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  • 1. Rydström, Annie
    Activity: HMI Agora, 19 november på Lindholmen i Göteborg2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Rydström, Annie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The effect of haptic feedback in visual-manual human-machine interaction2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans use all their senses when they explore and interact with the environment. In human-machine interaction (HMI) vision is the dominant sense, followed by audition. Haptic information - information concerning the sense of touch - is not commonly available. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate how haptic feedback affects visual-manual HMI. In the experiment presented in paper I the spatial haptic properties shape and location were compared. Shape encoding often relies on users sequentially exploring differently shaped knobs, levers or buttons. The experiment revealed that physical shapes available through a shape-changing device can be as efficient as adjacently located push-buttons to encode functions in an interface. The experiment presented in paper II investigated the extent to which interface information can be transferred between the haptic and visual modalities. The feedback - rendered textures - was displayed haptically through a rotary device and visually through a computer monitor. There was a cross-modal transfer between the modalities, although not effortless, and the transfer from haptics to vision seemed to be easier than the transfer from vision to haptics. The asymmetry of the cross-modal transfer and the enhanced visual performance might be a result of the visual information being more useful for the task at hand. Paper III presents an experiment carried out in a car simulator. The experiment was conducted to investigate how haptic feedback in an in-car interface affects driver behaviour. Visual feedback was provided on a screen at the centre panel of the simulator. Haptic feedback was provided through the interaction device - a rotary device. The results revealed that, although driving performance degradation did not differ between the different haptic and visual feedback conditions, all conditions caused a degradation in driving performance. Visual behaviour did not differ between conditions including visual feedback. It is therefore apparent that the haptic feedback was not actively used when visual interface information was provided. Using haptic feedback only was shown to be more time-consuming. In addition it was revealed that tasks with only haptic feedback induce a cognitive load on the driver. It was apparent in studies II and III that the haptic information is not actively used if the visual information is more easily achieved.

  • 3.
    Rydström, Annie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The use of haptics when interacting with in-car interfaces2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans use all their senses when they explore and interact with the environment. In human-machine interaction, vision is the dominant sense and interfaces are seldom designed to provide haptic information, i.e. information that can be gathered by touch. There is a trend among car manufacturers to merge functions into multifunctional interfaces. These interfaces are generally based on one display and one main interaction device and have been criticized for being visually demanding to use while driving. To facilitate interaction with such an interface it is possible to utilize an interaction device, e.g. a rotary control, that can provide varying haptic information. The main purpose of this thesis was to investigate in-car human-machine interaction, with a primary focus on the use of haptics. Four experimental studies are included in the thesis. In study I the participants focused on the interaction with the experimental interface. In studies II, III and IV the interaction with the experimental interfaces was carried out while concurrently driving a car simulator. Study I demonstrated that congruent haptic and visual interface information can be transferred between the sensory modalities, but the transfer from haptics to vision seemed to be easier than from vision to haptics. Study II showed that, even though the eyes were kept on the road when only haptic interface information was provided, driving performance deteriorated. In studies I and II haptic interaction required serial processing of information which seemed to be trying. As a consequence the participants relied more on visual interface information when it was available. Study III demonstrated that well designed assisting haptics can facilitate interaction with a multifunctional interface. However, the study also indicated that it is important to carefully assess the use of the haptics since poorly designed haptics may confuse the user. Study IV compared an interface manoeuvred by a rotary control and a touch screen interface. The study showed that the optimal interface is dependent on the task being performed. However, it was shown that driving performance was affected to a greater extent when the touch screen interface was used, probably as a cause of the lower display position.

  • 4. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Haptic, visual and cross-modal perception of interface information2007In: Human Factors Issues in Complex System Performance / [ed] Dick de Waard; Bob Hockey; Peter Nickel; Karel Brookhuis, Maastricht: Shaker Verlag, 2007, p. 399-409Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-modal interfaces display information equally across modalities. These interfaces can be beneficial when visual input and output capabilities are limited, for example in a car. The objective of this study was to test how well interface information is transferred across the visual and haptic modalities. In the experiment there were three feedback conditions: haptic, visual and haptic plus visual. The experiment consisted of a training session and a test session. First, the 54 participants trained on the experimental task in one feedback condition, and then they carried out a test by means of the same or a different feedback condition. The experimental task was to locate and select a texture in a menu of four textures haptically displayed through a rotary device and visually displayed on a computer monitor. The results showed no significant performance differences in the haptic, visual or haptic plus visual tests when training was haptic. When training was unimodal visual or bimodal haptic and visual a significant weaker performance was found in the haptic test. Here a dominance of vision over touch could be observed; even if haptic information was provided during bimodal training, the visual information seemed to dominate and the participants performed no better on the haptic test than when unimodal visual information had been provided during training.

