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  • 1.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    History of Science, Technology and Enviroment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kunnas, Jan
    History of Science, Technology and Enviroment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roberts, Peder
    History of Science, Technology and Enviroment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Solbär, Lovisa
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Warde, Paul
    Pembroke College, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
    Wråkberg, Urban
    Department of Tourism and Northern Studies, UiT The Arctic University of Norway in Kirkenes, Kirkenes, Norway..
    Constructing Northern Fennoscandia as a Mining Region2019In: The Politics of Arctic Resources: Change and Continuity in the “Old North” of Northern Europe / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 78-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineral resources are a considerable basis of wealth of the northern regions of Fennoscandia. However, there are striking differences between how this wealth has been distributed in different countries: in many regions of the world, plentiful natural resources have led to conflicts and impoverishment rather than local development. This chapter aims to explain the historical development of the mining industry in northern Fennoscandia and its changing institutional frameworks from a historical perspective. The main questions are: How was the mining industry in the region established, and why? How did it change over the course of this period, and why? What path dependencies linger on in the present, and how do they influence perceptions of the future? What are the differences and similarities between Sweden, Norway, Finland and northwestern Russia, and why? The chapter will cover an extensive time frame, starting in the 1600s but with a focus on 1880–present and a perspective on the future.

  • 2.
    Driessen, Peter P. J.
    et al.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Hegger, Dries L.T.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznań, Poland. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.
    van Rijswick, Helena F. M. W.
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Crabbé, Ann
    Research Group Environment & Society, Sociology Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab’Urba, Paris Est University, Marne La Vallée, France.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Institute of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Priest, Sally
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Suykens, Cathy
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Institute for Environmental and Energy Law, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Raadgever, Gerrit Thomas
    Sweco Netherlands, The Netherlands.
    Wiering, Mark
    Institute for Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Governance Strategies for Improving Flood Resilience in the Face of Climate Change2018In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is the most common of all natural disasters and accounts for large numbers of casualties and a high amount of economic damage worldwide. To be ‘flood resilient’, countries should have sufficient capacity to resist, the capacity to absorb and recover, and the capacity to transform and adapt. Based on international comparative research, we conclude that six key governance strategies will enhance ‘flood resilience’ and will secure the necessary capacities. These strategies pertain to: (i) the diversification of flood risk management approaches; (ii) the alignment of flood risk management approaches to overcome fragmentation; (iii) the involvement, cooperation, and alignment of both public and private actors in flood risk management; (iv) the presence of adequate formal rules that balance legal certainty and flexibility; (v) the assurance of sufficient financial and other types of resources; (vi) the adoption of normative principles that adequately deal with distributional effects. These governance strategies appear to be relevant across different physical and institutional contexts. The findings may also hold valuable lessons for the governance of climate adaptation more generally.

  • 3.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Samhällsnyttans betydelse vid tillståndsprövningen av vindkraft2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten analyserar hur begreppet samhällsnytta hanteras i tillståndsprövningen av vindkraft. Lagstiftningen ger ett visst utrymme att beakta vindkraftens betydelse för den lokala/regionala ekonomin. Förutom att vindkraften påverkar samhällsekonomin genom att bidra till elproduktionen påverkar utbyggnaden även lokal eller regional ekonomi och sysselsättning samt andra näringar. Hur stora effekterna blir på sysselsättning och inkomster på lokal/regional nivå, beror bland annat på på det lokala utbudet av de tjänster och den kompetens som efterfrågas.

    Såväl positiva som negativa externa effekter uppstår vid utbyggnad av vindkraft, men det finns ett tydligare utrymme i lagstiftningen att beakta vindkraftens negativa effekter, än att ta hänsyn till de positiva effekterna. För att säkerställa att även vindkraftens positiva miljöeffekter ges utrymme i lagstiftningen föreslår författarna att regelverket ändras, så att en bedömning av den miljömässiga nyttan av vindkraften - och andra liknande verksamheter – måste göras i prövningen av tillstånd. Detta skulle öka såväl transparensen och rättssäkerheten i besluten som den vägledande kapaciteten.

  • 4.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 5.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Spegel, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysing and evaluating flood risk governance in Sweden: Adaptation to Climate Change?2016Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Ellison, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå universitet.
    Forest Governance: International, EU and National-Level Frameworks2009Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Felton, Adam
    et al.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk, Science Park, 751 83, Uppsala.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Ahlström, Martin
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Bergh, Johan
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnæus University.
    Björkman, Christer
    Department of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Drössler, Lars
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Fahlvik, Nils
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Gong, Pichen
    Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå.
    Holmström, Emma
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå universitet, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    Department of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    SLU, Umeå.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU, Umeå.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Alnarp.
    Nordin, Annika
    SLU, Umeå.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Sténs, Anna
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious studies, Umeå University.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Asa Research Station, SLU, Lammhult.
    Replacing monocultures with mixed-species: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 2, p. 124-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.

