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  • 1.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Why flex-fuel failed?: A household perspective2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bladh, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ek, Kristina
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shared or individual responsibility: eco-labelling and consumer choice in Sweden2010In: Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour: Sustainability and Everyday Life, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2010, p. 173-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Dieperink, Carel
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Environmental Governance.
    Mees, Hannelore
    Antwerp University, Research Group Environment and Society.
    Priest, Sally J.
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bruzzone, Silvia
    Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), France.
    Larrue, Corinne
    University of Paris.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Sociology.
    Managing urban flood resilience as a multilevel governance challenge: an analysis of required multilevel coordination mechanisms2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both academic literature and flood risk management practices, it is argued that governance initiatives are needed to enhance the flood resilience of urban agglomerations. Multiple levels of governance will be involved in this activity. However, thus far, the literature has hardly addressed what mechanisms are required to coordinate the different levels of managing urban flood resilience, and what factors account for these mechanisms. Our aim is to address this knowledge gap. Here, we examine six in-depth case studies undertaken in urban agglomerations in different European countries: Dordrecht, the Netherlands; Hull, UK; Geraardsbergen, Belgium; Karlstad, Sweden; Wroclaw, Poland; and Nice, France. The case studies reveal the ways in which multiple levels of governance are involved in managing urban flood resilience. Coordination among governance levels is achieved by proactive policy entrepreneurs, the use of bridging concepts, clear rules, and the provision of resources. These mechanisms seem to be universally applicable, but their characteristics appear to be highly dependent on more general institutional, economic, geographical, and cultural contextual factors.

  • 4.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public and private attitudes towards “green” electricity: the case of Swedish wind power2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 1677-1689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for “green” electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled.

