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  • 1.
    Beheshti, Hooshang
    et al.
    Radford University, Radford, Virginia, USA.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Jung, Marie-Louise
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Opoku, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Electronic supply chain management applications by Swedish SMEs2007In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 255-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become an integral part of business activities of most corporations today. Electronic supply chain management (SCM) can improve the operational efficiency of the firm by streamlining processes between the company and its suppliers, business partners, and customers. This research explores the extent and the degree of Internet application in Swedish small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The analyses of the data show that the Swedish SMEs use the Internet in their supply chain activities to a large degree. The study establishes some differences between smaller and larger organizations as well as between manufacturing and service companies.

  • 2. Bui, Thong
    et al.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Factors Influencing the Success of E-Marketplaces2005In: Proceedings of ISBE: Illuminating Entrepreneurship - the theory and practice of enterprise creation and development, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper has been to study factors that influence the success of e-marketplaces. Due to the development of internet and information technology, a new business model called electronic marketplace emerged in recent years. Electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) is a website where buyers and sellers can trade and close deals. The popularity of e-marketplaces reached its peak in the year of 2000, when the number of start-up marketplaces was nearly 1,500. However, only seven hundred of them existed in July 2002. This fact made us interested in the question of what factors contribute to the success of e-marketplaces. Design/Methodology/Approach: We used case study method. The selected samplings are PT, an e-marketplace in mobile phone and PO, in print matters. Our data was collected from the companies' documents, websites, and in-depth telephone interviews with the owners and managers.Findings: Two types of industries that may be advantageous for e-marketplace have no connection to the literature; industries that have problems of unethical or unserious players and industries where products become out of date and prices fall very quickly. Some classic business rules of thumb are still applicable in this online context. E.g., PT still emphasized the importance of developing close relationship with members. One e-marketplace involved in sales activities, and it is surprised to learn that this makes up the biggest part of revenue of the company.Implications: First, e-marketplace can promote security and trust to its trading community as a value proposition, especially for those markets with low degree of trust and security. Second, in order to build liquidity, e-marketplaces can focus on customer relationship and implement many measures to develop a tight bond between members. Third, e-marketplaces can also involve selling activities and generate considerable revenues.Originality/Value: There is some previous research about success factors for e-marketplaces, but most of it is applicable for very large e-marketplaces. To our knowledge, there is no research on the issue with small business to business e-marketplaces. Another unique feature of our study is that two investigated e-marketplaces that are selected for our sample are start-ups and based in Sweden, and though very small in terms of employees, but are still able to operate their business on a global scale. The findings have practical contribution to the SME community, especially those involved in e-commerce.

  • 3.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    International marketing program adaptation, strategic fit, and export performance: an empirical investigation2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend toward globalization has created countless new business opportunities for companies. At the same time, however, it has facilitated participation by foreign competitors on all fronts. Because of this, international marketing strategies are proving to be of increasing importance to companies of all types and sizes, especially those that desire to branch out into new markets through exporting. Yet despite continued calls for further studies and more than half a decade of discussion in the area of international marketing strategy and export performance among practitioners and researchers, the issue is still highly debated and largely unresolved. Accordingly, the purpose of this thesis was to investigate the connection between international marketing strategy and export performance. Using the contingency perspective and the strategic fit paradigm as theoretical platform, a survey was conducted among manufacturing companies in Sweden's three largest export industries and four largest export markets. Specifically, data were collected on the antecedents of marketing program adaptation, the degree of pursued adaptation, and export performance from a sample of more than 300 Swedish export ventures. The results obtained for this thesis suggest that there are a number of contingency factors in firms' macro, micro, and internal environments, which appear capable of determining their level of pursued international marketing program adaptation. Notably, differences between the domestic and export venture markets related to sociocultural environment, technological environment, market characteristics, marketing infrastructure, customer characteristics, and a product's stage in its life cycle are significantly related to marketing program adaptation. Similar connections were also found when firms have long durations in terms of export venture experience, smaller scopes of exporting experience, and higher degrees of commitment to the export ventures. With regards to this thesis' core issue of the connection between international marketing strategy and export performance, the findings strongly suggest that international marketing program adaptation per se is not detrimental to export performance, but rather the strategic fit between the degree of pursued international marketing program adaptation and the relevant contingency factors that propose the pursued strategy. Consequently, managers who wish to achieve superior export performance should first carefully assess their targeted export markets as well as their firms' internal capabilities in view of the identified relevant antecedents of marketing program adaptation. Secondly, they should develop the appropriate capacities and abilities for achieving strategic fit in addition to learning how to diagnose and amend misfit. With its primary focus on strategic fit rather than marketing standardization or adaptation, this thesis offered an alternative explanation for the conflicting findings evident in the international marketing literature, and it can be viewed as a step in the right direction towards resolving the longstanding dispute about the superiority of standardized versus adapted marketing programs.

