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  • 1.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Meiling, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Levander, Erika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Industriellt träbyggande förenar ekonomi och byggbarhet2010In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 2, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized Timber Housing is based on repetition of the predefined building processes compared with traditional building where the business transaction and the customer are arranged into unique projects. Since the construction process consists of recurring activities, the industrial methods do not only improve the design and production phase, but the positive impact stretches well into the management phase. The market today can be offered cost-effective housing, with higher flexibility and better quality if the client, contractor and supplier takes control of the construction process.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building: A Case Study2019In: 2019 Proceedings of the 36th ISARC, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 2019, p. 340-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing digital information in construction is commonly described through Building Information Modelling (BIM), which advocates seamless chains of information, increased coordination between different actors and a life-cycle perspective on information management. However, low adoption outside the design phase entails that handling information in production is in many cases manual and paper-based, which increases vulnerability for upstream errors materialising downstream in production. Furthermore, issues with interoperability surround many areas when managing digital information. For industrialised house-builders, the transmitter and receiver of information are in many cases integrated within the same company or based on long-term collaboration. This affects their ability to manage information and utilise design information, which implies that their strategy for digital information management (DIM) might benefit from being addressed differently compared to more traditional BIM-based approaches. In this paper, we describe and discuss an implemented DIM-solution at an industrialised house-builder in order to address the benefits and challenges with DIM when managing information from design to production. The results imply that in order for several different functions within the company to reap benefits, a customised DIM-solution adapted after the company’s specific needs is a well-suited approach forward to avoid sacrificing functionality when utilising design information.

  • 3.
    Haller, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    An indicator for superfluous iteration in offsite building design processes2015In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 360-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancement of iteration management in the design phase is important for successful offsite building projects. Design iteration has two aspects. Although iteration is necessary to deal with design requirements when solving complex problems (i.e. increasing quality through iteration), it has also been identified in numerous studies to be one of the main causes of design errors and time and cost overruns (i.e. superfluous iteration), as it increases scheduling and design complexity. Current building project management tools do not provide a means to control the reduction of superfluous iteration. One problem is that existing research has difficulty precisely relating the effects of specific management actions to superfluous iteration. The idea of this study is to develop an indicator, the sequence deviation quotient (SDQ), which reflects the amount of superfluous design iteration in a project. It can be thought of as a tool supporting project managers to make systematic and continuous (from project to project) design process improvement. A premise is that the impact of varying project conditions on the process structure of design processes, i.e. the precedence relationships between the design activities, is only small. In this paper, we provide a definition of superfluous iteration. We tested the feasibility of the SDQ by subjecting it to project variation and input perturbation by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulations are based on the data from a real offsite design building process, the designing of a 1100 m2 residential building in Sweden.

  • 4.
    Holmlund, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Simu, Kajsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lean i praktiken: en studie av produktionen på Englundshus AB2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till projektet som resulterat i denna rapport, ligger i ett behov att förbättra effektiviteten i fabriken hos Englundshus AB. Syftet är att se över fabrikslayouten, hitta flöden, flaskhalsar och slöseri. Den teoribas som använts, finns inom ramen för Lean Production även kallat Lean Construction inom byggbranschen. Studien har genomförts i tre steg med lika många företagsbesök. Vid det första besöket studerades hela fabrikslayouten och samtliga delprocesser. Besöket resulterade i ett konstaterande att det som i teorierna beskrivs som 5S snabbt skulle skapa mervärde till hela fabriksprocessen. I samband med det andra besöket fokuserades på de två största processerna som är vägg- och golvtillverkning. Ur företagets tidsuppföljning konstaterades att väggtillverkningen var flaskhalsen för delprocesserna. Under besöket drogs även slutsatsen att materialflödet är kritiskt och bör ses över.För att hitta aktiviteten som orsakar flaskhalsen i väggtillverkningen gjordes under besök tre en värdeflödeskartläggning. Den visade att den sista stationen, där panel monteras, är flaskhalsen inom delprocessen.För att minska slöseriet och få ett bättre flöde genom fabriken och därmed minska effekten av flaskhalsen har ett förslag på ny fabrikslayout tagits fram. Förslaget innebär att borden omplaceras så att varje station ges möjlighet till ett bättre materialflöde.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Flow-Oriented Contracting in Industrialized House-Building2017In: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, p. 111-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized house-builders in Scandinavia, using prefabrication of timber frame modules, have developed platforms to manage design, off-site production and on-site assembly within flow oriented organizations. A whole sales commitment gives time, cost, and quality benefits for house-building companies and also a clear product offer to clients. To meet the contracting and design process within the variety of clients, standardized procurement processes are developed to meet both internal production flow parameters and external demands, from clients and local planning authorities. The study of a flow oriented contracting process shows how industrialized house production parameters and end customer demands could be combined in contracting phase with clients and local planning officers. The study also describes how industrialized house-builders could communicate internally future projects into a flow oriented process by visualizing demand parameters for each project that meet or deviates from platform variables.