  • 5.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Quantifying the environmental impacts of renewable energy: the case of Swedish wind power2006In: Environmental Valuation in Developed Countries, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated , 2006, p. 181-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Quantifying the preferences over the environmental impacts of renewable energy: the case of Swedish wind power2002In: Valuing the environment in developing countries: case studies, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Review of National Research Council of the National Academies: Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2007). 376 pp., ISBN-10: 0-309-10834-92009In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1073-1074Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power still amounts to a tiny proportion of total electricity generation in the United States (only 1 percent in 2006), but the growth in capacity to generate electricity from wind has increased rapidly during the last decade, from 1.8 MW in 1998 to 11.6 MW in 2006.The United States are thus in their early stages of developing knowledge on how to plan for and regulate wind power facilities. This study is conducted by the National Research Council on the commission of the Congress as part of this learning process. The task to the Council was threefold. Firstly, they were asked to conduct an assessment of the environmental impacts of wind-energy installations using the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (MAH), a mountainous region in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland and West Virginia, as a case study. Secondly, the committee was requested to develop an analytical framework for evaluating the beneficial and adverse effects associated with wind-energy in order to support and improve the planning and regulation process regarding future wind-energy installations, and thirdly, they were to identify major areas where more research and development is necessary. The study is a comprehensive piece of work; it deals with a number of factors that add to the complexity of the planning and regulating process of wind-energy developments. The committee accomplishing the study represents knowledge and expertise from a wide range of areas and subjects including numerous natural and social science disciplines.A significant part of the study is devoted to delineating and discussing the positive and negative impacts associated with wind-energy. When assessing the environmental benefits of wind power, the committee focuses on the extent to which it displaces electricity generated by other sources, and thereby on the extent to which it reduces hazardous emissions, including carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. They conclude that estimates of the potential for future development of wind-energy in the USA - as well as its contribution to reduced emissions - are highly uncertain. According the projections used in the study, wind-energy will contribute to between 1.2 and 4.5 percent of estimated electricity generation in 2020 in the United States. Such an outcome would imply reduced carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation sources by about 4.5 percent. However, given the prevailing total caps on the emissions of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from electricity generation in the eastern part of the country, the estimated increase in electricity production stemming from wind is not likely to contribute to additional reductions of the emissions of these substances in any significant way. When discussing adverse ecological effects of wind-energy development the main focus is on bird and bat fatalities. The authors state that there is insufficient knowledge available at present to be able to draw any conclusions on the likely effects of the planned wind-power installations in the MAH on the bird and bat populations. This is accordingly one area identified where more research is considered necessary. The human impacts considered in the report include a number of aspects such as aesthetic impacts, cultural impacts (affecting historical, sacred or archeological or recreational sites), impacts on human health and well being (e.g., noise and flicker) economic and fiscal impacts, and the risk of electromagnetic interference. The authors recommend that established methods that are available for assessing the positive and negative impacts of wind power projects on humans should be used more frequently so as to develop a better informed and more transparent decision making process. Such methods include systematic methods for evaluating aesthetic impacts, which often are among the most loud-voiced protests expressed among local population in opposition of proposed wind-energy schemes.The last part of the study, where the planning and regulation process is described and discussed, was the part of the report I found the most interesting. It is established that wind-energy regulation on the national level is minimal in the United States and that there are large differences on the state/regional or the local level with respect to how proposed wind-energy developments are reviewed. These differences span over, for instance: (1) the locus of the regulatory review (national, state/regional or local); (2) whether utility and environmental issues are separated or integrated in the review process; (3) the amount and quality of information required; (4) the procedures for integrating public participation into the process; and (5) how positive and negative effects of wind-power installations are weighted. Clearly, the differences in practices and the minimal amount of guidance that is available for developers, regulators, and the public makes it difficult for all the actors to predict whether a specific project will be approved or not.The authors argue that it is unlikely that the United States would plan for wind-energy at the national level as many other countries do; as a result of both its geographically diversion and its confidence in the superiority of the outcome of free markets. Still, they argue, the present situation is characterized with too much uncertainty about what future policy tools will be in force. Therefore, national policies (implemented through e.g., subsidies, regulations and guidelines) could enhance a proactive planning for future wind-energy installations.One of the directives to the committee was to develop an analytical framework for evaluating environmental and socio-economic impacts of wind-energy developments. Such guidance would of course be a very useful tool in the decision making process. An ideal such framework would address all impacts associated with wind power across both spatial and temporal scales - it would require more information than is available - or even exists. Therefore the committee stopped short of a complete framework and instead offers what is called an evaluation guide that can be used to aid the process of reviewing proposed and evaluating existing wind-energy developments. The evaluation guide addresses procedural considerations (both related to planning, public relations and to legal issues) as well as environmental and socio-economic impacts of wind power facilities. The guide can be used as a check-list; it consists of a set of questions to each area to aid evaluation at different jurisdictional levels.It is convincing that the use of such an evaluation guide has the potential to improve the review process and reduce uncertainty for all parties involved. If the review processes are documented in a transparent way it would in itself gradually add to the knowledge stock about how wind-energy installations affect the environment and is perceived and valued by the public. Such knowledge would be useful both for regulators, developers and the public. Still, the key issues on how the positive and negative impacts associated with wind-energy development - as well as the conflicts of interest that often emerge - should be weighted against each other is still an open question. This issue is also highlighted in the very final recommendation in the report where the authors recommend that "Representatives of federal, state and local governments should work with wind-energy developers, non-governmental organizations, and other interests groups and experts to develop guidelines for addressing tradeoffs between benefits and costs of wind-energy generation" (p. 218).

  • 8.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of renewable energy support2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of an introductory part and five self-contained papers, all related to the issue of promoting renewable power sources. Paper I provides an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households’ willingness to pay a premium for “green” electricity. Methodologically we draw heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing “green” on the household budget largely influences the willingness to contribute to “green” electricity schemes, as do the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find only limited support for the idea that perception about others’ behavior affect individual moral norms and behavior; stronger support is instead found for the presence of a prescriptive social norm. In paper II we perform an empirical test the overall hypothesis that the framing of renewable power support in a “conditional” and an “unconditional” scenario, respectively, will tend to trigger different types of moral deliberations. We approach this research task by analyzing the responses to dichotomous willingness to pay questions from two different versions of a postal survey sent out to 1200 Swedish house owners. The responses are analyzed within a random effects binary probit model and the estimated marginal effects support the notion that different types of factors tend to dominate choices depending on the support scheme considered. Paper III analyzes the attitudes towards wind power among residential electricity consumers, as well as the foundations of these attitudes. The results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners, and these results suggest that the average Swedish house owner is in general positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income while people who act on environmental values are more likely to be positive. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. Paper IV scrutinizes the Swedish households’ preferences over the environmental characteristics associated with wind power by applying a choice experiment approach. The results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. The non-monetary attributes included in the choice scenario were: the noise level, location, height, and the grouping of windmills. According to the results the location of wind turbines has the most pronounced impact on the utility of the average individual. If the environmental external costs are to be minimized the results suggest that new schemes should primarily be located offshore, and large wind farms located onshore should be avoided. Finally, paper V provides an econometric analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector. The empirical results indicate that reductions in investment costs are an important determinant of increased diffusion of wind power, and these cost reductions are in turn explained by learning-by- doing activities but less so by knowledge accumulating as a result of public R&D support. Feed-in tariffs also play a role in the innovation and diffusion processes. The higher is the feed-in price the higher is, ceteris paribus, the rate of diffusion. High feed-in tariffs, though, also tends to have a negative effect on average cost reductions as they induce wind generators to choose high-cost sites and provide fewer incentives for cost cuts.