  • 4.
    Hultman, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Jung, Marie-Louise
    Opoku, Robert
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Justifying your price online: an investigation of academic associations' online communication of membership benefits2007In: Marketing theory and practice in an inter-functional world: Proceedings of the 2007 World Marketing Congress, Verona, Italy / [ed] Carol W. DeMoranville, The Academy of Marketing Science, 2007, p. 123-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identifies the benefits that are communicated online by a selection of academic associations. It also investigates the relationship between what is communicated online and the size of the associations' membership fees. The findings show that the level of the membership fee is to some extent influenced by the amount of words that communicate status on an association's website, as opposed to communication about conferences, job market, networking, publications, savings, size, or age.

  • 5. Hultman, Magnus
    et al.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Good looks - good courses: the link between physical attractiveness and perceived performance in higher educational services2008In: Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy (ANZMAC) Conference 2007 / [ed] Maree Thyne; Kenneth R. Deans; Juergen Gnoth, Dunedin, N.Z: University of Otago, School of Business, Dept. of Marketing , 2008, p. 2588-2597Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study's aim has been to investigate whether the physical appearance of the person providing a service has an influence on the overall perceived performance of the service. It has done so by investigating the effects of perceived physical attractiveness in the context of higher educational services. A review of relevant literature and subsequent analysis of empirical data from 180 university courses has revealed that the perceived physical attractiveness of university instructors positively impacts the perceived performance of the instructor as well as the performance of the university courses they provide. The implications of these results for managers of service firms as well as recommendations for future research are also provided.

  • 6. Hultman, Magnus
    et al.
    Opoku, Robert
    Communicating brand personality through African tourism websites2005In: The AM2005, Academy of Marketing Conference, 2005, p. 28-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hultman, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Opoku, Robert Ankomah
    King Fahid University of Petroleum and Minerals.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bui, Thong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Private label competition: the perspective of Swedish branded goods manufacturers2008In: Management Research News, ISSN 0140-9174, E-ISSN 1758-6135, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 125-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to gain a better understanding of how Swedish branded goods manufacturers (BGMs) deal with the increased usage of private labels. Design/methodology/approach - The approach takes the form of answering the three research questions of this study: how private labels are viewed by BGMs on the Swedish market; how Swedish BGMs strategically respond to the increases in private labels; and how the benefits and drawbacks of these strategic responses are perceived by Swedish BGMs. A contrasting multiple case study of four Swedish companies in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry was used. Findings - The perceived advantages of private labels are connected to their overall control of the market in which they operate, whereas the advantages of BGMs are seen to be linked to product development and superior brand reputation. BGMs respond to private labels by taking them seriously and striving to increase the perceived distance of their brands from private labels in the eyes of the consumers. The overall benefit of these strategies is perceived to be preparedness for increased private label competition, while the drawbacks vary between companies. Research limitations/implications - In addition to empirical testing based on previous research on private label competition in a new setting, the study also presents suggestions for future research and the implications of the findings for managers. Practical implications - Findings indicate that BGMs should take the emergence of private labels seriously, while at the same time striving to maintain good business relationships with the retailers. Originality/value - The study provides insights into the competitive situation between private labels and the manufacturer brands in the Swedish FMCG market.

