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  • 1.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Steel industry environmental objectives: stakeholder preference assessment using conjoint analysis2013In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 605-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish steel industry has combined traditional methods such as life cycle analysis with less traditional methods such as preference analysis in order to move towards a closed steel eco cycle. The paper describes the use of conjoint analysis to study preferences of six different stakeholder groups regarding four environmental objectives (reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, reduced use of non-renewable resources, reduced use of non-renewable energy and weight reduction in products) and to identify gaps in preferences between the stakeholder groups. Our results suggested that there was a difference in preference between the stakeholder groups: respondents that were closer to the steel industry favoured all four environmental objectives, while members of public and political decision makers preferred a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the conclusions of our study is that there is a need of improved information to clients and public on the environmental benefits of product weight reduction.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Elfgren, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling2013In: International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global demand for Nordic wild berries has increased steadily, partly due to their healthy properties and their good taste. Juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds. Traditionally, the by-products have been composted. Higher competiveness can be achieved by decreasing the production cost and increasing the product values. The berry skins and seeds have a commercial value since they are rich in vitamins and nutrients. To use and sell these by-products, they need to be separated from each other and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt. A berry juice industry in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency and optimize the quality and yield of different berry fractions. This was done by means of process integration with thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the berry juice production processes. Our calculations show that the drying system could be operated at full without any external heat supply. This could be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculating 80 % of the drying air and by heating the air with heat from the flue gases from the industrial boiler. This change would decrease the need for heat in the dryer with about 64 %. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1204 kW to 1039 kW. The proposed changes could be done without compromising the production quality or the lead time.

  • 3.
    Dahl, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Process integration in the steel industry2004In: Proceedings: 2nd International Conference on New Developments in Metallurgical Process Technology, Milano: Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ekbom, Tomas
    et al.
    Grontmij AB, Energy and Power, Stockholm.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Nordlight AB.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Tunå, Per
    Lund University.
    Methanol production from steel-work off-gases and biomass based synthesis gas2012In: International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2012: Jul 5-8, 2012, Suzhou, China, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective has been to describe different cases of the methanol production from steel-work off gases (Coke oven gas and Basic oxygen furnace gas) and biomass based synthesis gas. The SSAB steel mill in the town of Luleå, Sweden has been used as a basis to analyze four different methanol production cases.The studied biomass gasification technology is based on a fluidized bed gasifier unit, where the production capacity is determined from case to case coupled to the heat production required to satisfy the local district heating demand. Critical factors are the integration of the gases with availability to the synthesis unit, to balance the steam system of the biorefinery and to meet the district heat demand of Luleå.For each case, the annual production potential of methanol, the overall production efficiencies and the effects on the total steel plant have been estimated.

  • 5.
    Elfgren, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Karlsson, Jonny
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Exergy as a means for process integration in an integrated steel plant2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Luleå energy system consists of SSAB (an integrated steel plant) – LuleKraft (the heat and power plant) – Luleå Energi (the district heating network). The exergy flows in the whole system have been studied and some possibilities on how to reduce the exergy losses are discussed. The exergy thermal efficiency of SSAB, LuleKraft and Luleå Energi are 70 %, 40 % and 30 % respectively. The relatively low exergy thermal efficiencies is a natural consequence of converting high-value chemical energy into heating water. In the integrated steel plant, the exergy losses are caused by the cooling of the steel prior to transport. In the heat and power plant, exergy is destroyed mainly in the furnace. In the district heating, exergy is destroyed mainly by the customer. A preliminary conclusion is that a lot of exergy is destroyed and lost in order to produce hot water, which doesn’t really need so much exergy. By lowering the water temperature of the district heating, a larger portion of the exergy can be converted to high-value electricity. Mapping by combined Exergy/energy analysis is important to find ways to improve energy efficiency. It can also be important to initiate regional energy collaboration.

  • 6.
    Elfgren, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Karlsson, Jonny
    SSAB.
    Possibility to combine exergy with other process integration methods for a steelmaking case2010In: PRES 2010, 13th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction / [ed] Jirí J. Klemeš; Hon Loong Lam; Petar S. Varbanov, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. , 2010, p. 1375-1380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy system of Luleå consists of the steel plant, a local CHP using process gases from the plant and the district heating system. Process integration work to improve the efficiency of the system is presently carried out by mathematical programming using a MILP tool (reMIND). Further improvements would need an improved possibility of the tool to consider the thermodynamic quality of the energy flows. This project aims to include exergy parameters in the node equations and object functions. This has been carried out for a test case, including a part of the system. Programming principles and some results are described.