  • 8.
    Fournier, Marie
    et al.
    Laboratoire Géomatique et Foncier, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Ecole Supérieure des Géomètres et Topographes.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab'Urba, Paris Est University.
    Alexander, Meghan
    Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds.
    Hegger, Dries
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Bakker, Marloes
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Crabbé, Ann
    Research Group Society and Environment, University of Antwerp.
    Mees, Hannelore
    Research Group Society and Environment, University of Antwerp.
    Chorynski, Adam
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Flood risk mitigation in Europe: how far away are we from the aspired forms of adaptive governance?2016In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood mitigation is a strategy that is growing in importance across Europe. This growth corresponds with an increasing emphasis on the need to learn to live with floods and make space for water. Flood mitigation measures aim at reducing the likelihood and magnitude of flooding and complement flood defenses. They are being put in place through the implementation of actions that accommodate (rather than resist) water, such as natural flood management or adapted housing. The strategy has gained momentum over the past 20. years in an effort to improve the sustainability of flood risk management (FRM) and facilitate the diversification of FRM in the pursuit of societal resilience to flooding. Simultaneously, it is increasingly argued that adaptive forms of governance are best placed to address the uncertainty and complexity associated with social-ecological systems responding to environmental challenges, such as flooding. However, there have been few attempts to examine the extent to which current flood risk governance, and flood mitigation specifically, reflect these aspired forms of adaptive governance. Drawing from EU research into flood risk governance, conducted within the STAR-FLOOD project, we examine the governance of flood mitigation in six European countries: Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Using in-depth policy and legal analysis, as well as interviews with key actors, the governance and implementation of flood mitigation in these countries is evaluated from the normative viewpoint of whether, and to what extent, it can be characterized as adaptive governance. We identify five criteria of adaptive governance based on a comprehensive literature review and apply these to each country to determine the “distance” between current governance arrangements and adaptive governance. In conclusion, the flood mitigation strategy provides various opportunities for actors to further pursue forms of adaptive governance. The extent to which the mitigation strategy is capable of doing so varies across countries, however, and its role in stimulating adaptive governance was found to be strongest in Belgium and

  • 9.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment.
    Keskitalo, Carina H.
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Ellison, David
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Strom, Anna
    Future Forests, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Andersson, Elisabet
    Swedish Forest Agency.
    Nordin, Jessica
    Sveaskog.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences—SLU.
    Forests, forestry and the water framework directive in Sweden: a trans-disciplinary commentary2011In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 261-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is an ambitious piece of legislation designed to protect and improve water quality throughout Europe. However, forests are only mentioned once in the WFD, and forestry is not mentioned at all, despite its potential implications for streams, rivers and lakes. Here we present a transdisciplinary commentary on the WFD and its implications for forests and forestry in Sweden. This commentary has been prepared by forestry stakeholders, biophysical and social scientists. While we were cognizant of a large body of discipline-specific research, there are very few inter- or trans-disciplinary commentaries which link academic and stakeholder perspectives on the WFD. We had originally felt that there would be little commonality in our concerns. However, we found significant areas of agreement. Our key areas of concern about the implications of the WFD for forestry in Sweden included: (i) concerns about what is meant by good ecological status and how it is assessed; (ii) a perceived lack of clarity in the legal framework; (iii) an inadequate environmental impact assessment process; and (iv) uncertainties about appropriate programs of measures for improving water quality. We were also concerned that ecosystem services provided by forests and the positive effects of forestry on water quality are inadequately recognized in the WFD.

  • 10.
    Gardelli, Caroline
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Nya regler om invasiva främmande arter: Hur försiktigt blev det?2023In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, E-ISSN 2002-3561, no 4, p. 701-718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gilissen, Herman Kasper
    et al.
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University.
    Alexander, Meghan
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bruzzone, Silvia
    Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), France.
    A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of Flood Emergency Management Systems in Europe2016In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society is faced with a range of contemporary threats to everyday life, from natural and technological hazards to accidents and terrorism. These are embodied within integrated emergency management arrangements that are designed to enhance preparedness and response to such incidents, and in turn facilitate a prompt recovery. Such arrangements must be inherently dynamic and evolve as new threats emerge or as existing threats change. An example of the latter is the changing nature of flooding, which is projected to increase in both frequency and severity with climate change. Recognizing this evolving threat, we focus on the evaluation of the effectiveness of domestic Flood Emergency Management Systems (FEMS) as components of integrated emergency management arrangements. Despite the extensive body of literature that documents success conditions of so-called effective emergency management more broadly, there have been only a few attempts to construct a comprehensive evaluation framework to support objective assessment and cross-country comparison. Addressing this gap, we formulate an evaluation framework specifically tailored to the study of FEMS in Europe, which is then provisionally applied to the study of FEMS in England (UK), France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Important differences are observed in how FEMS have evolved in relation to differing contextual backgrounds (political, cultural, administrative, and socio-economic) and exposures to flood hazard. From this provisional assessment, a number of opportunities for, and constraints to, enhancing the effectiveness of FEMS in Europe are discerned. The evaluation framework thus serves as an important stepping stone for further indepth inquiry, and as a valuable tool for future comparative study.