  • 9.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Valuing the environmental impacts of renewable energy: the case of Swedish wind power2002In: Conference Proceedings 25th Annual IAEE Conference, Aberdeen, 26-29 June, 2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Valuing the environmental impacts of wind power: a choice experiment approach2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a political goal in Sweden to increase the use of renewable energy, and wind power seems to be a favorable choice from an environmental perspective. Although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, specific projects often face resistance from the local population. This study aims at examining the general attitude towards wind power among Swedish house owners, and in particular at analyzing their valuation of the external impacts associated with wind power using a choice experiment approach. A postal survey was sent out to 1000 Swedish residential homeowners. The non-monetary attributes included in the choice experiment were: the noise level, location, height, and the grouping of windmills. An electricity price change was included as a cost attribute. According to the results wind power incurs external costs, and the impacts represented by the noise, location, group, and the price change attributes all had statistically significant effects on the utility of the average respondent. Among the non-monetary attributes, the location of windmills seems to have the biggest impact on the utility of the respondents, i.e., the highest implicit price. The average respondent perceives wind power capacity located offshore as a change for the better while locating windmills in the mountains is perceived as a change for the worse, all compared to a location onshore. In addition, the respondents appear to be willing to pay a positive amount to avoid large wind farms. Furthermore, noise reductions are considered as improvements and lower electricity prices are preferred over higher, as is to be expected. However, there is no evidence that the height of windmills affects the utility of the average respondent. Hence, if the environmental external costs associated with wind power are to be minimized, our results suggest that new schemes should be located offshore rather than in the mountains and that large wind farms should be avoided. This also provides important lessons for wind power producers who wish to market wind power as a "green" electricity source and adapt their generation portfolio accordingly. However, all future measures towards decreasing the external impacts of wind power must be relatively low- cost; according to the results the Swedish house owners are cost conscious and prefer low electricity prices over higher.

  • 11.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 12.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Spegel, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysing and evaluating flood risk governance in Sweden: Adaptation to Climate Change?2016Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Deliberation and valuation in environmental decision-making2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Valuing the local impacts of a large scale wind power establishment in northern Sweden: public and private preferences toward economic, environmental and sociocultural values2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 1327-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates public and private preferences towards economic, environmental and sociocultural values associated with a planned large-scale onshore wind-power development in northern Sweden, and analyses the most important determinants of the individual's Willingness to Pay (WTP) for reducing the negative impact associated with the establishment. Sociocultural effects were deemed the most important in the private sample, whereas new job opportunities are valued most highly in the public sample. We further find that ascription to moral and social norms together with individuals’ perceptions related to general and institutional trust constitutes significant determinants of WTP.

  • 15.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Wind farms — Where and how to place them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores preferences among the general public in Sweden for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) type of ownership, (iii) the degree of local participation in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The data are analyzed with multinomial logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models. The results indicate that consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher renewable electricity certificate fee if: (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) the establishment is anchored by whole or partial ownership in the local community and, (c) the locals are involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about 0.6 Euro cents per kWh to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and private ownership.