  • 7.
    Engh, Torwald
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Worner, H K
    WORCRA.
    Hansson, L
    ITL (Isotoptekniskt Laboratorium).
    One Dimensional Model of The Worcra Steel Refining Launder1971In: JkA: Jernkontorets Annaler, ISSN 0280-4239, Vol. 155, no 9, p. 553-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En datormodell byggdes av en process för kontinuerlig stålframställning (WORCRA). Processen sker i en ränna där stål och slagg går motströms och med syrgaslansar längs rännan. Modellen byggde på en endimensionell massbalans. Processen testades i pilotskala på MEFOS. För att testa modellen gjordes experiment med radioaktiva isotoper i kombination med provtagning av analys och temperatur längs rännan. störningar och förändringar verkade skapas uppströms från provtagnings plats 2 och följa stålströmmen därifrån. Ett styrsystem baserat på mätningarna i denna punkt föreslogs

  • 8.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    BioDRI: Skogen möter stålet: Förgasa biomassa. Använd gasen för att göra järn (DRI)2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    •Processkedja i stort, projektstruktur, parter•WP1: Försörjning: hur får vi fram biomassan•WP2: Förgasningsprocess, Pilotförsök m.m.•WP3: Reduktionsprocesser•WP4: Hela kedjan•Diskussion och slutsatser

  • 9. Grip, Carl-Erik
    Fundamental research about the Bosh of the Blast Furnace1970Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högtemperaturzonen är den mest okända delen av masugnen. En experimentell utrustning för att simulera förloppet i denna zon har byggts på MRP(nu MEFOS). Ett prov på bäddmaterial placeras i en elektriskt upphettad degel samtidigt som reduktionsgas passerar genom den perforerade botten. Temperatur och gasflöde motsvara dem i den aktuella zonen. En mekanisk belastning läggs på för att simulera vikten i schaktet. Försöken startar vid 1000 grad C . Materialet har förreducerats före försöket för att motsvara förhållandena vid inträde i zonen. Tryckfall och hopsjunkning registrerades. Efter försöken studerades struktur och metallografiska förändringar på det kylda provet. resultat av de första försöksserierna gjordes med sura pellets och sinterredovisas. strukturförändringar mellan 1000 och 1400 grader C redovisas. Tryckfallet genom provet steg mycket snabbt jämfört med medelförlusten i masugnszonen

  • 10.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Simple model for prediction of temperatures in an L-shaped tundish: verification by continuous temperature measurements1998In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 704-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple model concept developed for the SSAB steel plant was tested on data for another plant. That plant had an L-shaped tundish for billet casting. A special tanks in series model was developed for the steel flow in that tundish. The rest of the model could be used without change. It consists of simple equations for heat loss in ladle and tundish, as well as for the effect of thermal stratification and drainage flows in the ladle. The model was verified against existing data from continuous temperature measurements. The results show that the model approach developed for the steel plant of SSAB can also give good predictions with a different plant and tundish design. A simple mixing model could be used even for a complicated tundish configuration

  • 11.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Steel and sustainability - a Scandinavian perspective: Sustainability2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A description is given on the practice in the Steel Plant of SSAB Tunnplåt AB in Luleå and on the progress in recirculation of residuals and decreasing environmental impact. An extensive study on greenhouse gas in steel production up to slabs was carried out by SSAB during the years 2000-2002. Present and new processes and possible alternatives were studied, as well as the effect of the product programme. Different emission alternatives were studied using global calculation (SSAB + CHP plant). Conclusions on long-term and shortterm possibilities were discussed. Major efforts have been made to develop the process integration technology. In Sweden, this has been realised within a national programme for the total process industry (steel, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, food). There are synergies, as the optimisation problem itself is relatively similar independent of industry sector. Similar efforts are made in other Scandinavian countries and a joint Scandinavian programme has been carried out. Discussions on ore-based vs. scrap-based metallurgy are often based on the assumption that these roads are alternatives to each other. This is not the case; instead, ore-based metallurgy is the first step in a series of subsequent life cycles, and both roads are necessary to carry out the "cycle of cycles". The philosophy of this is discussed. The Scandinavian climate makes the use of residual heat energy for district heating and cooling economically important and a part of energy/sustainability considerations. Significant R&D efforts are and have been made to increase recirculation. Two programmes/ centres of excellence in this field are described.

  • 12.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Steel and sustainability: Scandinavian perspective2005In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 235-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A description is given of practice at the steelplant of SSAB Tunnplat AB in Lulea, Sweden, and of progress in the recycling of residuals and reducing environmental impact. An extensive study of greenhouse gases in steel production to slabs was carried out by SSAB during the years 2000-02. Current and new processes and possible alternatives were studied, as well as the effect of the product programme. Various emission alternatives were considered using a global calculation (SSAB plus combined heat and power (CHP) plant), and conclusions for long term and short term possibilities were discussed. Major efforts have been made recently to develop process integration technology. In Sweden, this has been realised within a national programme for the total processing industry (steel, pulp and paper, petrochemicals, food). There are synergies, as the optimisation problem itself is relatively similar, independent of industry sector.

  • 13. Grip, Carl-Erik
    Supplementary contribution to the paper: Fundamental research about the Bosh of the Blast Furnace1970Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försök har genomförts där beteendet av endående sinter i den plastiska zonen studeras. Pereabiliteten hos beskickningen är den mest betydande parametern. Den påverkas i huvudsak av koksen. Reducibiliteten av den aktuella sintern var för hög för att vara kritisk reaktionshastigheten bestämdes av gasbalansen/gasanalysen. Strukturen bestäms av startstruktur och temperatur.