  • 12.
    Goytia, Susana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Schellenberger, Thomas
    University François Rabelais, Tours.
    van Doorn-Hoekveld, Willemijn J.
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law.
    Priest, Sally J.
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Dealing with change and uncertainty within the regulatory frameworks for flood defense infrastructure in selected European countries2016In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas existing literature on the interactions among law, adaptive governance, and resilience in the water sector often focuses on quality or supply issues, this paper addresses adaptation in national water laws in relation to increasing flood risks. In particular, this paper analyzes the extent to which legal rules governing flood defense infrastructure in a selection of European countries (England, France, Sweden, and The Netherlands) allow for response and adaptation to change and uncertainty. Although there is evidence that the legal rules on the development of new infrastructure require that changing conditions be considered, the adaptation of existing infrastructure is a more complicated matter. Liability rules fail to adequately address damages resulting from causes external to the action or inaction of owners and managers, in particular extreme events. A trend toward clearer, and in some cases, increased public powers to ensure the safety of flood defense infrastructure is observed. The paper concludes that legal rules should ensure not only that decisions to build flood defenses are based on holistic and future-oriented assessments, but also that this is reflected in the implementation and operation of these structures.

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  • 13. Gåhlin, Emil
    et al.
    Nilsson, Isabelle
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tillståndprocesser för kärnkraft: internationella lärdomar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna rapport är att analysera och jämföra den lagstiftning som kringgärdar tillståndsgivningen för (i första hand) nya kärnkraftverk i ett antal utvalda länder. Rapporten kan på så sätt bidra med ett viktigt kunskapsunderlag för att diskutera ändamålsenligheten i olika nationella processer (inklusive den svenska). Analysen i rapporten bygger till stora delar på rättsvetenskapliga undersökningar, och behandlar såväl de formella kraven på tillstånd och fysisk planering samt former för medborgar-samverkan i respektive fall. Studien fokuserar i första hand på lagstiftningens utformning i de utvalda länderna, och i begränsad omfattning på praxis. Denna juridiska ansats kompletteras dock också med ett investerarperspektiv på lagstiftningen, dvs. en analys av hur de relevant rättsreglerna kan påverka investeringsbeslut i praktiken. Arbetet bygger till stora delar på synteser av tidigare studier samt intervjuer med forskare, elbolag och myndighetsrepresentanter i Sverige och utomlands. De länder som ingår i jämförelsen är Sverige, Finland, Frankrike, Schweiz, Storbritannien, USA, Sydkorea och Kanada. Dessa länder inkluderar de som nu investerar i kärnkraft samt de som nyligen reformerat sina tillståndsprocesser under de senaste åren. Viktiga skillnader länderna emellan belyses, t.ex. frågor som det politiska inflytandet i prövningen, förhållandet mellan den nationella och lokala makten, former för medborgarsamverkan, samt den övergripande transparensen och förutsägbarheten i lagstiftningen. Ambitionen är också att studera de praktiska konsekvenserna av den rådande lagstiftningen; empiriska erfarenheter finns i en del relevanta fall.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Holmes, Thomas P.
    et al.
    Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States.
    Allen, Will
    Learning for Sustainability, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Haight, Robert G.
    Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marzano, Mariella
    Northern Research Station, Forest Research, Midlothian, UK.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Quine, Christopher P.
    Northern Research Station, Forest Research, Midlothian, UK.
    Langer, E. R. (Lisa)
    Social and Cultural Research Group, Scion, Rotorua, New Zealand.
    Fundamental Economic Irreversibilities Influence Policies for Enhancing International Forest Phytosanitary Security2017In: Current Forestry Reports, ISSN 2198-6436, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 244-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the potential for irreversible ecological and economic damages resulting from failed phytosanitary policies argues for precautionary measures, creating sunk benefits while increasing the risk of over-investment in phytosanitary security. Here, we describe the inherent tension between these sources of irreversibility in economic terms, relate these forces to type I and type II errors, and use this framework to review national and international efforts to protect forests from biological invasions. Available historical evidence suggests that wait-and-see phytosanitary decision-making has dominated the adoption of precautionary measures in most regions and that willingness to under-regulate may sometimes be orders of magnitude greater than willingness to over-regulate. Reducing scientific uncertainty about threats to biosecurity may help mitigate the tendency to under-regulate, and phytosanitary security measures with relatively modest sunk costs could help protect forests as scientific learning advances. A fuller accounting of the costs associated with type II errors, particularly regarding the suite of non-market ecosystem services at risk, would help decision-makers better understand the trade-offs between the sunk costs of policies and long-term economic losses to stakeholders.

