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  • 1. Berlinson, Leif
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Espoonlahden liikenneturvallisuus1985Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Berlinson, Leif
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Espoonlahden liikenneturvallisuus1988Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3. Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    FoU-plan trafikteknik: inriktningsplan för FoU inom integrerad fysisk samhällsplanering och trafiksäkerhet1999Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Faugert, Sven
    et al.
    Dovelius, J.
    Johannesson, C.
    Kempinsky, P.
    Leden, Lars
    Salujärvi, M.
    Hur FUD-baserat är det nationella trafiksäkerhetsprogrammet (NTP)?: en utvärdering från nyttoperspektiv av KFBs forskningsprogram inom trafiksäkerhet1998Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Füssl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Oberlader, Manuel
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Beanland, Vanessa
    Research School of Psychology, Australian National University.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Lenné, Michael G.
    Accident Research Centre, Monash University.
    Joshi, Somya
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University.
    Rößger, Lars
    Technical University Dresden.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. VTT.
    Underwood, Geoff
    University of Notttingham.
    Carvalhais, Jose
    Faculty of Human Kinetics, Universidade de Lisboa.
    Methodological development of a specific tool for assessing acceptability of assistive systems of powered two-wheeler-riders2015In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 12-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the acceptability of assistive systems for improving the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) is a pressing issue. The use of safety-enhancing assistive systems for motorised vehicles, including advanced driver assistance systems and in-vehicle information systems is widespread in many countries. Yet, there is only a limited number of equivalent intelligent transport systems (ITS) for PTWs, namely advanced rider assistance systems and on-bike information systems. This study describes the methodological development of a specific tool for assessing motorcyclists' acceptability of ITS, as part of the motorcyclists' profiling questionnaire (MOPROQ). There were three stages of development. First, a literature review was undertaken to assess the current state of the art regarding ITS for PTWs and to determine the most relevant facets of acceptability that should be measured. Second, a series of focus group interviews were conducted to explore riders' attitudes towards ITS. Finally, the focus group results were used to develop a large-scale survey (MOPROQ), which was administered to an initial sample of over 6000 riders internationally. The designed tool can be used as a basis for the determination of rider acceptability of ITS systems in the future.

  • 6.
    Füssl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Oberlader, Manuel
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Lenné, Michael G.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Beanland, Vanessa
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Pereira, Marta
    Chemnitz University of Technology.
    Simões, Ana V.C.
    Humanist Network.
    Turetschek, Ch.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Kaufmann, C.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Joshi, Somya
    Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, Athens.
    Rößger, Lars
    Technische Universität Dresden.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    Ethniko Metsovio Polytechnico, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Athens.
    Roebroeck, Hugo
    Federation of European Motorcyclists' Associations (FEMA), Brussels.
    Carvalhais, José
    University of Tecnology Lisboa, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana.
    Underwood, J.
    Nottingham Trent University.
    Riders acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of assistive systems and intelligent transport systems (ITS) plays an important role for improving the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTWs). Assistive systems for cars are well known and increasingly popular but for PTW riders the development of Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) and On-Bike Information Systems (OBIS) has not progressed far enough yet. Estimates suggest that population-wide deployment of ARAS could reduce crashes by up to 40% (Lenné et al., 2011). Within the 2BESAFE project the factors that affect the acceptance of ARAS and OBIS of PTW riders and the obstacles that may hold PTW riders off from the use of assistive systems have been identified. A literature review, focus group interviews and an online survey have been conducted. The results show that the acceptability of systems depends on their function. The acceptability is higher for systems that were perceived to be more useful in emergencies. Survey respondents raised several concerns regarding the acceptance of assistive systems for PTWs. Respondents of the on-line survey felt that there was too much focus on assistive systems as a means of improving PTW rider safety, and less on the dangers that motorcyclists face actually from the actions of other road users.