  • 14.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Temperature and steel flow in ladle and tundish: development of models for use in a temperature prediction system1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Use of injection treated material for sections and universal flats1983In: Proceedings: Scaninject III ; 3rd international conference on refining of iron and steel by powder injection, Luleå, Sweden, June 15-17, 1983 ; [organized jointly by MEFOS, Jernkontoret], Luleå: MEFOS , 1983, p. 1-40Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Andersson, Göran
    Jernkontoret.
    Management of energy challenges at SSAB Tunnplåt AB, the largest steel producer of strip products in Scandinavia2005In: Proceedings of the International Green Energy Conference: 12-16 June 2005, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, Waterloo, Canada: Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integrated steel plant of SSAB Tunnplåt AB is situated in two locations with a distance of 800 km between the steel plant and the rolling mill. Thus, integrated energy management between steel making and rolling is not practically possible. Instead, in both locations, substantial efforts have been invested in local integration between the energy systems of the plant areas and those of the surrounding communities. This has caused a need for special knowledge in several fields: new technologies, process integration, environment andemissions etc. This has been studied in own R&D, but SSAB Tunnplåt AB has also initiated and/or contributed to several cooperative efforts on the national Nordic and international scale. Some projects and results are described

  • 17.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dahl, Jan
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet.
    Exergy as a means for process integration in integrated steel plants and process industries2009In: Stahl und Eisen (1881), ISSN 0340-4803, Vol. 129, no 9, p. 2-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exergy analysis can be a useful tool for process comparison and improvement in industrial energy systems. Examples from three branches are given: pulp and paper, bio refineries (ethanol) and steel production. The application and development of exergy analysis in an integrated steel plant is shown together with description and explanations on destroyed and lost exergy. Implementation for energy conservation and use as a pedagogic tool is discussed.

  • 18.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Elfgren, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Energy Systems.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Energy Systems.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Åsblad, Anders
    CIT Industriell Energi.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Possibilities and problems in using exergy expressions in process integration2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011): 9-13 May, Linköping, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy systems are complicated networks, where changes in one process influence its neighboring processes. Saving energy in one unit does not necessarily lead to energy savings for the total system. A study has been carried out on the possibility to use the exergy concept in the analysis of industrial energy systems. The exergy concept defines the quality of an amount of energy in relation to its surrounding, expressing the part that could be converted into work. The study consists of literature studies and general evaluations, an extensive case study and an interview study. In the latter it was found that non technical factors are major obstacles to the introduction of exergy.

  • 19.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Karlsson, Jonny
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Possibilities to implement pinch analysis in the steel industry: a case study at SSAB EMEA in Luleå2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011): 9-13 May, Linköping, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steelmaking is an energy intensive industry. Much development work has been accomplished during the past years to make the processes more efficient. Process integration has come to play an important role for identifying efficiency measures, using mathematical programming as general tool. So far only a few minor process integration studies using pinch analysis have been made in this type of industry, and only on smaller subsystems.This paper presents the results of a pinch targeting study that was conducted at the Swedish steel making company SSAB EMEA in Luleå. The pinch analysis methodology was originally developed to study heating, cooling and heat exchange in process systems with many streams. In the steel industry there arerelatively few streams that are appropriate for heat exchange. This limits the use of pinch analysis. However, this study demonstrates that pinch analysis is a powerful tool for certain subsystems, especially the gas cleaning unitof the coke plant. The paper includes several suggestions for improved energy efficiency in this section of the steel plant.

  • 20.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Application of pinch analysis in an integrated steel plant in northern Sweden2013In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1202-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy system in a modern integrated steel plant is a complicated network of units exchanging energy and matter with each other. System studies using process integration tools are important to avoid sub-optimization. At the steel plant in Luleå such studies have been carried out using a MILP-based mathematical programming tool (reMIND), mainly because of its inherent flexibility for handling combined flows and reactions of both matter and chemical, thermal and mechanical energy. There are, however, areas where the energy system is dominated by creation, transport and exchange of thermal energy, and where pinch analysis can be expected to be a valuable tool. For this reason a pinch targeting study was carried out for the plant site of the integrated steel plant in Luleå. The coke plant and the iron making/steelmaking plant were both studied with three ambition levels of possible improvements. The study confirmed that pinch analysis is a powerful tool for targeting energy savings in areas where thermal energy flows dominate the local energy system, e.g., the gas cleaning area at the coke plant. The study also indicated that a connection between the energy systems in the coke plant and the iron making/steelmaking would be valuable. This is not 100% feasible because of distance, but, a common steam net could add a degree of flexibility.

  • 21. Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Bäcklund, Rolf
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Lindfors, Nils-Olof
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    The development and use of high temperature models for the simulation of the Bosh in the blast furnace: Part I1976In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 239-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the development and use of a high temperature model for the simulation of the bosh in the blast furnace. As an illustration of the application of the model there follows a discussion on the influence of coke rate and coke size on the softening and permeability of a burden of pellets in the bosh, based on trials made with the model. The results indicate that the coke rate can have a critical influence on the pressure drop through the burden. With coke rates of 300 kg/ton hot metal (and less) an unacceptable pressure drop occurs. In addition the pressure drop, at a given temperature for a given coke rate, increases as the size of the coke decreases.