  • 15.
    Jannesar Niri, Anahita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Poelzer, Gregory A.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Zhang, Steven E.
    Independent Researcher, 39 Kiewiet Street, Helikon Park, Randfontein, 1759, South Africa.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Ghorbani, Yousef
    School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Joseph Banks Laboratories, Green Lane, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, LN6 7DL, United Kingdom.
    Sustainability challenges throughout the electric vehicle battery value chain2024In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 191, article id 114176Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global commitment to decarbonizing the transport sector has resulted in an unabated growth in the markets for electric vehicles and their batteries. Consequently, the demand for battery raw materials is continuously growing. As an illustration, to meet the net-zero emissions targets, the electric vehicle market demand for lithium, cobalt, nickel, and graphite will increase 26-times, 6-times, 12-times, and 9-times respectively between 2021 and 2050. There are diverse challenges in meeting this demand, requiring the world to embrace technological and knowledge advancements and new investments without provoking conflicts between competing goals. The uncertainties in a sustainable supply of battery minerals, environmental, social and governance complexities, and geopolitical tensions throughout the whole battery value chain have shaped the global and regional concerns over the success of transport decarbonization. Here, focusing on the entire value chain of electric vehicle batteries, the approaches adopted by regulatory agencies, governments, mining companies, vehicle and battery manufacturers, and all the other stakeholders are evaluated. Bringing together all these aspects, this literature review broadens the scope for providing multifaceted solutions necessary to optimize the goal of transport decarbonization while upholding sustainability criteria. Consolidating the previously fragmented information, a solid foundation for more in-depth research on existing difficulties encountered by governmental and industrial actors is created. The outcomes of this study may serve as a baseline to develop a framework for a climate smart and resource efficient supply of batteries considering the unique impacts of individual players.

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  • 16.
    Johansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Division of Social Science,Luleå University of Technology,Sweden.
    Environmental Law Issues In Connection With Landfill Mining2022In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 18, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, landfills are excavated on a relatively modest scale (mainly for the purpose of decontamination, to increase landfill capacity or to free up land for other uses). Lately however, aspirations for excavations aimed at recovering energy and materials have increased and an important goal according to the Mineral Strategy of Sweden is to increase the recycling rate of metals and minerals and reduce the amount of waste. The incidence of certain (critical) metals and minerals, including REE and phosphorus, is moreover assumed to be relatively large in Swedish landfills, and the interest in excavating landfills is therefore expected to increase. The legal situation as regards excavation of landfills in general and of mining waste in particular, is however unclear, not least regarding permit requirement according to the Swedish Environmental Code. Even though landfill recycling may entail numerous negative environmental effects, e.g., acidic and metallic leachate, release of gases, and destabilization of land the regulation of the activity is not clear. The aim of this paper is to describe and problematize the legal situation as regards landfill excavation in Sweden against the backdrop of, on the one hand, a potential increase in the demand for recycled metals and minerals, and on the other hand comprehensive requirements for a non-toxic and healthy environment.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Oskar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Bauer, Torben
    LUMIRE, Luleå, Sweden.
    Actor's perspectives on barriers to the use of sewage sludge in Sweden2024In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 395-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land application of sewage sludge has long been subject to concern. Among the reasons for these concerns are, for example, the occurrence of odours and the risk of spreading heavy metals and pathogens, but also a negative perception regarding the use of sludge. In this paper, we focus the actors' perceptions of sewage sludge use and investigate, through a series of interviews with key actors and stakeholders in the sewage sludge management chain, how technology, the regulatory framework or public perception may function as barriers for valuing sewage sludge as a resource. The uncertainty following outdated legislation and constantly changing policies are frequently mentioned as the main barriers to investment in new technologies, which, in the respondents' opinion, creates a deadlock within the sector with no clear path forward. Although all respondents act and argue with a focus on environment and circularity, their overall sludge management strategies, as well as the issues they focus on, differ. Our study indicate that Swedish sludge management is, to a large extent, siloed and there is a clear a need for a more holistic approach that can help actors to target common issues.

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  • 18.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå universitet, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Can adaptation to climate change at all be mainstreamed in complex multi-level governance systems?: A case study of forest-relevant policies at the EU and Swedish levels2016In: Implementing Climate Change Adaptation in Cities and Communities. Integrating Strategies and Educational Approaches, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 53-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in forest-relevant policy can be as a “most difficult” case, relevant for asking the question to extent to which adaptation can at all be mainstreamed in complex multi-level governance systems. This study examines the case of to what extent EU and national (exemplified by Swedish) legal and policy frameworks are able to integrate with each other in ways that may support climate change adaptation in forests. To move as close to the real life situation of mainstreaming challenges as possible, the study focuses on not only one area of mainstreaming or integration, but on the three broad policy areas: (a) adaptation per se; (b) forest biodiversity and habitat protection with respect to invasive species; and (c) water protection in relation to forest use. The study concludes that conflicts between international legal principles such as precaution and free trade, as well as distribution of competences at EU and national level, results in a great discrepancy in terms of opportunities for a nation to effectively act independently as well as for effectively integrating adaptation aims in the connected EU-national systems.

  • 19.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Implementing multi-level governance?: the legal basis and implementation of the EU water framework directive for forestry in Sweden2012In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve ‘good status’ for all waters by 2015. This study reviews implementation mechanisms with regard to forestry in Sweden, a country with a large proportion of forest land, where forest practices will be important for limiting nutrient and particle runoff that impact the water status. Taking a multi-level governance perspective, this study reviews the legislative requirements at the EU level, legal and policy implementation at the Swedish level and, finally, local implementation in the forest industry. The study illustrates the national specific interpretation of the WFD as well as the way in which existing practices and measures influence WFD implementation. These include for example the Swedish practice to integrate environmental values in forestry via ‘considerations’, supported also by the use of forest certification measures (a voluntary private sector initiative through which environmental consideration is controlled by third-party auditors). The study thereby exemplifies the large role of private and overlapping authorities and jurisdictions in Swedish forest-water governance.