  • 6.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Industrialised housing design efficiency2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised housing has increased its Swedish market share the latest ten years from 2% to 15%. Prefabrication has developed into actual industrialisation, where factories produce not only elements for site assembly, but takes wholesale responsibility for the sales, design, factory production, and assembly of houses. A higher automation in housing production puts demands on the design department to become more efficient. Design is identified as a bottleneck to further increase the production rate. Information deliveries are not produced in the needed rate. With the change from drafting to modelling in building design, opportunities are given to work simultaneously for better efficiency. The focus on BIM-supported CAD-tools has lead ICT-developers to create systems that mainly support product modelling. But, in industrialised housing, support for process efficiency is just as important.In a case study at a Swedish industrialised housing company, during a three year period, interviews, observations and design activities at the company were recorded to study what components and functionality in the design support create business value. The results show that by defining design in stages with gates, by parallel planning of activities, and by using process visualisation methods, the efficiency increased about 41 % in information deliveries. Furthermore, the use of support systems has to create both internal value for efficiency in information deliveries and external value to meet and handle client requirements in a standardised way. By releasing time from project management activities to improvements and product development the focus on the product could increase. Product development theories with axiomatic design as the foundation for a support system combines product structures with BIM functionality and process support for planning, which secures quality between disciplines in a concurrent approach. Product life cycle management (PLM) is an umbrella that manages product development in a life-cycle perspective trough a defined framework that is applicable to industrialised housing design, both for software developers and industrialised builders.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kartläggning av projekteringsprocessen på Lindbäcks2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till kartläggningen, som resulterat i denna rapport, ligger i ett behov att förbättra effektiviteten i projekteringsprocessen hos Lindbäcks AB. Syftet med studien är att kartlägga projekteringsprocessen som ett underlag för effektivisering i form av tid. Tiden kan då användas till att ta till vara på bra lösningar och göra förbättringar samt att klara av fler projekt under samma tidsram. Målet är att ta fram en övergripande bild som presenterar hur projekteringsprocessen ser ut. För att presentera kartläggningen har olika typer av mått och verktyg använts såsom tider, flöden, koder och kategorier. Studien har genomförts genom besök, intervjuer och dokument där målet med insamlingen var att komma så nära projekteringen och därigenom också se helheten för projekteringsprocessen. Studien ger även en möjlighet att kunna mäta och planera framtida projekt utifrån det analyserade resultatet som framkommit. Materialet baseras på 18 projekt som Lindbäcks genomfört under åren 2006 och 2007. Detta intervall speglar den utveckling som projekteringen blivit tvungen göra för att anpassa sig till den automationsinvestering som genomfördes inom produktionen under 2005 till 2007. Lindbäcks projekteringsprocess har genom att arbeta med flera projekt samtidigt inom projekteringen anpassat sin planering och sina resurser för att kunna arbeta mer flexibelt. Det påbörjade standardiserade arbetet som Lindbäcks genomfört, för planering och olika typlösningar, kan utvecklas genom stödfunktioner och olika erfarenhetsåterkopplingar eftersom Lindbäcks kunskapsdatabas ökar för varje projekt som genomförs. Genom att Lindbäcks arbetar med en relativt hög grad av processbaserat arbete med många parallella aktiviteter, för att vara inom byggbranschen, krävs att koordinering och kommunikation mellan olika gränssnitt blir tydlig och har stöd av olika funktioner och system. Kartläggningen visar på att projektledning och koordinering av projekten upptar över 40 % av projekteringstiden. Nedlagd tid i projekteringen jämfört med storleken på projekt (takttid) visar på att projekt med stort antal volymer har högre takttid för projekteringen an de med färre.Lindbäcks har påbörjat arbetet med att utveckla ett eget processtöd för projekteringen. För att dra nytta av repeterade arbetsmoment använder sig Lindbäcks av visuell planering och checklistor för arbete inom projekteringen. De projekt som har hög repetitionsgrad på volymerna visar sig också ha hög takttid genom projekteringen, både stora som små projekt. För att arbeta mer processorienterat med standardiserade arbetsrutiner med hög repetitionsgrad ger IT-kartläggning grunden för att bygga vidare på olika stödfunktioner som processtödet ska uppfylla. Flertalet moment görs fortfarande på ett projektbaserat arbetssätt.