  • 22.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jonsson, Kjell Olof
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Eriksson, Sven
    SSAB Oxelösund AB.
    Jonsson, Lage
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Jönsson, Pär
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Pan, Yuhua
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Theoretical and practical study of thermal stratification and drainage in ladles of different geometry1999In: SCANMET I: 1st International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, 7-8 June 1999, Luleå, Sweden, Nordkalott Hotell-Konferens, Luleå: MEFOS , 1999, Vol. 2, p. 101-117Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jonsson, Kjell-Olov
    SSAB.
    Eriksson, Sven
    SSAB Oxelösund AB.
    Jonsson, Lage
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Jönsson, Pär
    Department of Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Pan, Yuhua
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Theoretical and practical study of thermal stratification and drainage in ladles of different geometry2000In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SSAB Luleå, SSAB Oxelösund, MEFOS and Luleå University of Technology have cooperated in developing theoretical models for prediction of thermal stratification and drainage in steel ladles. Predicted results have been verified by measurements done in production ladles with heat weighs of 105 and 200 tonne as well as in a 7-tonne pilot plant ladle. The thermal stratification was measured by thermocouples at different depths. The drainage flow was studied by means of tracer experiments. Numerical simulation models of the steel flow were developed for 7, 105 and 200 tonne steel ladles. The agreement between predictions and measurements was found to be good. The conclusion is that CFD simulation gives a good prediction of stratification and drainage flows in production ladles.

  • 24.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jonsson, Lage
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Physical behaviour of slag in a 107-tonne ladle: production scale experiments and theoretical simulation2003In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 113-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined movement of steel, slag and gas in a ladle has been studied with the aid of a multiphase CFD model and measurements in production scale. Comparison of model data and measurements in a production ladle has been carried out for three cases: The 'open eye' created during gas stirring, the mixing of top slag during gas stirring in the CAS-OB and finally for studying sculling phenomena. It was found that the simulated 'open eye' appears as a central slag-free zone with a surrounding 'splash zone' characterized by the fact that steel is found on top of the slag. The simulated 'open eye' corresponds to the 'splash zone'. The predicted gas stirring in CAS-OB gives an efficient stirring of the top slag also. This was confirmed by noting that slag samples taken from the ladle seem to be representative of the mean slag composition. Finally, streamlines during stirring have been compared with sculling and wear observed in the production ladle. Good agreement was obtained

  • 25.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jonsson, Lage
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Jonsson, Pär
    Department of Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Kjell Olof
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Numerical prediction and experimental verification of thermal stratification during holding in pilot plant and production ladles1999In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 715-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 3-dimensional CFD-model has been developed to simulate the natural convection flow in ladles. Qualified measurements of temperature and velocities in 107 and 7 tonne ladles have been made to verify the model. The downward convection flow at the ladle wall has been studied using radioactive isotopes and the thermal stratification has been studied by means of continuous temperature measurements. The experimental techniques are complex and additional numerical simulations have been carried out to study the effect of the measurement technique on the measurement error. The result indicates that the measurements are of sufficient accuracy for the validation. The measurements are compared to predictions from the numerical model. The main conclusion is that the theoretical CFD model gives a very accurate estimation of the temperature distribution during holding

  • 26.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jonsson, Lage
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    Ovako Steel AB.
    Prediction of emptying flows in ladles and verification with data from trace element plant trials1997In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 1081-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional mathematical model of a casting ladle based on fundamental transport equations has been developed. The model may be used for predictions of both a standing ladle and a ladle from which steel is teemed into a tundish. An additional feature of the model is that it can predict concentration profiles of tracer elements which are added to the steel. The predicted concentration profiles during teeming are compared to experimental data from plant trials performed at SSAB and the agreement is found to be good. The model is used as a tool in the development of process control models.

  • 27.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jonsson, Lage
    Pan, Yuhua
    Olika, Bekele
    Stratification and emptying flow in ladles before and during casting: creation of simple models from experiments and sophisticated models1997In: 56th Ironmaking Conference proceedings : Chicago meeting, April 13 - 16, 1997, Warrendale, Pa.: Iron and Steel Society , 1997, p. 625-646Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the development and verification of simple models for predicting the effect of thermal stratification and drainage flow on the temperature of the steel leaving the ladle. Two types of models have been developed and tested: one based on tanks in series and one based on equations. The tanks in series model is more complex than the equation model. However, both models are simple enough to be possible for process control. The equation model is formulated so that the total effect of stratification and drainage is expressed with one parameter. Experiments with tracer addition were performed for verification as well as 3-D numerical simulations. Both models give good predictions for the conditions that were studied