  • 8. Jung, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Opoku, Robert
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Internet usage in supply chain managemant and its impact on overall efficiency: a Swedish SME perspective2007In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the Academy of Marketing Science / [ed] Dheeraj Sharma; Shaheen Borna, The Academy of Marketing Science, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Leonidou, Constantinos, N.
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Leonidou, Leonidas, C.
    University of Cyprus.
    Coudounaris, Dafnis
    Neapolis University Pafos, Pafos, Cyprus.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Value differences as determinants of importers' perceptions of exporters' unethical behavior: the impact on relationship quality and performance2013In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 156-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on the value drivers of the unethical marketing behavior of exporters, as seen from the perspective of their importers, and how this in turn affects the quality of their working relationship and performance. Based on a sample of 189 Cypriot importers, the study revealed that similarities in national, corporate, and personal values between importers and their foreign suppliers are negatively related to unethical marketing practices of the latter as perceived by the former, and vice versa. Perceived export marketing unethicality, in turn, negatively influences the exporter–importer relationship quality (as expressed in terms of cooperation, communication, trust, and commitment), which subsequently has harmful effects on the performance of the relationship. In addition, the existence of a high similarity in both value strength and ethical codes between importers and their export suppliers was found to positively affect the quality of the working relationship. Finally, the association of both corporate and personal values similarity with perceived export marketing unethicality was found to be moderated by network ties, although this was not evident in the case of national values similarity. The findings of the study have important implications for import managers in terms of properly selecting and handling relationships with their foreign suppliers.

  • 10.
    Leonidou, Leonidas C.
    et al.
    University of Cyprus.
    Coudounaris, Dafnis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Leonidou, Constantinos N.
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Antecedents and relationship consequences of foreign supplier unethical marketing behavior: an importer's perspective2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Leonidou, Leonidas C.
    et al.
    University of Cyprus.
    Coudounaris, Dafnis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Leonidou, Constantinos N.
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Value drivers of importers' perceptions on exporters' unethical behavior: effects on relationship quality and performance2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing globalization of the world economy, relationships between importers and their foreign suppliers are becoming closer. However, the international business environment provides a fertile ground for the growth of unethical behavior. This article sheds light on the drivers of the unethical marketing behavior of foreign suppliers, as these are seen from the perspective of their import buyers, and how this in turn affects the quality of their working relationship and the performance that results from it. Based on a sample of 189 importers located in Cyprus, the study revealed that cultural, corporate, and personal values negatively affect unethical marketing practices, which, in turn, negatively influence relationship quality (as this is expressed in terms of cooperation, communication, trust, and commitment). This will subsequently have harmful effects on the performance of the working relationship. The findings of the study have important implications for import managers in terms of properly selecting and handling relationships with their foreign suppliers.

  • 12. Mostaghel, Rana
    et al.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Hultman, Magnus
    Prioritization of service quality factors in online purchasing: a cross-cultural comparison2008In: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Annual Conference: Reflective Marketing in a Material World : 8-10 July 2008, Aberdeen Scotland, The Gatehouse Design , 2008, p. 98-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer behaviour has changed dramatically in the past decade. Today, consumers can order online many customised products ranging from trainers to cars. In an increasingly interdependent world where barriers to trade and to international exchanges constantly diminish, cultural differences remain the single most enduring feature that has to be taken into account for localizing marketing strategies. The findings of this research are mostly useful to those managers and web-designers who intend to penetrate international "Business to Consumer" markets. One of the key challenges of online businesses is the management of service quality, which holds a significant importance to customer satisfaction. This paper is purposed to unveil customers' perceptions on service quality priority and different cultures' expectations in online shopping. The proposed study has been tested on data from 413 customers divided in two groups from Europe (n=215) and Middle east (n=198). The study is based on the SERVQUAL instrument that identifies five quality dimensions. The findings indicate that; developing countries customers need more security and clarity in transactions but also better internet infrastructure. Based on the study results, recommendations for managers and future research are also provided.