  • 7.
    Gårder, Per
    et al.
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Key areas of traffic safety work according to European experts1998In: Nordic Road and Transport Research, ISSN 1101-5179, E-ISSN 2000-186X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 20-22Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Gårder, Per
    et al.
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Promoting safe walking and cycling2000In: Nordic Road and Transport Research, ISSN 1101-5179, E-ISSN 2000-186X, no 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 9.
    Gårder, Per
    et al.
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Pulkkinen, Urho
    Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Measuring the safety effect of raised bicycle crossings using a new research methodology1998In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 1636, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before-and-after study methodology was developed and applied to evaluating the effect on bicyclists' safety of raising urban bicycle crossings by 4 to 12 cm. In total, 44 junctions were reconstructed in this way in Gothenburg, Sweden. Four of these were studied in detail. Before the implementations, bicyclists were riding either in the roadway or on separate paths parallel to the roadway. The paths then ended with short ramps or curb cuts at each cross street, and bicyclists used nonelevated, marked bicycle crossings, similar to pedestrian crosswalks but delineated by white painted rectangles rather than zebra stripes. The results show that the paths with raised crossings attracted more than 50 percent more bicyclists and that the safety per bicyclist was improved by approximately 20 percent due to the increase in bicycle flow, and with an additional 10 to 50 percent due to the improved layout. However, the increased bicyclist volume means that the total number of bicycle accidents is expected to increase. Besides accident analysis, the change in risk was estimated using four different methods: surveys of bicyclists and experts, respectively; conflict data; and a quantitative expert model. Using a Bayesian approach for combining the results shows that the most likely effect of raising the bicycle crossing is a risk reduction of around 30 percent, compared with the before situation with a conventional bicycle crossing. Motorists and pedestrians also saw safety benefits from this traffic-calming measure.

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  • 10.
    Gårder, Per
    et al.
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Thedeen, Torbjörn
    Safety implications of bicycle paths at signalized intersections1994In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 429-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quantitative meta-analysis of studies evaluating, by means of the Bayesian method, the safety effectiveness of different bicycle facilities at road junctions. This is preceded by a discussion of background theories and an up-to-date presentation of today's knowledge of the cyclist's safety at intersections; alternative layouts in Scandinavia, and Sweden in particular, are shown. The project consists of a literature survey as well as interviews with experts and cyclists, and an attempt to weave together these different sources in estimating the effect of a particular layout. In summary, few studies from the Scandinavian countries exist that have treated this area with an acceptable methodology. Combined results, with the Bayesian technique, are therefore presented for only one layout comparison: accident risks for cyclists at signalized intersections with and without a cycle path. The results of this aggregation may be unreliable as well, due to deficiencies in the studies. New field studies should be initiated. The "experts'" prior opinion was that the introduction of the cycle path would, on average, increase the risk by about 20%, while interviewed cyclists considered that a cycle path would decrease the risk by about 20%. The conclusion that can be drawn so far from combining results shows that the most likely effect of introducing a cycle path is that the risk will increase by about 40% for a passing cyclist. The probability that the effect will be the opposite, i.e. that the risk will decrease, is very small (about 2%). These combined results are based primarily on cross-section studies, where the layouts have not been "randomly allotted". It is therefore likely that the risk increase may have been overestimated. The probability that the "real" effect is accident reduction is therefore somewhat greater than 2%. How much greater cannot be estimated from these studies

  • 11.
    Hemdorff, Stig
    et al.
    VTT.
    Leden, Lars
    Sakshaug, Kristian
    Salusjärvi, Markku
    VTT.
    Schandersson, Rein
    VTT.
    Trafiksäkerhet och vägytans egenskaper (TOVE): slutrapport1989Report (Other academic)
  • 12. Hilska, Lassi
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Tunneliteiden liikenneteknisen mitoituksen perusteita1990Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13. Höjgaard, Hugo
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Roine, Matti
    VTT.
    Sjölinder, Kent
    Schistad, Trude
    Vaaje, Tore
    Norrby, Herje
    Prioritering av mindre trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i tätort1994Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gårder, Per
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    A safe environment for children and elderly as pedestrians and bicyclists: A synthesis based on an analysis of in-depth studies of fatalities, police-reported crashes and behaviour studies2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children frequently lack the ability to correctly direct and maintain their attention on traffic, to judge speeds, and localize sounds. Compared to adults, they also have more limited cones of visions, less capacity to perform multiple tasks simultaneously, and less ability to control their impulses. Elderly people because of the ageing process sometimes lack the ability to correctly comprehend the traffic situation. Therefore special attention has to be given to the design of the traffic environment for children and elderly. Based on a literature review, a number of hypotheses are formulated to describe factors that are decisive for determining whether crashes involving children and elderly will occur or not and the severity of those crashes. Swedish and Finnish indepth studies of crashes, police reported crashes, conflict studies and data describing 11 738 video filmed pedestrian and bicyclist passages have been analyzed to test these hypotheses. The factors that contribute to crashes are identified and a set of principles are proposed when designing urban traffic environments for children and elderly to eliminate these causes. The main principle proposed is that actual vehicle speeds should be no more than 30 km/h wherever children or elderly cross streets. Complementary countermeasures are proposed for children and elderly to see and bee seen and to improve orientation.