  • 16.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lund University, Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Lund University, Department of Sociology.
    Location of Swedish wind power — random or not?: A quantitative analysis of differences in installed wind power capacity across Swedish municipalities2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of installed wind power varies significantly across municipalities although the financial support for wind power production and the technology available is identical in all Swedish municipalities. This study analyses how local differences between municipalities, such as local wind prerequisites and socioeconomic conditions, might explain the establishment of wind power. The analysis is carried out for a cross section of Swedish municipalities. The time periods before and after 2006 are analyzed separately; and results reveal that the factors affecting wind power establishments are different between the two periods. In the later time period we found a statistically significant positive relationship between good wind resources and the presence of wind power as well as with the amount of wind energy installed. This result is consistent with the idea that the first wind power investments in Sweden were highly affected by individual wind energy enthusiasts, while in the more recent large-scale investments market-based judgments about future profitability may have become increasingly important. In addition, previous experience seems to be a factor that in itself facilitates additional future wind power establishments, thereby pointing to the role of accumulated institutional capacity.

  • 17.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Active and passive electricity consumers on the deregulated Swedish electricity market2007In: 9:th IAEE European Energy Conference: Energy Markets and Sustainability in a Larger Europe / [ed] Carlo Andrea Bollino, Italian Association of Energy Economics , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity price paid by Swedish consumers has increased significantly during the last years. The increasing electricity costs have been frequently debated in the media and the most common explanation – although probably too simplistic – is weak market performance. Since 1996 when the Swedish electricity market was deregulated the consumers can actively choose between different electricity producers and/or renegotiate the contract with the prevailing supplier; the impact of consumer behavior on the functioning of the market (i.e., on electricity prices) has thus increased. Still, the general understanding as expressed by policy makers is that the average Swedish household is not very active in terms of changing supplier and/or renegotiating contract. There are policies aimed at promoting electricity consumers to become more active that are potentially cost effective. To be able to design such policies is it however important to know more about how the more active consumers differs from the less active ones. Some consumers may, for instance, perceive barriers in the form of high non monetary costs in terms of lack of information and/or high searching costs while others may become active at relatively low costs. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors that promotes and prevents increased activity among Swedish electricity consumers; more specifically we study the factors that govern the decision to change supplier and/or renegotiating prevailing contracts. The econometric analysis is carried out in a binary choice framework. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 randomly selected Swedish households in late 2005, the response rate was 47 percent. The questionnaire collected information about the self-reported behavior on the electricity market, attitudes towards and confidence in the actors of the market, about the perceived functioning of the market, prevailing contract type, perceived costs associated with a more active behavior, electricity consumption levels and costs. In the theoretical model we draw on previous research and claim that the consumer decision whether to change supplier and/or renegotiate contract or not is governed by three different effects: (a) “status quo effects”, factors that motivates the consumer to change supplier/contract; (b) so called “push effects”; and (c) so called “pull effects”, factors that motivates the consumer to stick to the present supplier/contract. The presence off “status quo effects” is heavily influenced by research on individual choices in both psychology and economics and according to central results in this research most of the individuals are not able to – and do not want to – continuously evaluate their consumption decisions. Results show that those who state that they find it difficult to affect the size of their electricity costs and to evaluate the different offers from different suppliers are less likely to be active on the electricity market. We also note - as would be expected – that households with relatively high electricity costs have on average been more inclined to be active on the market. The results imply that measures aimed at facilitating the comparison of the offers from different electric power suppliers may be productive so as to increase the degree of activity among Swedish electricity consumers.

  • 18.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Analyzing energy cnservation behavior among Swedish households: the role of information2008In: Bridging energy supply and demand: Logistics, competition and environment: 31st IAEE International Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, June 18 - 20, 2008, IAEE , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Economics of technology learning in wind power2013In: Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource, and Environmental Economics, Elsevier, 2013, p. 188-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to review a number of important theoretical and empirical challenges in measuring technology learning (learning-by-doing rates) in the energy sector. Particular attention is paid to the case of wind power, a technology that is believed to be a key in complying with future climate policy targets and that has been in focus in many previous learning studies. The article discusses the following challenges: (a) the incorporation of other drivers of cost reduction beyond that of cumulative experience, including the roles of returns-to-scale and R&D; (b) the geographical domain of technology learning and R&D spillovers; (c) the interaction between technology diffusion and learning-by-doing; and (d) the overall character of the process of technological progress. We also draw on the existing empirical literature on wind power learning rates to illustrate different ways to model learning, as well as some central results in previous work.