  • 28.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lampinen, Hans-Olof
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Lundqvist, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Videhult, Sebastian
    Kwaerner Turbin AB, Kristinehamn.
    Determination of thermal stratification and emptying flow in ladles by continuous temperature measurement and tracer addition1996In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 36, no Supplement, p. S211-S214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If we want to control and predict the temperature of steel in the tundish we must know the thermal stratification in the ladle before and during casting, as well as the interaction with the steel flow through the nozzle. A group project, with participation of SSAB (Luleå and Oxelo̊sund), Luleå University and MEFOS, has been carried out to study these phenomenon. The stratification in the ladle was measured by thermo-couples penetrating into the melt at different levels. Such measurements were carried out before and during casting. To get information about the drainage flow, studies were made with tracer elements added at different points in the ladle. The response, defined as the tracer concentration in the outlet stream from the ladle, was measured by frequent sampling. Model work by numerical simulation and with tanks in series is discussed briefly

  • 29. Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy optimization by means of process integration in an integrated steel plant with surrounding community2001In: 84th Steelmaking Conference proceedings: Baltimore, Maryland, March 25 - 28, 2001 / [ed] David L. Kanagy, Warrendale, Pa, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Nilsson, Leif K.
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Process integration: tests and application of different tools on an integrated steelmaking site2013In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 366-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy network in Luleå consists of the steel plant, heat and power production and district heating. Global system studies are necessary to avoid sub-optimization and to deliver energy and/or material efficiency. SSAB began work with global simulation models in 1978. After that several more specialized process integration tools have been tested and used: Mathematical programming using a MILP method, exergy analysis and Pinch analysis. Experiences and examples of results with the different methods are given and discussed. Mathematical programming has been useful to study problems involving the total system with streams of different types of energy and material and reaction between them. Exergy is useful to describe energy problems involving different types of energy, e.g. systematic analysis of rest energies. Pinch analysis has been used especially on local systems with streams of heat energy and heat exchange between them.

  • 31.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar.
    Possibilities for combined evaluation of social, economic energy/environmental values2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Scandinavia is an area, which is rich in natural resources and energy-intensive base industries covering several branches, e.g., Mining, Iron and Steel, Metal production, Pulp and Paper. They are often part of a community network where a change in one node affects the behavior and efficiency of its neighbors.  Improvements in environmental load, energy efficiency etc. cannot simply be achieved by improving the individual units. A system approach is needed. Such methods (Process Integration) have been developed within the Nordic Countries for more than twenty years, e.g. within the Swedish national program that was launched 1989. They are been practically applied e.g. at SSAB in Luleå An excellence center for Process Integration in Steelmaking (PRISMA), with industrial partners from Sweden and Finland, has recently been founded at MEFOS in Luleå. The process integration methods have been developed to handle multi-objective problems. This is because the industry has to answer to a combined demand on energy consumption, emission limits for several substances, climate effects as well as costs.  For regional evaluation an economic model has been developed which explicitly returns changing input and output prices due to changes in e.g., production technology, derived input demand or the introduction of market instruments. Especially on smaller regional markets, changes in input demand of fibrous raw material might significantly affect its price. This price effect must be considered whenever extensive changes in the production process are considered so that the project is not, ex post, rendered unprofitable. Another factor of great influence is local and national attitudes. These can influence both market value and political decisions.  These effects can be evaluated in stakeholder studies. Co-evaluation with the technical parameters mentioned above is interesting, but an obstacle is the difference in result format.  A method (CONJOINT) has been developed, by which these results can be converted into numerical parameters. For the Swedish Steel industry it has been tested within the ECO-Cycle program. An attempt to merge these methods into a combined study is presently carried an ongoing PROCESS INTEGRATION study for a Pulp and paper mill in northern Sweden. The possibility to merge into a combined tool or methodology is discussed.

  • 32.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Mukka, S.
    Seger, M.
    Wahlberg, H.
    Relining a BOF in 60 hours1998In: Steel Times, ISSN 0039-095X, Vol. 226, no 8, p. 282-283Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discusses SSAB Tunnplat AB's development of a system for fast relining of converters in refractories. Requirements of the method; Technique for relining; Main features of the BOF plant; Example of a 60-hour schedule used during planning a reline.

  • 33.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Salman, Hassan
    HKSE Energy Consulting, Sveaskog.
    Ritzen, Ola
    AGA AB/Linde Gas.
    Andersson, Lars I.
    Billerudkorsnäs AB.
    Tottie, Magnus
    LKAB.
    Robisnsson, Ryan
    Höganäs AB.
    Winnika, Henrik
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå.
    Östman, Marianne
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    BioODRI: forestry meets steel: A techno-economic study on us of biomass gasification to produce a gas sutiable for production of CO2 lean iron2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major part of the world’s iron production is presently using fossil reductants. The climate effect would be improved if renewable raw material could be used instead. One way could be to gasify biomass and use the gas to produce DRI (Direct reduced Iron). This is studied in a cooperative project. LTU, MEFOS, ETC and five industries in the areas forestry & pulp, mining, iron and gas are involved. The production chain Biomass production and distribution-Gasification-DRI production-DRI use is investigated in four work packages: WP1: Biomass supply, WP2: Gasification, WP3: Metallurgical processes and WP4: Process integration. The paper will focus on the studies and modeling of biomass supply, harvesting and transport and gasification as well as on the system studies. The use of the gas in the metallurgical application is briefly described as background.