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  • 15.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gårder, Per
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    A safe environment for children and elderly as pedestrians and cyclists: A synthesis based on an analysis of in-depth studies of fatalities, police-reported crashes and including video recordings of behaviour2004In: Traffic and transport psychology : theory and application: proceedings of the ICTTP 2004 / [ed] Geoffrey Underwood, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gårder, Per
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    A vision for a safe traffic environment for children2006In: Greener, safer and smarter - road transport for Europe: TRA, Transport Research Arena Europe 2006 ; Göteborg, Sweden, June 12th - 15th 2006 ; proceedings, full papers, Göteborg: Vägverket , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gårder, Per
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maine, Orono.
    Leden, Lars
    The effect of change of code on safety and mobility for children and elderly as pedestrians at marked crosswalks: a case study comparing Sweden to Finland2004In: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM: 83rd Annual TRB Meeting, 2004, article id 04-2659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gårder, Per
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Towards a safe environment for children and elderly as pedestrians and cyclists: synthesis based on an analysis of video recordings of behaviour and police-reported crashes including in-depth studies of fatalities2004In: Traffic and transport psychology : theory and application: proceedings of the ICTTP 2004 / [ed] Geoffrey Underwood, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children frequently lack the ability to correctly direct and maintain their attention on traffic, to judge speeds, and localize sounds. Compared to adults, they also have more limited cones of visions, less capacity to perform multiple tasks simultaneously, and less ability to control their impulses. Elderly people because of the ageing process sometimes lack the ability to correctly comprehend the traffic situation. Therefore special attention has to be given to the design of the traffic environment for children and elderly. Based on a literature review, a number of hypotheses are formulated to describe factors that are crucial for crashes involving children and elderly. Swedish and Finnish in-depth studies of crashes, police reported crashes and data describing 11 738 video filmed pedestrian and bicyclist passages have been analyzed to test these hypotheses. The factors that contributed to the crashes are identified and a set of principles to eliminate these causes are proposed when designing urban traffic environments for children and elderly. The main principle proposed is that the actual vehicle speeds should be no more than 30 km/h wherever children or elderly cross streets. Complementary countermeasures are proposed for children and elderly to see and be seen and to improve orientation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gårder, Per
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Traffic environment for children and elderly as pedestrians and cyclists2005In: 18th ICTCT Workshop, 27-28 October 2005, Helsinki: ICTCT, International Co-operation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety. Helsinki (2005), ICTCT , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gårder, Per
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Two case studies on urban traffic planning for children and elderly2007In: 11th World Conference on Transport Research: University of California, Berkeley, June 24-28, 2007, Lyon: WCTRS , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Child Pedestrians' Quality Needs2009In: Nordic Road and Transport Research, ISSN 1101-5179, E-ISSN 2000-186X, no 3, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Child pedestrians' quality needs and how these needs relate to interventions2010In: Getting communities back on their feet: The XI International Conference on Walking and Liveable Communities was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, November 16-19 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost 358 is to present a handbook on Pedestrians' Quality Needs in 2010 for all age groups. One age group is children. The main objective is to provide knowledge of pedestrians' quality needs and how these needs relate to structural and functional interventions, policy making and regulation to support walking conditions across the EU and other interested countries. This paper suggests a new way to satisfy children's rights to road safety.According to the UN ‘Children's Charter', its Convention on Children's Rights, their rights include road safety, and ratifying countries, are obliged to take all appropriate measures to implement the Convention. Child Consequence Analyses, i.e. preliminary tests of the consequences that an intended decision may have on children and young people and on their right to health, survival and to play etc. should be carried out to ensure that Children's Rights are fulfilled according to the convention.Free movement of children in the physical environment is important for their health as well as for their social, cognitive, and motor development. With increasing age, children's desire for free movement increases - and their territory gradually expands. However, this leads to increased exposure to risk: accidents to children as pedestrians are a function of mobility.The objektive is that children of preschool age should not encounter cars in their play areas or where they walk; though in some cases, vehicles travelling at a maximum of walking pace (or crawling speed) can be accepted. Children 7 to 12 should not cross streets at locations where vehicle speeds exceed 15-20 km/h. For older children, the same principles apply as for adult unprotected road users: they should not cross at locations where motor vehicle speeds exceed 30 km/h. This applies to routes to school, to leisure activities, and to friends.However, other measures than low speed is needed to accomplish systematic traffic planning for children. Approaches should have only one entry and one exit lane, and typically be separated by a refuge island where pedestrians cross. This is proposed to be systematically provided at bus stops, at schools, in residential areas, and other places where children can be expected to walk. For traffic quantity and composition, the aim is that traffic flows should be low, with few or no heavy vehicles. Layouts and sections should have clear visibility and clarity. Countermeasures are proposed to be used in a systematic way to achieve a safe and independent freedom of movement for children.