  • 20.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ambjörnsson, Emmeline Laszlo
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Davis, Emily Jane
    130 Hendricks Hall, 5247 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5247, United States.
    Agenda-setting and framing of policy solutions for forest pests in Canadaand Sweden: Avoiding beetle outbreaks?2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 65, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introduction. Understanding historical contingencies into the future: Cases from northern Europe2019In: The Politics of Arctic Resources. : Change and Continuity in the “Old North” of Northern Europe / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå Universit.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Boberg, Johanna
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Klapwijk, Maartje
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Oliva Palau, Jonas
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Implementing Plant Health Regulations with Focus on Invasive Forest Pests and Pathogens: Examples from Swedish Forest Nurseries2018In: The Human Dimensions of Forest and Tree Health: Global perspectives / [ed] Julie Urquhart, Mariella Marzano, Clive Potter, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan , 2018, p. 193-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International trade and climate change have increased the movement potential for invasive alien species (IAS), including invasive pests and pathogens (IPPs), to the point where biological invasions are considered one of the major threats to biodiversity. However, practical implementation of plant health with regard to IAS and IPPs is difficult: regulative responsibilities are commonly spread across different authorities, and resources on the ground are often limited. Based on a legislative and literature review and semi-structured qualitative interviews (N = 7), the present study examines the possibilities and potential risks of monitoring and detection of forest invasive species in Sweden, with a particular focus on forest plant nurseries. The study thus adds practical implementation aspects concerning possibilities to limit the spread of invasive species in the plant trade.

  • 23.
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Hopkins, Anna J.M.
    Centre of Excellence for Climate Change, Woodlands and Forest Health, Murdoch University.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Schroeder, Martin
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Lindelöw, Åke
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Rönnberg, Jonas
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå universitet, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umeå University.
    Kenis, Marc
    CABI Europe-Switzerland.
    Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 2, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.

  • 24.
    Kokko, Kai
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Buanes, Arild
    Norut (Northern Research Institute), Tromsö.
    Koivurova, Timo
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland.
    Masloboev, Vladimir
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Russia.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation2015In: Barents Studies, E-ISSN 2324-0652, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 50-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability); the competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability); public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability) before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability).Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can be found in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

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  • 25.
    Kunnas, Jan
    et al.
    History of Science, Technology and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The institutionalization of forestry as a primary land use in Sweden2019In: The Politics of Arctic Resources. : Change and Continuity in the “Old North” of Northern Europe / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 62-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lishchuk, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The mechanisms of decision-making when applying geometallurgical approach to the mining industry2021In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is believed that most of the production problems in modern mining industry could be solved solely by applying technical tools such as better machinery, more accurate models or more advanced technology. Geometallurgy was initially introduced as a tool aimed to improve production performance by integrating geological and process information into a predictive model. However, the actual benefits of geometallurgy cannot be achieved without considering actors involved and strategic decisions made by the management in addition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a framework of decision-making in which technical and managerial aspects of the geometallurgy are fully integrated. This framework is aimed to be used for improving predictability of the geometallurgical programmes.

  • 27.
    Mackay, Heather
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University .
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Getting invasive species on the political agenda: agenda setting and policy formulation in the case of ash dieback in the UK2017In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1953-1970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews how the issue of ash dieback has been placed on the political agenda in the UK, a country where the disease has affected one of the largest national extents, thus representing a particularly severe case. Comparisons are made between how the scientific community framed the ash dieback threat and the resulting response strategy and how both the media and the British government framed the problem. Representing one example of media framing, the study analyses one British newspaper’s coverage of the disease and the response strategies (the Daily Telegraph). The analysis highlights a gap between the biologically rooted perspective and the perspective of policymakers, where policy must manoeuvre between disparate viewpoints and needs. Crucially, none of Pautasso et al.’s (Biol Conserv 158:37–49, 2013) five plant-science-based solutions were explicitly adopted by the British Government in their response strategy to ash dieback disease. The same is true of the biological control recommendations offered by Kirisits et al. (J Agric Ext Rural Dev 4(9):230–235, 2012). Instead, the government adopted a broader, more comprehensive approach than that recommended by plant scientists. The present analysis thus provides an example of a holistic perspective on the multiple competing factors that policymakers must navigate in their attempts to delineate action. It highlights instances in which proposed biological responses were rendered less applicable by a failure to understand the agenda-setting process and the policy-making arena. The present findings suggest that an improved understanding of the factors influencing agenda setting and policy action is essential to arriving at a more effective and integrated understanding of responses to biological threats.