  • 20.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Green electricity consumption in Swedish households: the role of norm-motivated consumer behavior2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' (self-reported) willingness to accept a price premium for "green" electricity. Methodologically, we draw heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a responsible person. Consumer behavior in the "green market place" will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households in four different municipalities, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing "green" on the household budget largely influences the willingness to contribute to "green" electricity schemes, as do the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find only limited support for the idea that perception about others' behavior affect individual moral norms and ultimately behavior: stronger support is rather found for the hypothesis that the presence of a prescriptive social norm influences the willingness to pay for "green" electricity. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however particularly difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of "green" electricity.

  • 21.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Households' switching behavior between electricity suppliers in Sweden2008In: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors affecting households' decisions to: (a) switch to a new electricity supplier; and (b) actively renegotiate the electricity contract with the prevailing supplier. The study is based on 536 survey responses from Swedish households and they are analyzed econometrically using probit regression techniques. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and psychological motives behind household decision-making. The results show that households that anticipate significant economic benefits from choosing a more active behavior are also more likely to purse this, while those with smaller potential gains (e.g., households without electric heating) are less likely to change supplier and/or renegotiate their contracts. The impact of overall electricity costs and knowledge about these is particularly important for the latter decision, while respondents that perceive relatively high search and information costs are less likely to switch to an alternative electricity supplier. Moreover, constraints on time, attention, and the ability to process information, may lead to optimizing analyses being replaced by imprecise routines and rules of thumb, and the benefits of the status quo appear to represent one of those simplifying rules. This also opens up for other influences on households' activity such as social interaction and media discourses that raise the attention level. Our results show that these influences are more likely to affect households' choice to switch to new service providers, i.e., the one area of the two investigated here that put the most demand on people's ability to search for and process information.

  • 22. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market2008In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for "green" electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the "green market place" will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing "green" on the household budget largely influences the choice between "green" and "brown" electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of "green" electricity.

  • 23.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public support for renewable electricity: the importance of policy framing2008In: Ecological economics research trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008, p. 83-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals' contribution to electricity generation based on remewable energy sources can be channelled in two ways. The "green" market approach relies on an 'unconditional' contribution to renewable power while the certificate scheme represents a corresponding 'conditional' support (i.e., I can only contribute if the scheme is at place, and if so many others will also contribute). In both systems the support to renewable power is made possible through a price premium paid for these types of energy sources. In this chapter we draw on the economics literature on individual contributions to public goods and empirically test the overall hypothesis that the framing of renewable power support in a 'conditional' and an 'unconditional' scenario, respectively will tend to trigger different types of moral deliberations. In thr former case the delibarations concern mainly the division of efforts between individuals, while the delibarations in the latter case relate more to the characteristics of the public good in question and the perceived personal responsibility and ability to contribute to this good. This implies also that the variables determining the willingness to accept price premiums for renewable power may differ across schemes considered. We analyze the response to dichotomous willingness to pay (WTP) questions from two different versions of a postal survey sent out to 1200 Swedish house owners. A random effects binary logit model is applied, and the estimated marginal effects support the notion that different types of factors tend to dominate choices depending on the support scheme considered. From these results follow a number of important implications for measures undertaken to increase the public's valuation of renewable power as well as the legitimacy of measure to increase renewable power production.

  • 24. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology diffusion and innovation in the European wind power sector: the impact of energy and R&D policies2008In: International Energy Workshop 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector. We derive models of wind power innovation and diffusion, which combine a rational choice model of technological diffusion and a learning curve model of cost reductions. The learning model attempts to account for the presence of both domestic learning-by-doing as well as international knowledge spillovers (global learning), and test the extent to which the respective learning-by-doing rates differ. The models are estimated using pooled annual time series data for five European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Swe-den and the United Kingdom) over the time period 1986-2001. The empirical results indicate that reductions in investment costs are an important determinant of increased diffusion of wind power, and these cost reductions are in turn explained by both domestic and global learning-by-doing but less so by knowledge accumulating as a result of public R&D support. Feed-in tariffs also play a role in the innovation and diffusion processes. The higher is the feed-in price the higher is, ceteris paribus, the rate of diffusion, and we also test the hypothesis that the impact on diffusion of a marginal increase in the feed-in tariff will differ depending on the support system used. The results support the notion that the UK competitive bidding system was (ceteris paribus) less effective in inducing wind power diffusion compared to the other countries' fixed tariff support schemes. Overall the estimates generated by the learning models are sensitive to the way in which learning-by-doing impacts are included, and the results indicate that the global learning-by-doing rate is significantly higher than the domestic rate. The analysis also indicates that empirically it is difficult to separate the impacts of R&D and learning-by-doing on cost reductions, respectively.