  • 8.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Platforms in industrialised house-building2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for shorter lead times, customized buildings and high quality deliveries drive house-building firms to systematise work in their supply chains. A practice of reusing processes and technical solutions leads to the formation of platforms in industrialised house-building. Product platforms originate from industries employing a make-to-order strategy, where platforms are used to achieve efficient design and product development work. The house-building design phase, integrated in an engineer-to-order supply chain, has been identified as crucial for achieving an efficient production. In the design phase, design work combines platform predefinitions with project requirements. The aim of this thesis is to describe how house-building platforms are systematised, as well as propose a framework for the use and development of platforms over time.To expand the knowledge development and use of platforms in house-building design, case studies were conducted that collected data from interviews and observations as well as using archival data at two different companies. One was a Swedish industrialised house-building company, with many levels of platform predefinitions that use off-site production; the other was a Swedish company using several platforms employing industrialised methods for on-site production. The design work of over sixty building projects has been studied through following project managers, engineers and platform developers in their day-to-day work. The use in projects of predefinitions of functional requirements, components, processes and relationships has been compared and contrasted using platform and engineering design theories.The result of this research shows that, in an engineer-to-order production strategy, creative and systematic designs are combined. This combination is needed to create product uniqueness and thus it is important to understand and maintain the balance between commonality and distinctiveness within the platforms used in housebuilding projects. Continuously changing demands in construction hinder a fully predefined platform. Long cycle times in house-building demand a continuous flow of knowledge between platform and day-today work in projects. Hence, platform versions and product variants often become non-functional in an engineer-to-order supply chain, so methods to support the knowledge flow become necessary. The research findings show that design work, integrated into the supply chain of house-building, is a source of experience feedback for platformdevelopment.The conclusion is that a movement towards mass customization in house-building is possible using the product platform concept, if the platform is applied to projects using support methods with experience being continuously fed back to the platform from house-building projects. However, there is a risk that use of predefinition in platforms is made without considering the consequences. The reuse of predefined processes could limit innovation capability, increase the risk for imitation and organisational inertia. Too great a restriction of components in the house-building platform could limit the product offer and narrow the market segment. The study also shows that predefinitions might lead to an unbalanced focus on buildability instead of client satisfaction.

  • 9.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Projekteringen är flaskhals hos industriella byggare2010In: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Concurrent engineering in educational projects: case study Svartöberget2008In: CIB-W78: International Conference on Informations Technology in Construction, Universidad de Talca , 2008, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, Luleå University of Technology teach 40 civil engineering students and 45 architectural engineering students basic knowledge in the construction process through a simulated real-life situation. In the third year, the grand total of 85 students is brought together and taught their respective professional roles through acting as experts within 6 different fields in the realization of a residential area. Research in the last decades has identified concurrent engineering as a possible method for streamlining the design phase in the construction process. The student project was therefore planned with a concurrent engineering approach, where all student groups start their work at the same time. The pedagogy was to teach students a new approach to working in large projects, with the side effect of testing if concurrent engineering is feasible also in educational projects. Information is shared between groups through live documents on a project portal. Project coordination and communication is handled by 21 project leaders who meet regularly to exchange information between groups and detect missing information needed from other groups. Project planning is made through a method adopted from lean construction; Look Ahead Planning, which is part of the Last Planner method. IT-support is used to produce data and perform calculations but also as a tool for quality assurance across groups. All data is eventually summed up and presented in a virtual reality model of the new residential area. The VR model is gradually refined and the structure for delivering information into the model is drawn up by 6 appointed IT coordinators