  • 28.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rättsliga förutsättningar för intensivodling av skog: faktaunderlag till MINT-utredningen2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten behandlar rättsliga förutsättningar för intensivodling av skog: ett skogsbruk med produktionshöjande åtgärder som kan överskrida de begränsningar som återfinns i den nu gällande skogsvårdslagen och dess tillämpningsföreskrifter eller annan relevant lagstiftning.Rapportens första del visar den rättsliga kontexten i samband med intensivodling av skog, internationellt, inom EU och i Sverige. Andra delen behandlar författningsändringar. Det är idag rättsligt oklart om vissa intensivodlingar ska ses som jordbruk eller skogsbruk. I rapporten lämnas alternativa förslag till precisering. Intensivodling kan underlättas genom vissa ändringar i skogsvårdslagstiftningen: att i högre grad tillåta odling med vissa utländska trädslag, att den nu gällande arealrestriktionen upphävs för användning av vegetativt förökat skogsodlingsmaterial och att tillåta mer kvävegödsling än idag. Förutsättningar i samtliga fall är att (i) åtgärden sker på skogsmarker som visats sakna beaktansvärd betydelse med hänsyn till motstående intressen, (ii) åtgärden tillståndsprövas av Skogsstyrelsen och då ses som ändrad markanvändning, samt (iii) Skogsstyrelsen har sådant beslutsunderlag att den kan bedöma markens värde.Om det inte anses meningsfullt med naturvårdshänsyn vid intensivodling kan nu gällande krav enligt 30 § skogsvårdslagen undantas för de aktuella åtgärderna (utom i kantzoner). Lindringen kan kombineras med kompensationskrav på skogsbrukaren, mer konkret genom ett fondsystem med hänsynsavgift.

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  • 29.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Activity: CIGSAC-seminar, the Capability of International Governance Systems to Contribute to the Mitigation of Climate Change and Adjust to its Consequenses: an arctic perspective2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy legal challenges in the Arctic: implications of a changing climate2008In: The Borderless North: publication of the Fourth Northern Research Forum / [ed] Lassi Heininen; Kari Laine, Oulu: University of Oulu, 2008, p. 189-191Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy resources in the arctic: some implications of the Kyoto protocol and its flexible mechanisms2005In: Third Annual Norsel Seminar: Climate Change in the Arctic - Environmental and Indigenous Issues, Nordic Research Network for Saami and Environmental Law , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 32.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kontroll av främmande arter (i skogsmiljöer): Behovet av rättsliga reformer2013In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, E-ISSN 2002-3561, no 3, p. 417-433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Legal preconditions for wind power implementation in Sweden and Denmark2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy policy relies heavily on the promotion of renewable energy resources, in particular wind energy and in 2002 the Swedish Government adopted a national planning goal of a yearly wind power generation of 10 TWh by 2015, which implies a substantial increase from the current 0.6 TWh level. The main purpose of this study is to analyse relevant functions of the Swedish law with reference to the im-plementation of wind power; the overarching question at issue being in what respects the law impedes respectively facilitates the development of wind power, and to compare the results from the Swedish analysis with the corresponding functions in Danish law, and b) to present some implications for the choice between different legislative measures to meet the Swedish wind power planning goal. The results are based on in-depth studies of relevant legal rules and case law, and the overall indi-cations are: a) on one hand, that several of the Swedish legal rules in connection with the overarching management and use of land and water areas are vaguely formulated and provide an extensive room for discretion, which makes the outcomes unpredictable and increase the uncertainties associated with wind power investments, b) on the other hand, that certain specific rules regarding the location of the wind-mills, together with the requirement to objectively assess alternative sites for the installation have shown to seriously hamper the establishment of windmills in Sweden, c) that the strong support for the munici-pal self- governance in connection with the system for physical planning in Sweden implies that great stress is laid on the existence of territorial plans for wind power, which in turn implies that windmills are unlikely to be established without municipal consent, and finally d) that the installation of windmills on Swedish territory may require as many as five different permits, which imply time-consuming (and hence costly) processes with unpredictable outcomes. The results from the analysis of the corresponding Danish system reveal a quite different situation; the specific and precise regulations regarding the installation of windmills in Denmark imply a lot less room for discretion which reduce the uncertainty in connection with the investment decision. Moreover, that the vertically integrated planning system in Denmark greatly enhances the possibilities to implement national planning objectives on the regional, municipal and local level.