  • 25. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology learning in the presence of public R&D: the case of European wind power2010In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 2356-2362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of technology learning in European wind power generation in the presence of public R&D. A Cobb-Douglas cost function is employed to derive a learning curve model for wind power, thus illustrating how the investment costs for this technology are influenced by global learning-by-doing, scale effects, and a European R&D-based knowledge stock. We assume that public R&D expenses targeting wind power add to the above stock, and these R&D outlays are in turn hypothesized to be influenced by technology cost levels, the opportunity cost of public R&D as well as by government budget constraints. We estimate the learning and the R&D model, respectively, using a panel data set covering five European countries over the time period 1986-2002. The empirical results confirm the importance of both learning-by-doing and public R&D support in the cost reduction process, and governments' R&D expenses have declined in response to lowered investment costs. This is efficient in the sense that public funds are best targeted at technologies which are far from being commercial. The results also illustrate that governments in Europe have been sensitive to the opportunity cost of public R&D in the energy R&D budget process.

  • 26. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The devil is in the details: household electricity saving behavior and the role of information2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1578-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  • 27.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    The political economy of integrating markets for tradable renewable energy credits: lessons from the Swedish-Norwegian case2007In: Critical issues in environmental taxation: International and comparative perspectives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 427-453Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Amundsen, Eirik
    Bergen University.
    Långsiktiga konsekvenser av en utvidgad norsk-svensk elcertifikatmarknad2004Report (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gralepois, Mathilde
    et al.
    University François-Rabelais of Tours, France.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab'Urba, Paris Est University, France.
    Wiering, Mark
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Crabbé, Ann
    University of Antwerp (Belgium).
    Tapsell, Sue
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Mees, Hannelore
    University of Antwerp (Belgium).
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Szwed, Malgorzata
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Is flood defense changing in nature?: Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden). The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  • 30.
    Hegger, Dries
    et al.
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Driessen, Peter
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Wiering, Mark A.
    Institute for Management Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen.
    Van Rijswick, Marleen
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University.
    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    Institute of Agriculture and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Crabbé, Ann
    University of Antwerp, Research Group Society & Environment.
    Raadgever, G. Tom Tom
    Sweco Netherlands .
    Bakker, Marloes
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Priest, Sally J.
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab’Urba Paris Est University.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk prevention (through proactive spatial planning), flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation, and flood recovery, makes countries more flood resilient. Although this thesis is plausible, it should still be empirically scrutinized. We aim to do this. Drawing on existing literature we operationalize the notion of “flood resilience” into three capacities: capacity to resist; capacity to absorb and recover; and capacity to transform and adapt. Based on findings from the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD, we explore the degree of diversification of FRM strategies and related flood risk governance arrangements at the national level in Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden, as well as these countries’ achievement in terms of the three capacities. We found that the Netherlands and to a lesser extent Belgium have a strong capacity to resist, France a strong capacity to absorb and recover, and especially England a high capacity to transform and adapt. Having a diverse portfolio of FRM strategies in place may be conducive to high achievements related to the capacities to absorb/recover and to transform and adapt. Hence, we conclude that diversification of FRM strategies contributes to resilience. However, the diversification thesis should be nuanced in the sense that there are different ways to be resilient. First, the three capacities imply different rationales and normative starting points for flood risk governance, the choice between which is inherently political. Second, we found trade-offs between the three capacities, e.g., being resistant seems to lower the possibility to be absorbent. Third, to explain countries’ achievements in terms of resilience, the strategies’ feasibility in specific physical circumstances and their fit in existing institutional contexts (appropriateness), as well as the establishment of links between strategies, through bridging mechanisms, have also been shown to be crucial factors. We provide much needed reflection on the implications of this diagnosis for governments, private parties, and citizens who want to increase flood resilience