  • 11.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Engström, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Platform use in systems building2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 70-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of reusing processes and technical solutions leads to the formation of product platforms in house building. Product platforms originate from industries employing a make-to-order production strategy, e.g. the automotive industry. To test how the product platform concept is useful in engineer-to-order production strategies, a case study at two Swedish house-builders was made. Key factors that affect platform use in systems buildings were sought. The smaller company operates a supplier-led platform focusing on commonalities in process knowledge. There is less definition of the product itself to allow for distinctiveness in the product offer. The larger company has a decentralized business and operates a client-driven platform with fragmented standardization. Focus is put on creating commonality through defining the product and handling distinctiveness through an iterative design procedure. Product families were not in use at the case study companies. The companies transform standardized platform solutions into project uniqueness by using support methods. Four platform support methods emerged from the case studies: design planning, collaborative design, design optimization, and requirements iteration. The balance between commonality and distinctiveness in the platform is important to attend to in each house-building project. The engineer-to-order production strategy hinders the implementation of a fully parameterized platform. The product platform concept is therefore expanded with support methods to handle distinctiveness, i.e. project uniqueness. The product platform assets: components, processes, relationships and knowledge, are present also in platforms used in systems building

  • 12.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jensen, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Modularization in a housing platform for mass customization2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of combining production efficiency with flexible product offers in housing design is well known. The platform concept is applied in housing to support design and production with predefined solutions. Modularization can be useful to meet both client demands on flexibility and production requirements on standardisation. To identify the module drivers in housing, ten projects at one off-site housing company were analysed. Furthermore, the cycle time for the modules was recorded. Client, design, purchasing, production and suppliers have different module drivers. When module drivers concur, modules are identified by; identifying clear and few interfaces, the availability of a supplier, and the cycle time for the design and production of the module in relation to the production pace. The results from the case study further show that fixed geometry on modules is a less successful concept than parameterised modules in housing. The ability to outsource technical solutions increased, when the module drivers were combined with a long term relationship with the supplier. Variant modules were successfully applied in the studied company to respond to client demands. Further research is needed on how to configure generic modules.

  • 13.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lundkvist, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    The role of experience feedback channels in the continuous development of house-building platforms2015In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 236-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeHouse-building companies seek improvements to decrease costs, improve flow, and decrease variability. Industrialised concepts using predefinitions in product platforms have provided a way of storing and reusing knowledge in project-based house-building organisations. However, the innovation in platforms is mainly incremental and based on experience feedback (EF) from implementations in projects. This paper aims to describe how the EF from building projects contributes to product platform development in house building companies.Design/methodology/approachQualitative data were gathered via interviews, archival studies and observations, and analysed to identify the underlying structures used to manage the incorporation of EF during platform development. Four different EF channels were studied at one Scandinavian house-builder. The data are explained using an analytical framework based on diffusion of innovation, product platforms and EF.FindingsEF is distributed over the value chain to improve the platform over time. By using multiple channels with differing contents, it is possible to balance client demands and variation with production efficiency. Platform development using feedback channels provides opportunities for double-loop learning. Operative work on projects and the strategic decisions made by developers continuously improve the platform through a combination of knowledge pull and push.Originality/valueA combination of different EF channels and strategies for developing knowledge pull are shown to be essential for the incremental development of product platforms in project-based house building organisations. The development of product platforms requires a shift away from the construction industry’s dominant project focus towards a more product-oriented view of house-building. Integrating the design phase with the supply chain enables variety but also creates a need for continuous platform development

  • 14.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Interactive visualization for information flow in production chains: Case study industrialised house-building2018In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, p. 382-388Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predefinitions in house-building platforms is developed as routines to manage project building information models over to production data by documents and digital drawings. Visualisation of the information flow in the industrialised house-building process is hard to track and information are often presented as islands, seldom described in the flow for the entire process. Interactive visualisation, using game technology, has open up for new applications of data -transformation, -visualization and -simulation of project information which is less studied in the context of industrialised house-building. This paper tries to address this issue via a combination of game engine technology and the predefined industrialised house-building process. The game engine technology allow development for end -user demands and functionality to express and visualise values for the daily planning and execution of processes. In a case study approach the development and analysis of four building projects were studied and chosen to the range of product platform predefinitions. Based on object structure for different views, models and the related metadata were visualised with an immersive virtual environment prototype. The prototype, based on game engine technology, was developed to manage incoming building projects variations that followed house-building platform predefinitions. As a visualising tool of engineering, on-site planning and production process the game engine technology simulates and visualize views on product structures, production information, assembling and operation instructions by interactive functions in the game environment.