  • 5. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The impact of haptic and visual secondary tasks on drivers' visual behaviour and driving performance: a qualitative analysis2008In: 2008 AHFE International Conference: 2nd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics / [ed] Waldemar Karwowski; Gavriel Salvendy, Louisville, KY: USA Publishing , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Broström, Robert
    Agardh, Johannes
    Volvo.
    Nilsson, Jennie
    Volvo.
    Multifunctional systems in vehicles: a usability evaluation2005In: Proceedings of CybErg 2005: The Fourth International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics, International Ergonomics Association , 2005, p. 768-775Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Car Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) is becoming increasingly complex as the extension of functionality necessitates new interface concepts. Various multifunctional systems operated by haptic rotary switches, touch screen, and voice control have been developed. A usability study of multifunctional systems available on the market was carried out to evaluate and compare different manual interaction principles. The systems used in the study were the BMW iDrive and the Audi MMI, both operated by a rotary switch, and the Jaguar touch screen interface. Firstly, a usability test was conducted where two naive and two trained participants tested each system during driving. Ten tasks, comprising CD, radio and navigation were solved by the participants. Secondly, six evaluators carried out a usability inspection, heuristic evaluation, to find possible problems in the systems. The results from the usability test indicated that the naive users interacted more rapidly with the touch screen interface. Trained users, on the other hand, had more even results over the systems. The problems found in the usability inspection gave explanations to some of the longer task times in the usability test.

  • 7. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Broström, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A comparison of two contemporary types of in-car multifunctional interfaces2012In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 507-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving simulator study was conducted to investigate the effects of carrying out a variety of tasks using two different types of contemporary in-car multifunctional interfaces: a touch screen interface and an interface manoeuvred by a rotary control. Participants drove on a curved rural road while performing tasks such as list scrolling, radio tuning, alphanumeric input and continuous adjustments. The results indicate that, in terms of task completion time and the number of glances made to the display, the optimal interface is dependent on the task being performed. The touch screen interface was better for alphanumeric input tasks and the interface manoeuvred by a rotary control was better for continuous adjustments and list scrolling. Alphanumeric input seems to be more demanding than other tasks, independent of the interface used. It was apparent in this simulator study that both interfaces affected the lateral control performance, but lateral control performance deteriorated to a greater extent when the touch screen interface was used, probably partially as a result of the lower display position.

  • 8. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Broström, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Can haptics facilitate the interaction with an in-vehicle multifunctional interface?2009In: IEEE Transactions on Haptics, ISSN 1939-1412, E-ISSN 2329-4051, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving simulator study was conducted to investigate whether the interaction with an in-vehicle multifunctional interface maneuvered by a rotary control can be improved if assisting haptics is provided. Two conditions were compared in the study, one in which neutral haptics was provided through the rotary control and one in which enhanced haptics was provided. Participants drove on a curved rural road while performing tasks such as list scrolling, radio tuning and text entry. The results indicated that, for radio tuning and settings adjustments tasks, interaction is improved when enhanced haptics is provided. It was shown that enhanced haptics can increase performance in terms of task completion time and can reduce the number and duration of glances made to the display. However, for alphanumeric input tasks, improvements are needed. Enhanced haptics seems to facilitate interaction with functions in which the sensations can be incorporated in an intuitive way.

  • 9. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Driver behaviour during haptic and visual secondary tasks2009In: 1st International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications 2009: (AutomotiveUI 2009) ; Essen, Germany, 21 - 22 September 2009 ; [proceedings], Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 121-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increasing interest for in-vehicle interfaces that make use of haptic information. A simulator study was conducted to investigate whether haptic information can facilitate the interaction with an interface while driving. The conceptual in-car interface consisted of a visual menu of four textures displayed on a screen and corresponding haptic information displayed through the interaction device - a rotary device. The experimental conditions included either visual or haptic or both visual and haptic information. One advantage of the condition including only haptic information was that the participants' eyes remained on the road during the interaction. However, since the haptic interaction necessitated serial processing, the experimental task took longer when using only haptic information. Therefore the participants seem to have relied more on the visual information when it was available. The degradation in driving performance and mental workload assessment did not differ between the conditions.

  • 10. Rydström, Annie
    et al.
    Michelitsch, Georg
    CONANTE Advanced interface soulutions GmbH.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Mode selection by means of shape or location2006In: Proceedings of EuroHaptics 2006, 2006, p. 131-135Conference paper (Refereed)
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