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  • 34.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mitigation possibilities in the energy sector: an Arctic perspective2009In: Climate Governance in the Arctic, Dordrecht: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, p. 303-326Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Path dependence in the legal system?: Implications for the development of wind power2011In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2011, no 2, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional path dependence means that decisions made in the past affect future choices. The core of the formal institutional framework – the legal system – reflects choices already made, while the result of today’s legal application is the basis for future rulings. Since the planning and location of energy installations, such as windmills, typically involves application of legal rules that to various extents are coloured by path dependence, the transformation of the energy system may prove difficult. A more sustainable energy system thus depends e.g. on the design of the institutional framework and whether the law is promoting or counteracting the diffusion of renewable energy technology such as wind power. The aim of this paper has been to analyse the legal implementation of wind power in Sweden on the basis of presumed path dependence. The paper illustrates that the path dependence of the legal regimes affecting wind power development in some instances is significant and that policy implementation therefore may be seriously hampered. The purposes for which expropriation of land is possible in Sweden were for example founded in the early 20th century, a time in which very few thought of producing energy by harnessing wind. Although time has changed, the regulation remains and the rules are – if not hampering – at best neutral vis-à-vis wind power development. The resource management provisions under the Environmental Code also show clear signs of institutional path dependence; regardless of repeated criticism from e.g. the Council of Legislation (Swe: Lagrådet) regarding the rules’ applicability the system persists and continues to confuse both legal scholars and practitioners. The municipal planning monopoly and right of veto is another feature of the Swedish institutional framework that produces self-reinforcing sequences that are hard to breach. And without municipal consent, energy policy, and particularly wind power policy, is very difficult to implement. Although the institutional path dependence suggests a complex and complicated situation, the norms, expectations, traditions, customs etc. that constitute the social structure in which the law is embedded can change, and so can the law. The more recent legal application demonstrates that the law can in fact be applied in favour of wind power development even facing strong preservation interests. This may be a sign of a necessary change happening.

  • 36.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Renewable energy and the function of law: a comparative study of legal rules related to the planning, location and installation of windmills2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy policy relies heavily on the promotion of renewable energy, in particu-lar wind power. Notwithstanding a substantial political and economic support for this development, the installed capacity of wind power in Sweden remains fairly small both in relation to the corresponding development in other countries and in absolute num-bers. The starting point for this study is that the implementation of a planning policy, such as the Swedish development goal for wind power, is partly dependent on the re- quirements of the law. In other words, in the face of supposedly strong economic incen-tives to promote wind power, barriers to the implementation might be found embedded in the institutional system. The purpose of this study is thus, primarily, to describe and analyse the function of Swedish law with reference to the implementation of renewable energy policy objectives, with focus on the development of wind power. This involves legal rules related to planning, location and operation of windmills. The legal system is evaluated in respect of its capacity to facilitate or impede the development of wind power. Secondly, the study includes a comparative analysis of the corresponding legal functions in Denmark, Norway and England. The result of the analysis of Swedish law indicates that the legal system governing the implementation process encompasses bar- riers to the development of wind power. The main obstacles are found in the system for physical planning and the concession system, although quite a few hindering individual provisions have also been disclosed. The lack of sufficient control functions together with an extensive municipal power creates an unpredictable and ineffective planning system that basically lacks confidence for an efficient implementation of wind power. The installation of windmills may further require as many as five different types of permits, which risks to seriously hamper the development due to lengthy processes and appeals. Among the individual rules, the location requirement in the Swedish Environ-mental Code strikes as notably hindering; the requirement to objectively assess alterna-tive sites has in several cases obstructed the installation of windmills. Overall, the im- plementation deficits are considerable. The examination of the corresponding legal functions in Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom presents some very important differences with respect to planning control and permit requirements, as well as regard-ing substantial provisions. Generally, it looks as if there is a correlation between the level of overarching control over the physical planning on the one hand, and the poten-tial to successfully implement renewable energy policy objectives on the other. Time-limits for permit procedures, legal standards for emissions, explicit rules for the balanc-ing of opposite interests and so forth, are other interesting features that may be em-ployed in Sweden. A realization of the Swedish wind power planning goal will thus presumably require changes of the law. The most important issue is perhaps to reduce the implementation deficits by improving the legal framework governing the planning and installation processes. A few of the discussed factors emerge as crucial in this re-spect and that is roughly: to remove the general permit requirement, and thus leave the entire trial to the planning system; and to breach the municipal planning monopoly.

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  • 37.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Renewable energy in the Arctic: regulatory frameworks2013In: Polar Law Textbook II, Köpenhamn: Nordic Council of Ministers , 2013, p. 155-173Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rättsliga förutsättningar för en gemensam europeisk energipolitik2008In: EU och den globala klimatfrågan, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2008, p. 137-161Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power planning and permitting: comparative perspectives from the Nordic countries2010In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 3116-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare some important institutional and legal preconditions for wind power development in three Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In the paper a number of historical, institutional and policy-related differences across these countries are highlighted, but most attention is paid to the various territorial planning procedures. The analysis suggests that although public economic support to wind power is necessary to promote its diffusion in the electricity system, similar policy instruments - in terms of both size and design - can induce significantly different developments depending on the legal preconditions for the location and environmental assessment of windmills. The success and failure stories of technology support policies can thus not easily be transferred across country borders. An important conclusion is that in comparison to Sweden the physical planning systems in both Denmark and Norway provide greater scope for implementing a national wind power policy at the local level. For instance, the Danish planning system is vertically integrated, and involves a designation of areas for wind power purposes in the local plans, while the municipalities in Sweden must in some way assent to (i.e., plan for) the establishment of windmills at a certain location in order for the installation to actually take place. Compared to its competitors, wind power is one of the power-generating technologies that tend to have the most to lose from the uncertainties created by planning regulations that leave much discretion to local authorities.