  • 15.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Requirements management for the design of energy efficient buildings2013In: Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), ISSN 1874-4753, E-ISSN 1874-4753, Vol. 18, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings are designed to fulfil the multiple and, often, contradictory requirements of users, clients and society. Energy aspects are often not considered before the detailed design phase and a systematic way of analysing the energy performance of solutions throughout the design phase is lacking. A suggested framework, based on engineering design theories of requirements management, was applied to a case study of the design of an energy-efficient building in a real construction project. The case study provided qualitative insights into how the proposed framework can contribute to a more structured requirements management of a construction project with a focus on the energy-efficient design of buildings. It can be seen that the proposed framework for requirements management of energy performance provides a structure for designers to consider and apply energy performance criteria in the early design stages and visualize the consequences of alternative design solutions for clients, engineers, contractors and suppliers. The use of a requirements structure enables the transparency of different design alternatives against the established functional requirements of energy performance for the stakeholders in the design process. The use of BIM to support the proposed requirements framework needs to be studied further and connected to national and international construction classification schemas and ontology frameworks.

  • 16.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Tarandi, Väino
    Eurostep AB.
    Requirements transformation in construction design2010In: CIB W78 27th International Conference on Applications of IT in the AEC Industry & Accelerating BIM Research Workshop, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of performance requirements to technical solutions and production parameters is central for architects and engineers in the design process. Construction industry suffers from low efficiency in design, and the information flow creating bottlenecks for the production process. Tracing and managing information through design process needs standards both for requirements and Building Information Models in a life cycle perspective. Structuring functional requirements is of great interest for the construction industry and especially for companies developing industrialised housing system that often have control over the whole manufacturing process. The delivery of a new low-carbon economy in Europe puts pressure on the construction industry to reduce the energy consumption for buildings. Therefore is one national standard for energy requirements tested on a building system and evaluated in an Information and Communication Technology-environment (ICT) that supports the design process for industrialised construction. The result of the research shows that the transformation of requirements to technical solutions needs functionality that supports the design process by using standards for requirements. A rigid building system based on well defined design tasks together with a technical platform, both for spaces and physical elements, work as a backbone for development of ICT support systems. Product Life Cycle Support (PLCS), as a standard that enables flexibility in categorisation of information through the construction design. Keywords: Requirements transformation, energy standards, BIM support, PLCS, construction design

  • 17.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Söderholm, Erik
    Johnsson, Helena
    Design process organisation at industrial house builders: a case study of two timber housing companies in Sweden2008In: Proceedings 24th Annual ARCOM Conference: 1-3 September 2008, Cardiff, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2008, Vol. 1, p. 135-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial construction companies the design process tends to be the bottleneck for further streamlining of the entire manufacturing process. The demands posed on this particular design process are diverse; should feed the production process with data, should satisfy the client with documentation and should document the project for experience feedback. Further complications arise from the internal notion of being a manufacturing company opposed to the external view of the company being a traditional building firm. In this work, the design process at two industrial builders was studied in-depth. The two companies have chosen opposing strategies for their design departments; one have specialised functions where all projects pass and the other have more general designers who work in parallel with similar tasks. With the support from lean production theory, the consequences of these two strategies on succeeding with design of industrial built houses are analysed. The results show that increased specialisation is beneficial in daily work, but can pose a sensitive design process if key competences suddenly vanish.

  • 18.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Viklund, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Advancement of Platform Development in Industrialised Building2015In: Procedia Economics and Finance, E-ISSN 2212-5671, Vol. 21, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for productivity in house-building is today causing changes of work methods in the building industry, for example bythe utilization of house-building platforms. This requires development processes separated from those of individual house products. The aim of this study is to examine how platform development processes in the building industry are carried out and how product development theories fit to the studied context. A qualitative case studyanalysis shows how a house-building platform can be developed in a sequential manner with product development theories that could capture values fromthe construction company, property owner and from end user.