  • 31. Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Ryberg, Johanna Bengtsson
    Bluhm, Gösta
    Bolin, Karl
    Bodén, Bosse
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hammarlund, Karin
    Hannukka, Inga-Lena
    Johansson, Carina
    Mels, Sanna
    Mels, Tom
    Nilsson, Mats
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Widerström, Ingegärd
    Åkerman, Niklas
    Vindkraftens påverkan på människors intressen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Voluntary citizen participation in carbon allowance markets: the role of norm-based motivation2013In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 680-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from a semi-experimental study of Swedish students' stated willingness to purchase emission allowances for carbon dioxide are presented. Drawing heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behaviour into neoclassical consumer theory, it is assumed that individuals have a preference for maintaining a self-image as a responsible (and thus norm-compliant) person. The results indicate that students' willingness to purchase carbon allowances is determined by both price and the presence of norms: those who feel personally responsible for contributing to reducing climate damages also appear more inclined to buy allowances. The empirical findings are consistent with the notion that a person's beliefs about others' stated willingness to purchase carbon allowances imply improvements in their own self-image and ultimately behavioural change. This suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in the carbon allowance market. Such (stated) behaviour also appears to be influenced by a person's awareness of the problem of climate change and their beliefs about their own ability to contribute to solving it. Policy relevance Although there is a concern that public goods such as reduced climate change may be under-provided in the free market, individual concern for the environment occasionally has profound impacts on consumer choice and voluntary action. This research suggests that information campaigns that attempt to influence beliefs about others' intentions could promote 'green' consumer behaviour in carbon allowance markets. Publicly-provided information about the impacts of climate change and the ways in which these damages stem from individual choices could also induce this type of behaviour

  • 33.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Value hierarchies and public deliberations: do people deliberate about core values?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since Aristotle’s outline of the political animal in his Politics, the notion of dialogue as at the center of political life has been strong, and inspired a vibrant tradition within democratic theory to designate public deliberations as a cornerstone of participatory democracy and representative government. Although the literature on deliberation has grown rapidly over the past decades, it has mostly been theoretical. to date we also have a rather limited knowledge of the content of deliberative processes, i.e. what actually transpires when people deliberate on a given issue and how participants process the value-based appeals presented to them. This is surprising as the level of abstraction on which the deliberations revolve should have significant bearing on the outcomes in terms of value elicitation and –change. The purpose of this paper is to explore the content of a public deliberation. We do so in a case that should present ideal conditions for enlightened deliberations on core values: the planning of a large-scale on-shore wind-farm. Do the deliberations concern the value-conflicts presented by political elites and media (and subsequently applied to construct attributes in e.g. a choice experiments and non-market valuations)? Or, do deliberations rather revolve round more salient, issue-specific opinions? Furthermore, what does this tell us about the prospects for applying public deliberations as a tool for raising moral and value concerns, and for solving or amending values-based conflicts of interest?

  • 34.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Managing Participation: prospects for learning and legitimacy-creation in Swedish water management2017In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article evaluates whether the participatory arrangements in Swedish water management following from the European Union's Water Framework Directive contribute to legitimacy by increased learning and knowledge-generation. In contrast to most evaluations of collaborative arrangements, we use a three-tiered approach analyzing actors, processes and structures jointly, which allows us to more fully consider the merits and challenges facing this new management system. Based on original data collected from the Water councils in one of five Swedish Water Districts, we conclude that the prospects for learning and legitimacy-creation in Swedish water management are favorable. Despite the absence of decision-making power, a majority of the participants find the management system overall positive and meaningful, as new knowledge is collected and distributed through the Water councils. Thus, the management processes seem to work in favor of reaching the overarching goal of internal legitimacy, i.e. among the participating stakeholders. The main challenge, following our data, is for the new management system to serve as an arena for broad public involvement. As long as only a small number of stakeholders partake in the Water councils, the potential for creating external legitimacy for this new governance system is limited.

  • 35.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power planning and permitting: comparative perspectives from the Nordic countries2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 3116-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare some important institutional and legal preconditions for wind power development in three Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In the paper a number of historical, institutional and policy-related differences across these countries are highlighted, but most attention is paid to the various territorial planning procedures. The analysis suggests that although public economic support to wind power is necessary to promote its diffusion in the electricity system, similar policy instruments - in terms of both size and design - can induce significantly different developments depending on the legal preconditions for the location and environmental assessment of windmills. The success and failure stories of technology support policies can thus not easily be transferred across country borders. An important conclusion is that in comparison to Sweden the physical planning systems in both Denmark and Norway provide greater scope for implementing a national wind power policy at the local level. For instance, the Danish planning system is vertically integrated, and involves a designation of areas for wind power purposes in the local plans, while the municipalities in Sweden must in some way assent to (i.e., plan for) the establishment of windmills at a certain location in order for the installation to actually take place. Compared to its competitors, wind power is one of the power-generating technologies that tend to have the most to lose from the uncertainties created by planning regulations that leave much discretion to local authorities.