  • 34.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sandström, Erik
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Karlsson, Jonny
    Industrial ecology in northern areas: practical experience and development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities to develop the industrial ecology in the northern regions of Europe are influenced by some common characteristics, e.g.: The regions are rich in natural re-sources and energy- and material intensive base industries. These industries cover sev-eral branches, e.g., Mining, Iron and Steel, Metal production, Pulp and Paper. Low popu-lation density and relatively long distances to the main customers are difficulties espe-cially for transport and use of rest products. District heating with waste heat from the in-dustries is an important part of the energy system that reduces the emission of green-house gases and improves the overall energy efficiency. The problems and possibilities connected to the industrial ecology are described for two examples, the energy system in Luleå and the Solander science park in Piteå

  • 35.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sperle, Jan-Olof
    Applications of HSLA steels for beams and small flats1984In: HSLA steels technology & [and] applications: conference proceedings of International Conference on Technology and Applications of HSLA Steels, October 1983, Philadelphia, Pa., Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International, 1984, p. 1115-1127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metallurgy of these steels is discussed. User problems and solutions are discussed for steel construction, the automotive industry, shipbuilding, offshore and the workshop industry. Optimum strength with respect to plastic deformation, deflection, instability and fatigue is discussed. Some examples of optimal designs are given.

  • 36.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Process integration as a general tool for energy-intensive process industry: development and practical applications in Sweden2008In: SCANMET III: 3rd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, 8-11 June 2008, Luleå, Sweden, Luleå: MEFOS , 2008, Vol. 1, p. 223-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Scandinavia are situated in an area, which is rich in natural resources. Energy-intensive base industries using a combination of these and imported resources are a dominant part in Swedish economy. They cover several branches, e.g. Iron and Steel, Metal Production, Pulp and Paper, Chemical Industry. There are differences, e.g. the temperature of the solvent is different between processes. However, the similarities in problem structures are striking in questions regarding general structural decisions, energy system behavior and system optimization. For these reasons, a national program has been carried out to develop common PROCESS INTEGRATION tools for use in these branches. The Swedish Energy Agency and the industry have financed the program. The initial scope was used for energy optimization and conservation, but has been broadened to also include economy, environment and climate gas emissions. Methods based on pinch analysis, exergy analysis or mathematical programming have been developed and put to use. Some projects involve Scandinavian and international cooperation e.g. through IEA. Some specific examples are discussed in the paper: Development of a PROCESS INTEGRATION tool for steel industry. In this case mathematical programming has been found to be the most appropriate method. Use of a tool developed in one branch in another type of industry. International project (IEA) on systems integration between society and industry including cogeneration and power plants." Reduction of climate gas emissions on the boundary industry/energy market. Great efforts are being made to find the optimal compromise between simplicity and performance as well as on transfer of results and knowledge to industrial users. The financial support of the SCANMET conference and its energy sessions are part of that effort.

  • 37.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Tivelius, Bertil
    Sohlgren, Thomas
    Gossas, Peter
    Ladle metallurgy in SSAB (Oxelösund, Domnarvet and Lulea)1980In: Proceedings: Scaninject II ; 2nd international conference on injection metallurgy, Luleå, Sweden, June 12-13, 1980, Luleå: MEFOS , 1980, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Salman, Hassan
    HKS Energy, Sveaskog.
    Andersson, Lars I.
    Billerudkorsnäs AB.
    Ritzen, Ola
    AGA AB/Linde Gas.
    Tottie, Magnus
    LKAB.
    Robinnsson, Ryan
    Höganäs AB.
    Winnikka, Henrik
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå.
    Östman, Marianne
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Forestry meets steel: a technoeconomic study of the possible DRI production using biomass2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to produce DRI using gasified Biomass is studied in a cooperative project. LTU, MEFOS, ETC and five industries in the areas forestry & pulp, mining, iron and gas are involved. The production chain Biomass production and distribution -Gasification-DRI production-DRI use is investigated in four work packages:WP1: Biomass supply: A large amount of Biomass has to be delivered into a single site to exchange a large amount of fossil reductant. It is important to use forestry by- products as a major part of round wood is reserved for other uses. Harvesting, logistics and economics have to be considered. Available data were collected and used to make a system model on harvesting treatment and transport. The simulations indicated that the supply of residuals is possible but will need material from a large part of the north Sweden wood area. WP2: Gasification. The aim is to use to produce hot gas that can be used directly. Pilot experiments are carried out using oxygen in an entrained flow gasifier. WP3: Metallurgical processes. Reduction tests are carried out with gas that can be produced in the gasifier. The limitations of the gas content are studied as well as the effect on DRI. Also the suitability of the DRI product is evaluated WP4: Process integration. A system model is built using the results from work packages 1-3 and used for technical economic optimization the whole system harvesting-transport-gasifier-direct reduction- use of DRI. The process chain is technically possible; however there are problems to be solved, e.g., gas quality vs. demands from DRI process, Biomass supply and logistics. The result is important to evaluate for industrial application, but also to get information of the effect of different governmental control instruments.