  • 13. Oghazi, Pejvak
    et al.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Mostaghel, Rana
    Determinants of self-service acceptance: a proposed model2008In: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Annual Conference: Reflective Marketing in a Material World : 8-10 July 2008, Aberdeen Scotland, The Gatehouse Design , 2008, p. 254-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-service facilities are nowadays widely implemented in the service industry and their rate of usage is steadily increasing, it is therefore critical to understand the nature of the value customers place on self-service and how they decide on their use of self-service options. In light of this, the current paper extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by merging self-service attributes in order to develop and test a self-service acceptance model (SSAM). The proposed model has been tested on data from 277 customers of a university library that has recently employed self-service technologies. The findings indicate that the SSAM fits the empirical data well and that intention to use self-service is an ultimate function of the customers' perceived usefulness of the service, attitude towards using it, and their perceived enjoyment of the self-service feature in question. Based on the study results, recommendations for managers and future research are also provided.

  • 14.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Hultman, Magnus
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Mostaghel, Rana
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Antecedents of technology-based self-service acceptance: a proposed model2012In: Services Marketing Quarterly, ISSN 1533-2969, E-ISSN 1533-2977, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 195-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology based self-service (TBSS) facilities have been widely implemented in the service industry and it is therefore vital to understand how customers arrive at decisions to adopt it. This paper presents and tests a model assessing the antecedents of customers’ acceptance of technology based self-service by merging the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with self-service attributes. The findings show that intention to use TBSS is an ultimate function of customers’ perceived usefulness of the self service technology, their attitude towards using it, and their perceived enjoyment of using it. Managers who wish to employ TBSS should therefore first obtain a good understanding of the factors that drives their customers’ attitude towards the-self service. They should investigate how to make the self-service more enjoyable in addition to focusing on the traditional usability- and usefulness enhancing features. Recommendations for future research are also provided.

  • 15.
    Opoku, Robert Ankomah
    et al.
    King Fahid University of Petroleum and Minerals.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Positioning in market space: the evaluation of Swedish universities' online brand personalities2008In: Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, ISSN 0884-1241, E-ISSN 1540-7144, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 124-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper extends Aaker's previous empirical work on brand personality by exploring whether Swedish Universities communicate distinctive brand personalities in cyberspace. Employing a multistage methodology, data are drawn from the English Web sites of 17 Swedish universities and analyzed by using a combination of computerized content and correspondence analyses. Results indicate that some universities appear to have clear brand personalities, others take on a new face with regard to the obvious personality one would have initially associated them with, while others fail to communicate their brand personalities in any distinct manner. While illustrating a powerful but simple and relatively inexpensive way for institutions for higher education and brand researchers to study communicated brand personalities, this study also highlights the growing importance of brand positioning issues in internationalization and globalization of higher educational institutions.

  • 16. Opoku, Robert
    et al.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Towards a framework of web performance evaluation: a literature review and measurement classification2007In: Marketing theory and practice in an inter-functional world: Proceedings of the 2007 World Marketing Congress, Verona, Italy / [ed] Carol W. DeMoranville, The Academy of Marketing Science, 2007, p. 72-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We position some studies on web performance evaluation research on a perceptual map relative to a developed criterion. Although the analysis of this secondary data cannot claim to utterly complete, it does provide insights into the state-of-art within web performance literature within a given period of time. Based on our findings, we also propose some future research directions in this area.

  • 17.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
    Opoku, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hultman, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Abratt, Russell
    Nova South-Eastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
    Spyropoulou, Stavroula
    Leeds University.
    What I say about myself: communication of brand personality by African countries2007In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 835-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses website brand communication by African nations using Aaker's brand personality dimensions. A multistage methodology focused on 10 African countries, using a combination of content analysis and correspondence analysis. We found that some countries have specific brand personalities while others are failing to communicate their brand personalities distinctly. This article illustrates a powerful, but simple and relatively inexpensive way for international marketers to study communicated brand personality. Although there are 53 countries on the African continent, only 10 countries were covered by this research. The intent was, however, to demonstrate a research method, rather than have comprehensive coverage of the African continent. The major contribution of this study is the use of a new research approach and set of tools that both tourism researchers and managers can use. The technique is easy to use, and the results are easy to interpret.

1 - 17 of 17
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