  • 19.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Viklund, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Design management using knowledge innovation and visual planning.2016In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 330-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An open platform used for industrialised house-building imposes restrictions on the flexibility of the product offering when developing design standardisation. How design process standardisation incorporates variations in products has not been widely studied. The aim of this research is to explain how design breakdown enables Lean Product Development Flow (LPDF) and look-ahead planning in an industrialised house-building context where an open platform is used. A case study was conducted of how one of the leading industrialised house-building companies in Sweden introduced the LPDF tool Knowledge Innovation/Visual Planning (KI-VP) into their design process. The implementation of KI-VP led to an increased cross-functional understanding of relationships between activities, which are an important factor in achieving flexibility and a synchronised workflow. By using design standardisation, look-ahead planning was implemented and used in the management of design flow. Standardisation through design breakdown provides a basis for knowledge innovation that enables improvement of the open platform using a bottom-up approach and increases the production flow. 

  • 20.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Viklund, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Artistic and Engineering Design of Platform-Based Production Systems: A Study of Swedish Architectural Practice2018In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on platform-based production systems for house-building has focused on production and manufacturing issues. The aim of this research is to explore how the architectural design process contributes to the industrialised house-building industry from the perspective of creative design work. It also aims to describe how constraints affect architectural design work in the engineer-to-order context, when using platform-based production systems. Architects with experience in using platform-based building systems with different degrees of constraints were interviewed regarding creative aspects of the design work. The interviews, together with documents relating to platform constraints, were then analysed from the perspective of artistic and engineering design theories. The results show the benefits and issues of using platform constraints, both with prefabrication of volumetric modules, as well as prefabricated slab and wall elements. The study highlights a major research gap by describing how architectural work, from both the creative artistic and engineering design perspectives, is affected by constraints in the building platform: (1) the architectural design work goes through a series of divergent and convergent processes where the divergent processes are explorative and the convergent processes are solution-oriented; and (2), there is a trade-off between creativity and efficiency in the design work. Open parameters for layout design are key to architectural creativity, while predefinition supports efficiency. The results also provide an understanding of the potential for creativity in artistic and engineering work tasks through different phases in design, and how they are related to constraints in the platform. The main limitation of the research is the number of interviewed architects who had different background experiences of working with different types of platform constraints. More studies are needed to confirm the observations and to understand how creativity and efficiency interact with divergent and convergent design processes.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Trafikverket.
    Increased innovation through change in early design procedures2016In: 19th IABSE Congress Strockholm 21-23 September 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative ans Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 685-692Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing industrial productivity and innovation is essential to meet needs to reduce lead times and costs. However, diffusion of systemic innovations in project-based industries (PBIs), such as the infrastructure sector, has proven difficult. The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) has unique opportunity to influence the degree of innovation in the sector, due to its strong position as the largest public client of infrastructure in Sweden. Therefore, the aims of an ongoing study reported here are to identify and evaluate challenges and requirements affecting the diffusion of innovation related to this key client. This is being done by examining relevant aspects of construction infrastructure projects executed via the pre-defined design procedure currently applied by STA. The results reveal that the procedure hampers diffusion since certain activities must be performed early, is applied indiscriminately to all types of projects, and hinders inter-organizational collaboration.

  • 22.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    The effect of pre-engineering on design management methods2017In: IGLC 2017: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction 2017 / [ed] Brilakis I.,Walsh K.,Sacks R., The International Group for Lean Construction , 2017, p. 523-530Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methods exist for design management such as Agile project management, the Last Planner System®, and configuration in diverse variants. Construction can be realized using different degrees of pre-engineering i.e. different production strategies, which can affect the design management method. The research aim is to describe different design management methods and discuss their capacity to function in existing production strategies in construction. Data was collected as secondary data from earlier publications on Agile project management, the Last Planner® system, configuration, and visual planning. Agile project management has a strong focus on customer value and lends itself well to situations with little pre-engineering. The Last Planner System® in design has a strong focus on the co-creation of flow and coordination of actions. In industrialised housing a dialect of Last Planner System® named KI-VP is implemented drawing upon predefinition of design tasks through standardized work. Configuration is the ultimate predefined design stage, where everything can be automated based on product variants.