  • 39.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Östman, Marianne
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Center for Process Integration in Steelmaking, Swerea MEFOS, Luleå, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Orre, Joel
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Forestry meets Steel: A system study of the possibility to produce DRI (directly Reduced Iron) using gasified biomass2015In: ECOS 2015: 28th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main production of primary Iron from ore is now made by reduction using fossil reductants, either by producing hot metal in the blast furnace process or as directly reduced iron with natural gas as most common reductant. The climate gas impact would be improved if at least part of the reductants could be produced from Biomass. One possibility could be to use gasified Biomass to produce DRI (Directly Reduced Iron). This is studied in a cooperative project where LTU, MEFOS, ETC and five industries in the areas forestry & pulp, mining, iron and gas are involved. The investigation is made in four parts where the first one is on the supply of biomass. A large amount of Biomass has to be delivered into a single site to exchange a large amount of fossil reductant. Also, forestry by-products should be used as most of the round wood is reserved for other uses. Harvesting, logistics and economics are considered. The second part is on the gasification of the biomass, where the aim is to use to produce hot gas that can be used directly. Pilot experiments are carried out using oxygen in an entrained flow gasifier. The third part is on the metallurgical processes, where reduction tests are carried out with gas that can be produced in the gasifier. The limitations of the gas content are studied as well as the effect on DRI. Also the suitability of the DRI product is evaluated. The fourth part of the project uses process integration to model the whole process chain. The results from the other project parts are used to build the system model. It is then used for technical economic optimization the whole system harvesting-transport-gasifier-direct reduction-use of DRI. The first use of the system model has been to find the best supply road (harvesting, pretreatment and transport) for a chosen production case The simulations indicated that the supply of residuals is possible but will need material from a large part of the north Sweden wood area, and that a relatively large amount of gas recirculation is needed. The continuing work is focused on further development of the optimization tool and the use of it for more extensive studies of the trade-off between parameters of metallurgy, gasification and supply. The result can be important for evaluation of future industrial applications. It could also help in understanding the effect of governmental control instruments. The paper will mainly focus on the process integration study.

  • 40.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Stig
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nilsson, Christer
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Tanks in series model with dynamic shortcut flows for a straight tundish: Verification by tracer experiments on production heats1998In: High Temperature Materials and Processes, ISSN 0334-6455, E-ISSN 2191-0324, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 177-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production control must have accurate models for the prediction of tundish temperature to meet increasing demands on control and production rate in continuous casting. The models have to be simple. They must also include the effect of variations in steel flow and mixing, including shortcut flows from the inlet stream towards the outlet end. To meet this demand, a tank in series model was designed, which also included the effect of dynamic shortcut flows. The model has been verified by data from experiments with chemical tracers in a 14 tonne straight tundish. The tracers have been added both in the ladle and close to the inlet end in the tundish and the response in the steel entering the mould has been died. The data seem to confirm that there is a different distribution of the steel flow in the period shortly after the ladle change. The difference could be explained either as shortcut flows caused by buoyancy or by increased stirring. It is possible to choose a configuration of tanks that allows simulation of both the transient behaviour at ladle change and the steady state conditions during the main part of the casting by changing the adjustable parameters for the shortcut flow without changing the configuration of tanks

  • 41.
    Grip, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå.
    Wavelet study of dynamic variations in steel and ironmaking rest gases: Potential effect on external use2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 1032-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surplus energy in rest gases is an important by-product in the SSAB EMEA steel plant in Luleå. The surplus is used in a local heat and power plant. Studies have been and are being carried out to find alternative use for the high calorific gases, especially the coke oven gas. The different gas flows typically are mixtures of irregularly distributed transients and non-periodic contents of different duration. Slowly varying fluctuations can probably be parried by good production planning. For shorter wavelengths some kind of safety margin could be appropriate, perhaps in the range 0.75–1.5 kN m3/h. However, the existing buffer capacity in gasholders, etc. is too small to cover the fluctuations. Good production planning can partly compensate low buffer capacity. An example from a period without gas holder is discussed.We describe analysis of the gas flows that can be used both for better production planning and for efficient external use, e.g., for fuel production. Rather than traditional Fourier analysis, we use wavelet analysis, which is better suited for analyzing the irregular and nonperiodic characteristics of the gas flows. We demonstrate such analysis on collected gas flow data from the SSAB EMEA steel plant and give some suggestions for how to make a good choice of wavelet basis for the analyzed signals.

  • 42.
    Gyllenram, Rutger
    et al.
    Kobolde & Partners.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    User friendliness: why are some beautiful models used while others are thrown in the wastepaper basket?2008In: SCANMET III: 3rd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, 8-11 June 2008, Luleå, Sweden, Luleå: MEFOS , 2008, Vol. 1, p. 315-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development and implementation of models in steel companies represent large values and will be even more important in the future. There are many pitfalls to step into in the process of modelling and implementation of systems. In this paper pitfalls and success factors experienced in six different projects are presented and discussed. Experiences like these are hard to earn and easily forgotten and it is concluded that this kind of knowledge management ought to be on the agenda for top management like the Corporate Technology Officer, CTO.