  • 40.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The role of the precautionary principle and property rights in the governance of natural resources in Sweden2016In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2016, no 1, p. 107-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Circular Economy and Sustainability: Management and Policy (Volume 1)2023In: Detrius, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 23, p. XI-XIIIArticle, book review (Other academic)
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  • 42.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    How Cautious Should We Be? The Role Of The Precautionary Principle In The Regulation Of Sewage Sludge In Sweden2022In: Detritus – Multidisciplinary Journal for Waste Resources and Residues, ISSN 2611-4135, no 21, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a line between what constitutes a potentially hazardous waste and what is instead a possible resource is complicated. A case in point is the use of sewage sludge, whose use not least in agriculture, has long been subject of debate. In Sweden, the issue has been investigated for possible legislative changes four times in the past decades. The latest of these investigations propose to introduce either a total or a partial ban on agricultural use of sewage sludge. In this paper, the legality of these proposals is analyzed with particular focus on their compatibility with the precautionary principle and the EU principle of free movement of goods and services, using a traditional legal method. The analysis indicates that a partial ban may well be considered proportionate to the risks that the use entails for human health and the environment, whilst a total ban would likely be found in breach of EU law, despite the scope for Member States to take stricter measures than prescribed by secondary legislation.

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  • 43.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptive capacity of legal and policy frameworks for biodiversity protection considering climate change2013In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 34, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of biodiversity under conditions of climate change is likely to place large requirements on existing frameworks for biodiversity protection at both EU and national level. While these systems are not perfectly adapted today, the inclusion of climate change concerns will require revision and addition of new issues, such as species migration corridors and buffers, as well as proactive strategies in areas that may not be protected today. Biodiversity in forest is particularly important as forest range over large areas that include also other land uses; this holds particularly true for the large forested areas in northern Europe. Illustrating complexities regarding biodiversity protection, this study reviews the applicable legal framework related to biodiversity in forests on EU and national level in Sweden, one of the countries with the largest forest areas in the EU. Mainly drawing on a policy and legal study, the paper concludes that adapting the legislative and policy system to a future with large uncertainties in terms of extent of change poses a problem for what are largely reactive systems in particular in terms of legislation.

  • 44.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Forest invasive species and climate change: EU and Swedish regulatory frameworks2012In: Environmental Policy and Law, ISSN 0378-777X, E-ISSN 1878-5395, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H
    Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Rybråten, Stine
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Vormstuguvegen 40, 2624 Lillehammer, Norway.
    Frameworks for regulating local natural resource use in northern Sweden and northern Norway – A legislative review2023In: Retfærd: Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, no 4, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    In search of legal pathways to a sustainable energy supply: the method of constructive jurisprudence2011In: Methods and models: used in the project Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability , 2011, p. 63-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 47.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Wind power development and the function of law2011In: European Energy Pathways: Pathways to Sustainable European Energy Systems, Göteborg: Alliance for Global Sustainability , 2011, p. 101-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Oksanen, Anniina
    Faculty of Law, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Mingaleva, Tatiana
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Science, Apatity.
    Petrov, Victor
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Science, Apatity.
    Masloboev, Vladimir
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Science, Apatity.
    License to Mine: A Comparison of the Scope of the Environmental Assessment in Sweden, Finland and Russia2015In: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 6, p. 237-255, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulatory framework for mining operations is complex; the licensing process in particular typically involves several laws and a number of permits. This paper assumes that the regulatory framework is strongly influenced by the institutional framework of which it is part, and that it suffers from an institutional path dependence that may decrease the efficiency of the system as well as act barrier to the implementation of necessary environmental requirements. The paper provides: 1) a legal analysis of the regulatory framework governing mining operations in Sweden, Finland and Russia; and 2) a comparative analysis of the scope of the environmental assessment within the licensing process in the examined countries. The result of the analysis of the regulatory frameworks shows great similarity between the Swedish and the Finnish systems, both in terms of the overall structure and the implementation of substantive environmental rules. The Russian system differs in this respect, with more declarative rules and seemingly less substantive assessments. The results also indicate that the regulatory frameworks in all three countries show signs of institutional path dependence, but in very different degrees. Though Russia has indeed implemented major changes in the formal structure, very little has changed in practice. The Swedish regulatory framework for mining shows a deficient systematics and conflicting objectives, despite the implementation of a comprehensive environmental legislation. The recently reformed Finnish system seems to have a more holistic approach.

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  • 49.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University .
    Erratum: Pettersson, M., Stjernström, O., and Keskitalo, E.C.H., 2017. The role of participation in the planning process: examples from Sweden.2017In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 8, p. i-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    The role of participation in the planning process: examples from Sweden2017In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 986-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation in decision-making has successively developed into a guiding principle at both EU and national level. However, diverse perspectives exist on what the role of different interests in participative processes should be, and the legal rules regarding participation varies between different sectors; from clearly defined to virtually non-existent requirements. This may have adverse effects on the legitimacy of decisions and decision-making. This paper reviews the role of participation in the planning process in relation to natural resource development in Sweden, as guided by EU and international law. Based on the notion of effective participation, the study illustrates the potential clashes that may result from different conceptions of participation, for instance, at various levels of governance, as well as from disparate principles for implementation in different sectors.

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