. Different strategies for CO2 emission reduction have to be suggested depending on if the objective is to minimise the site (direct) emissions or the global (indirectdirect) emissions.

  • 8. Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Niemi, Tommi
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Modelling of the blast furnace process with a view to optimise the steel plant energy system2004In: Proceedings: 2nd International Conference & Exhibition on New Developments in Metallurgical Process Technology : Riva del Garda, Italy, 19 - 21 September 2004, Milano: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Vikström, Liisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rutqvist, Staffan
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Optimisation of sustainability in integrated steelmaking2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering: 24th - 28th August - Prague - Czech Republic, Prague: ČSCHI - Czech Society of Chemical Engineering , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex structure of the energy and mass flows in steelmaking has resulted in many attempts to describe the process dynamics by models. Swedish steelmaker SSAB Tunnplåt is one of Europe´s leading manufacturers of high-strength strip steels. The company has orebased steel production in Luleå and strip steel manufacture in Borlänge. SSAB has a long practical experience on how to use optimisation models for planning and decision-making related to energy and material utilisation.Sustainable development is development aimed at improving the quality of life for everyone, and is a factor of increasing importance in the industry. The International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI) have suggested a number of sustainability indicators to measure economic, environmental and social performance for steelmaking. This paper exemplifies how the sustainability indicators; i) material efficiency, ii) energy intensity, and iii) greenhouse gas emissions, can be used as objectives for systematic analysis and optimisation of the industrial system. It is then possible to study possible conflicts or correlations between the different sustainability indicators. A MILP-based process integration model including cokemaking, blast furnace ironmaking, basic oxygen steelmaking, and continuous casting for the production of steel slabs has been adopted for this task.

  • 10. Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Wang, Chuan
    Larsson, Mikael
    Dahl, Jan
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Minimization of energy consumption and conversion cost for BF-BOF system based on optimised use of ferrous burden materials2006In: Proceedings: 5th European Oxygen Steelmaking Conference : 26 - 28 June 2006, Aachen, Germany, Düsseldorf: Verlag Stahleisen , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Östman, Marianne
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Lindblom, Bo
    LKAB.
    Evaluation of eco-efficiency in iron- and steelmaking by use of a process integration tool2008In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on EcoBalance, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Profitability is one of the foundations for industrial sustainable development. In general, cost and performance have to be balanced in an industrial system. This is one of the incentives for developing systematic methods to analyse the trade-offs between two or more objectives, i.e. costs and emissions, energy utilisation, material efficiency, and other resources. Process Integration is a common name for system oriented methods and integrated approaches to complex industrial process plant design. It is a multi disciplinary approach which consists of mathematical, thermodynamic and economic models and methods.Eco-Efficiency is a concept which brings together economic and environmental progress by consideration of on one side the product value and on the other side the environmental influence in the product manufacture. In this paper a general Process Integration model for iron- and steelmaking to be used for evaluation of the Eco-Efficiency in steelmaking is proposed. The Process Integration model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model which covers different production routes.

  • 12. Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Ryman, Christer
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    A model study on CO2 emission reduction in integrated steelmaking by optimisation methods2007In: 3rd International Green Energy Conference: Proceedings of IGEC-III, Västerås: Mälardalens högskola , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13. Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Ryman, Christer
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    Johnsson, Andreas
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Engdahl, Jonas
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    A model on CO2 emission reduction in integrated steelmaking by optimization methods2008In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1092-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is a large energy user in the manufacturing sector. Carbon dioxide from the steel industry accounts for about 5-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emission. Concerns about energy consumption and climate change have been growing on the sustainability agenda of the steel industry. The CO2 emission will be heavily influenced with increasing steel production in the world. It is of great interest to evaluate and decrease the specific CO2 emission and to find out feasible solutions for its reduction. In this work, a process integration method focusing on the integrated steel plant system has been applied. In this paper, an optimization model, which can be used to evaluate CO2 emission for the integrated steel plant system, is presented. Two application cases of analysing CO2 emission reduction possibilities are included in the paper. Furthermore, the possibility to apply the model for a specific integrated steel plant has been discussed. The research work on the optimization of energy and CO2 emission has shown that it is possible to create a combined optimization tool that is powerful to assess the system performance from several aspects for the steel plant.

  • 14. Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Ryman, Christer
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Potential CO2 emission reduction for BF-BOF steelmaking based on optimised use of ferrous burden materials2009In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the blast furnace (BF) to basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is the dominant steel production route in the steel industry. The direct CO2 emission in this process system exceeds 1 t of CO2/t of crude steel produced. Different ferrous burden materials, for instance iron ore and scrap, can be used in various proportions in this steelmaking route. This paper analyses how energy use, conversion costs, and CO2 emissions can be influenced by the use of different ferrous burden materials when producing crude steel. An optimisation mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model has been applied for analysis. By the use of the optimisation model, it is possible to highlight some issues of special importance, such as best practices to increase production at low conversion cost, or best practices to increase production at low CO2 emission. It is found out that more benefits will be gained when using the system-oriented analysis to the steelmaking process. Furthermore, a comprehensive view of the trade-offs between the objectives of Cost and CO2 can provide useful information for decision makers to generate strategies under the future emission trading.

  • 15. Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Ryman, Christer
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Preface2006In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 115-Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 15 of 15
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