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  • 23.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Cyklande barns säkerhet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn går och cyklar inte lika ofta som tidigare. Fysiska aktiviteter är i allmänhet positiva ur ett hälso- och livskvalitetsperspektiv. Utformningen av trafikmiljön, och regleringen av trafiken kan bidra till trygg och självständig rörelsefrihet för barn. Rapporten inleds med en meta-analys baserad på tidigare utförda enkäter som riktar sig till skolbarn, i fråga om säkerhet som oskyddade trafikanter i stadsmiljö. Resultatet är en beskrivning av säkerhetsproblem från barnens synvinkel. Hypoteser har formulerats för att beskriva faktorer som är avgörande i trafikolyckor som barn är inblandade i som cyklister, och svårighetsgraden av dessa olyckor. Svenska och finska djupstudier av cykelolyckor analyseras för att testa dessa hypoteser. Olyckor som barn är inblandade i jämförs med andra åldersgrupper för att avgöra skillnader. Resultatet är en beskrivning av säkerhetsproblem som bygger på olycksstatistik för barn som cyklister kopplade till barnens egna åsikter om egenskaper och säkerhetsproblem som cyklister. Barn nämner dålig sikt, mycket motortrafik och hög hastighet som de dominerande faktorerna för en farlig trafikmiljö. De faktorer som visade sig vara mer problematiskt för barn i olycksstatistiken jämfört med äldre åldersgrupper nämndes också av barn som farliga i trafikmiljön.

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  • 24.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Effects of the new Swedish law at zebra crossings and vision zero countermeasures on traffic safety and mobility, especially for children and elderly: a case study in Malmö, Sweden2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the bases of the Swedish Vision Zero is the traffic-calming principle in urban areas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the short-term effects on traffic behavior and traffic safety of reconstructing urban intersections according to traffic-calming principles. The focus of the evaluation is on children and elderly. The Swedish law concerning car drivers giving way to pedestrians was strengthened on May 1, 2000. The aim is also to describe the effect on safety and mobility of the new Code. The field studies were made in the City of Malmö in Sweden.