  • 23.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lindbäck, Hans
    Lindbäcks Bygg AB, Sverige.
    Projekt: Industriell byggprojektering2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Viklund, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Design Breakdown in Industrialized Construction: Supporting Lean Manufacturing2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit & 1st International Conference on the Industrialization of Construction (ICIC) / [ed] Mohammed Al-Hussein; Osama Moselhi; Sunkuk Kim; Ryan E. Smith, Edmonton, Canada: University of Alberta Press , 2015, p. 255-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A turn-key commitment towards the client compels the contractor to optimize the entire supply chain from design to delivery of the finished building. Industrialization of residential construction can be accomplished using either an open or a closed platform. In the case of an open platform, the client can greatly affect design solutions and the subsequent production phase. The aim of this research is to explain how design process breakdown into activities and deli-veries supports Lean manufacturing in an open platform situation. The most successful industria-lized contractor in Sweden was studied through mapping their design process of modular buildings using their visual planning display. Describing the improvement strategy, the visual content, and the standardization efforts in design revealed the support for Lean manufacturing. Analyzing each activity for repetitive elements identified the base for standardization. The conclusion is that design breakdown is a successful method that effectively supports Lean manufacturing and provides a base for standardization in an open platform context.

  • 25.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Holmberg, Anton
    Veidekke Entreprenad AB.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Approach for Automated Planning Using 5D-BIM2016In: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st-Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early planning decisions are usually dependent on time-demanding, manually produced cost estimations and schedules. There is a trend in the construction industry to use 5D-BIM to speed up these processes and automated approaches can be used to further improve effectiveness. This research aims to investigate how to create an automated 5D-BIM planning process when using industrialized building systems. We propose an approach that combines a BIM manual with predefined databases based on the building system and its properties. A case study at one of Scandinavia’s largest construction and property development companies was conducted where the presented approach was tested. The findings show that planning using 5D-BIM is possible to partially automate through our approach but that there are challenges for a fully automated process in the standardization required and assuring that the quality of data in each step is adequate.

  • 26.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Structuring information from BIM: A glance at bills of materials2018In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, p. 362-368Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized house-builders are moving towards an enhanced production where management of information along the value chain is critical in order to deliver housing projects on time and with the desired quality. Today digital tools and systems are used in both design and production to produce, deliver and instruct actors throughout the phases of aproject. However, the information usually exists in different islands and manual transfers are required tokeep the flow of information between IT-systems and individuals continuous. A key to improving the ability for the members in different stages of a project to work with the same information is to facilitate different views. One of the building blocks for creating bridges between the islands of information is to introduce bills of materials which can be used to organize information for different purposes. Uniting the use of building information modeling (BIM) withbills of materials (BOM) is therefore our focus in this paper. This is done in the context of industrialized house-building and the facets which it brings to the subject. The aim of this paper is to present an early endeavor into a BOM based approach for structuring information from BIM models. A demonstration tool was developed, and together with application in a case project from an industrialized house-builder, the generation of BOMs from BIM data is illustrated and discussed. The findings illustrates that we can apply different structures to the information located in our BIM models and that we can produce a BOM perspective on our products. Also, it is highlighted that we still need further studies to better understand how application of BOMs in the context of industrialized house-building is realized.

  • 27.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Gerth, Robert
    Design Evolution Scandinavia AB.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Design automation in construction: An overview2016In: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st – Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry continues its digital journey the applications within design automation is growing, making development processes less time-demanding and more organized. Design automation applications can show design impact on e.g. cost, equipment availability, staff capabilities and buildability. It can also facilitate reuse of successful solutions instead of reinventing the wheel for every project. Thanks to automation it becomes easier to generate several solutions and trying different what-if-conditions. The field has many different approaches but an overview for construction where the connections between the different approaches are indicated is needed. The purpose of this paper is to describe our view of how the design automation fields of building information modelling, master models,  nowledge-based engineering, configuration, modularization, platforms and simulation are  onnected and to provide input to the design automation discussion in construction. Each of  hese areas are introduced and then they are analyzed in relation to each other and presented as an overview. These results will serve as a base for future studies.

  • 28.
    Viklund, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Modularization based on commonalities in house-building requirements2017In: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, p. 126-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the requirements governing the design of houses are common between projects. This opens up for using modularization based on product commonalities. Though modularization is well known in the manufacturing industry, its use in house-building contexts is less studied. Even more scarce is research focusing on how requirement commonalities between one-of-a-kind products are found and managed in a modularization process. In this research, modularization from a requirements management perspective is empirically explored using a case study approach. Though the studied modularization process can be described as sequential, the process steps are highly interrelated, with overlaps and iterations. Commonalities are found by functional decomposition of the customer's portfolio projects, tracing technical solutions back to their initial requirements. These are balanced with the customer's requirements on the product and on the design automation tool. The requirement list is continuously updated based on portfolio analysis and communication of modularization results to the customer

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