  • 43.
    Hooey, Patrick Lawrence
    et al.
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Bodén, Axel
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Wang, Chuan
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jansson, Björn
    SSAB.
    Design and application of a spreadsheet-based model of the blast furnace factory2010In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 924-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and application of a 1-dimensional static blast furnace model, "Masmod", written in a common spreadsheet environment, is described. The model includes blast furnace, hot stove, and burden models with recent additions of other operations including CO2 stripping and top gas recycle. Although blast furnace modelling has become increasingly sophisticated, a relatively simple and flexible model is shown to be useful for evaluating burden options, equipment and operational strategies, and process development. Furthermore the Masmod model has been integrated with global steel plant optimization models and Process Integration models for more complex system analysis and optimization.

  • 44.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Wang, Chuan
    Center for Process Integration in Steelmaking, Swerea MEFOS, Luleå.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Process simulation and energy optimization for the pulp and paper mill2010In: PRES 2010: 13th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction, 28 August - 1 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic / [ed] J.J. Klemeš; H.L. Lam; P.S. Varbanov, 2010, p. 283-288Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Simulation and energy optimization in a pulp and paper mill: Evaporation plant and digester2011In: Third International Conference on Applied Energy: 16-18 May 2011 - Perugia, Italy, 2011, p. 109-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical process integration model of a pulp and paper mill in the Northern Sweden has been developed. The main modelling focus has been put on the two main steam consumers (the evaporation plant and the digester), for which detailed material and energy balances have been established. Operational data have been used to validate the simulation results. By implementing these submodels into the complete plant model, the influence of different operation parameters on the overall plant performance has been investigated. Furthermore, introductory studies with the main objective to minimize the plant energy cost have been carried out. The correlation and differences between economic and energy have been discussed

  • 46.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Simulation and energy optimization of a pulp and paper mill: evaporation plant and digester2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no Spec. Issue, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed mathematical process integration model of a pulp and paper mill in the Northern Sweden has been developed. The main objective of this work has been set to describe the practical development of the model with particular emphasis on the development of the digester and evaporation plant sub-models. Actual plant measurements have been used to validate the model. By implementing the sub-models into the complete plant model, the influence of different operation parameters on the overall plant performance has been investigated. Furthermore, introductory studies with the main objective to minimize the plant energy cost have been carried out.

  • 47.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Simulation and optimization of steam generation in a pulp and paper mill2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011): 9-13 May, Linköping, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical process integration model for the steam generation part (recovery boiler, bark boiler, and turbine) was developed based on a pulp and paper mill in the Northern Sweden. The material and energy balances were calculated theoretically and then the operation data from a pulp and paper mill in the Northern Sweden were used to validate the simulation results. By implementing it into the whole plant, the effect of the operation conditions on the whole plant performance were investigated. The introductory studies were carried out with an objective function to minimize the energy cost. The influence of different parameters was rigorously studied. The correlation between economic and energy optima was discussed.

  • 48. Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ohlsson, H.
    Rutqvist, Staffan
    SSAB.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    Ångström, Sten
    Comprehensive study regarding greenhouse gas emissions from iron ore based production at the integrated steel plant SSAB Tunnplåt AB2004In: SCANMET II: 2nd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Luleå: MEFOS , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49. Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ohlsson, Hans
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Rutqvist, Staffan
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    Ångström, Sten
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Comprehensive study regarding greenhouse gas emission from iron ore based production at the integrated steel plant SSAB Tunnplåt AB2006In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 171-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the years 2001-2002, a comprehensive study regarding CO2 emissions related to the steel production for the integrated steel making production route, was carried out. The study was financed by SSAB and carried out by a research group with members from SSAB, MEFOS and LTV. The aim was to study the emissions from the existing system and how these could be influenced by process changes and by process modifications. The calculations were made using a global spreadsheet model for calculating the CO2 emissions, developed from an existing energy and process integration model of the same system. The calculated cases included the existing BF/BOF route as well as integration of other processes, e.g., an electric arc furnace, DR processes, COREX and a new future smelting reduction process concept (Sidcomet). All new existing alternative ore based process technologies would increase the specific CO2 emission from the system. A technology transfer to scrap based metallurgy would significantly decrease the emission level, but is not feasible for SSAB, due to the future product mix and the structure of scrap availability. In a 5-20 year perspective, the existing steel making process route with the use of magnetite ore for pellet production has the lowest specific CO2 emission. In a long-term perspective, 20-50 years, alternative process routes, e.g., based on H2 and DRI, could be of interest. Studies on such changes are, however, big projects and should be carried out as joint European and/or international efforts

  • 50. Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Wang, C.
    Dahl, Jan
    Wedholm, Anita
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Magnusson, M.
    Lampinen, H-O
    Su, F.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Improved energy and material efficiency using new tools for global optimisation of residue material flows2004In: SCANMET II: 2nd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steelmaking, Luleå: MEFOS , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
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