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  • 25.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Have information technologies forgotten pedestrians? To what extent can it/its improve Pedestrian’s mobility and safety2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Löser 50/30-gatan barns, äldres och funktionshindrades krav på säkerhet och tillgänglighet?: fallstudie Regementsgatan i Malmö ett år efter implementering av fysiska åtgärder2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A part of the Swedish Vision Zero is to develop safe pedestrian crossings and to demonstrate suitable traffic calming measures in demo projects. One demo project is Regementsgatan in Malmö, Sweden. In a previous study the short-term effects of implementation of traffic calming has been studied. In this report the effect one year after implementation is studied, i.e. still not the long-term effect but rather a mid-term evaluation. The study has been conducted at three intersections at Regementsgatan and in three control crossings, two with zebra crossings (same design as on Regementsgatan) and one without marked crossings. The intersection without marked crossings is used as a migration-of behaviour site, i.e. to study if the road users' behaviour has changed there too. The emphasis of the study is on traffic safety and mobility for pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and elderly. The Swedish law concerning car drivers giving way to pedestrians was strengthened on May 1, 2000. The behaviours of pedestrians, cyclists and car drivers has been studied in four different time periods, before reconstruction and change of Code, after change of Code but before reconstruction, shortly after reconstruction (i.e. five months after change of Code), and now a year after reconstruction (i.e. a year and five months after change of Code). Places were video filmed from various angles to capture the different road-users' behaviour. The vehicle speeds were measured with radar.

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  • 27.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Safety of child bicyclists2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children walk and travel by bicycle to a lesser extent than previously. Physical activities are generally positive from a health perspective and life quality perspective. The design of the traffic environment and the regulation of traffic can support safe and independent freedom of movement for children.Two sources were used to explore safety problems for cycling children: school questionnaires and accident statistics. A meta-analysis based on previously conducted questionnaires addressed to school children on the subject of safety as vulnerable road users in the urban environment revealed that children perceived poor visibility, intensive motor traffic and high vehicle speed as the dominant factors for a dangerous traffic environment. The factors that were found to be most problematic for children according to the accident statistics compared with older age groups were also mentioned by the children as dangerous in the traffic environment. The result is a description of safety problems based on accident statistics for children bicyclists linked to children's own opinions on characteristics and safety problems as bicyclists.

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  • 28.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Short-term effects of countermeasures for improved safety and mobility at marked pedestrian crosswalks in Boras, Sweden2007In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 500-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish code concerning car drivers' responsibility to give way to pedestrians was strengthened in 2000. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the short-term effects of the change in code. Another goal is to look at the effects of the reconstruction of four sites in Boras, Sweden. One site had changes made prior to the change of code, two test sites had countermeasures implemented during the study, and one comparison site was left unchanged. All the sites were chosen because schools were situated nearby. The focus of the evaluation was on children and elderly as pedestrians and cyclists. The goal of traffic calming of a 90 percentile driving speed below 30km/h was not fulfilled at any of the test sites. A conclusion is that the height of a speed cushion is important. After the speed cushions were lowered from 70mm to 55mm, the 90 percentile speed increased from 34km/h to 41km/h. Sites with no speed cushions had much higher speeds. The design of an intersection influences road users' behavior. At the site where one crosswalk was removed, pedestrians that were using the remaining marked crosswalk were given way to less frequently than at the other sites. At intersections where most pedestrians used marked crosswalks, the children benefited the most in mobility. At the intersection where pedestrians used marked crosswalks to a lower extent after reconstruction, children and the elderly had the smallest increase in frequency of being given way to. After reconstruction to a court-yard street, the pedestrians were given way to a lower extent compared with the other sites, though the vehicle speeds were the lowest observed at this study. At the sites were no physical changes were made, the change of code improved driver yield behavior, but no more towards children than other age groups.

  • 29.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Skolenkät och intervjuer om ombyggnaden av Tessins väg vid Fridhemsskolan i Malmö i maj 2006: ett underlag för att utvärdera effekten av ombyggnationen av Tessins väg2006Report (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    SYBAS: underlag till handbok för systematisk trafikplanering för barn2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Risken att skadas i trafiken som gående eller cyklist är högre för barn än för vuxna personer. Allvarlighetsgraden på personskadorna är högre desto högre fordonshastigheten är. Kollisioner med dödlig utgång mellan fordon och oskyddade trafikanter där fordonshastigheten är låg involverar nästan alltid tunga fordon eller fordon med hög markfrigång. Barn springer eller cyklar fort ut i vägen oftare än andra åldersgrupper i olyckor med dödlig utgång. Barn är inte oftare inblandade i olyckor i korsningar jämfört med andra åldersgrupper. Majoriteten av olyckorna sker på sträckor mellan korsningar. Barn är oftare inblandade i dödsolyckor där sikten är dålig samt i omkörningsolyckor på övergångställen på vägar med flera körfält, än övriga åldersgrupper men barn är inte oftare inblandade i olyckor i korsningar när fordonen svänger.