  • 36.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktiva och passiva elkonsumenter2006Report (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Technology learning and research in wind power: rethinking the technology development process2009In: Energy, Policies and Technologies for Sustainable Economies: executive summaries of the 10th IAEE European Conference 7-10 September 2009 in Vienna, Austria / [ed] Reinhard Haas, Cleveland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    The political economy of integrating markets for tradable renewable energy credits: lessons from the Swedish-Norwegian case2005In: Sixth Annual Global Conference on Environmental Taxation: A Focus on Renewable Energy, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power development in Sweden: global policies and local obstacles2007In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 365-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the Swedish government adopted a national planning goal of a yearly wind power generation of 10 TWh by 2015, implying a substantial increase from the current 0.6 TWh level. In this paper, we provide an economic assessment of the potential for future wind power investments in Sweden in close conjunction with an analysis of the legal, attitudinal and policy-related uncertainties that face a wind mill investor. It is shown that the economics of Swedish wind power is negatively affected by: (a) the lack of policy stability; (b) public criticism at the local level; and, in particular, (c) the legal provisions governing the assessment of the environmental impacts of wind mills and the planning procedures for mill location. While national and global energy policies as well as the general public point out wind power as particularly environmentally friendly, most of the objections to its expansion at the local level tend to have environmental origins. The interests of those who object to wind mill installations gain strong legal protection, and the municipal territorial planning monopoly in Sweden implies that it is hard to make national energy policy goals heard at the local implementation stage. Compared to its competitors, wind power is the technology that tends to have the most to loose from the risk and uncertainties created by this investment environment. The paper identifies and discusses a number of ways in which the national policy interests could be strengthened at the local level. We discuss the role of citizen participation, as well as solutions within the realms of the legal system. Moreover, since the diffusion of wind power encounters the most strident legal and attitudinal obstacles where it interferes with competing land uses, a move offshore appears to be an efficient strategy from the perspective of a wind mill investor. A stronger political commitment to wind power expansion in legal provisions as well as in the form of long-run stability in policy instrument implementation will probably be necessary to attain the 2015 policy goal.

  • 40.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Ek, Kristina
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Paving the way for carbon-free energy technology: the case of wind power2005In: 7 Nordic Environmental Social Science (NESS) Conference, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term impacts of climate change and the major role of the energy sector in causing emissions of greenhouse gases motivate a study of the diffusion of new carbon-free energy technologies. The purpose of the paper is to use the wind power example to illustrate important challenges to renewable energy technology diffusion in a modern society. In doing this we combine a quantitative analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sectors with an in-depth case study of the experiences of wind power development in Sweden. Overall the paper shows that the strength and the design of the different public support schemes for wind power can only to a limited extent explain important inter-country differentces in national wind power developments. It is shown that in Sweden, a country with a poor wind power diffusion record, the economics of wind power is instead negatively affected by: (a) the lack of policy stability; (b) criticism from local stakeholders; and (c) the legal provisions governing the assessment of the environmental impacts of wind mills and the planning procedures for mill location. While national and global energy policies as well as the general public typically point out wind power as particularly environmentally friendly, most of the objections to its expansion at the local level tend to have environmental origins. In Sweden the interests of those who object to wind mill installations gain strong legal protection, and the municipal territorial planning monopoly implies that it is hard to make national energy policy goals heard at the local implementation stage. This is in sharp contrast to the legal framework facing Danish wind projects. Compared to its competitors, wind power is one of the power technologies that tends to have the most to loose from the risk and uncertainties created by planning regulations that leaves much room for discretion on the part of local authorities.

  • 41.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Ek, Kristina
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Policy effectiveness and the diffusion of carbon-free energy technology: the case of wind power2007In: From Kyoto to the town hall: making international and national climate policy work at the local level, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2007, p. 93-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 41 of 41
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