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  • 31.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    The effect of reconstruction and code changes at pedestrian crossings to traffic safety for children, grownups and elderly: results from a case study in Borås Ålborg2000In: Trafikdage på Aalborg Universitet 2000, Bellingham, Wash.: Transportrådet , 2000, p. 775-787Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from studies at five different intersections in Borås are presented. At two intersections, at Hultagatan and Sjöbotorggatan, the traffic environment was reconstructed using speed reducing devices. The other three were control sites, two at Trandared School with speed reducing devices already implemented and one at Källbäcksrydsgatan with no speed reducing devices. The sites are studied before and after changes of the traffic environment (if any), before and shortly after the law was changed (1 May 2000). The new law strengthens car drivers obligation to give way to pedestrians that intend to cross the street at zebra crossings. The studies examine differences between children’s, grownups’ and elderly people’s interactions with motor traffic at zebra crossings. The frequency with which pedestrians are given way to by car drivers increased with 32 percentage points (from 17 % to 49 %) when speed cushions were implemented at Hultagatan. After the new law was enacted the giving way frequency increased to 64 %. The frequency of giving way to pedestrians increased by 9 points (from 59 % to 68 %) and 28 points (from 54 % to 82 %) at the two intersections at Trandared School when the new law was enacted. Elevating the surface at Sjöbotorggatan decreased the speed of the vehicles but had low effect on the giving way frequency because of the pedestrian’s decreased usage of the zebra crossing. No differences between giving way frequency towards children and adults were seen.

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  • 32.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    The effect on traffic saftey and mobility for children, ederly and disabled of implementing a vision zero 50/30-km/h-street: a case study in Malmö, Sweden2003In: Transportforum 2003: rapportsammanställning av föredrag i Linköping 8-9 januari 2003, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI , 2003, p. 618-Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 33. Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Towards a method to study child pedestrian safety and mobility: short term effects from a case study in Borås, Sweden2001In: Proceedings, International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety , 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 34.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Rosander, Peter
    Tessins väg, Malmö: ett exempel på hur barn medverkar i processen om gatumiljöns förnyelse2007In: Transportforum 2007, den 10-11 januari 2007 i Linköping, VTI , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 35.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rosander, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings: Does it matter?2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1846-1851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds therefore improve the safety and mobility of pedestrians at the crossing. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety and mobility of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and if so, how. Three sites in Sweden were studied, where vehicle speed measurements and video filming at the site resulted in manually coded, road user behaviour of 1972 pedestrians and cyclists. Road user behaviour at three test sites and two comparison sites equipped with speed cushion at distances of about 5 m and 10 m from the pedestrian crossing, i.e. about one or two car lengths, were studied. As vehicle speeds were somewhat lower at the pedestrian crossing when the distance between the speed cushion to the pedestrian crossing was greater, and there were positive aspects regarding the mobility of the pedestrians and cyclists, a greater distance of about 10 m or two car lengths between the hump and the pedestrian crossing is suggested. The present study only covers speed cushions, but the same distance is also regarded as important when installing other types of physical measures to reduce vehicle speed.

  • 36.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rosander, Peter
    Leden, Lars
    The distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings: does it matter?2008In: Engineering solutions to improve traffic safety in urban areas: 21st ICTCT Workshop in Riga, Latvia, on 30-31 October 2008, ICTC , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds and therefore improve the safety of pedestrians at the crossing.The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and if so, how. Three sites in Sweden were studied, where vehicle speed and video filming at the site resulted in manually coded, road user behaviour of 1972 pedestrians and cyclists.The humps were installed at distances of 5-10 m from the pedestrian crossing, ie about one or two car lengths. As vehicle speeds were somewhat lower at the pedestrian crossing when the distance between the speed hump to the pedestrian crossing was greater, and there were some positive aspects regarding the mobility of the pedestrians and cyclists, a greater distance of about 10 m or two car lengths is suggested. The present study only covers speed humps, but the same distance is also regarded as important when installing other types of physical measures to reduce vehicle speed.

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  • 37.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rosander, Peter
    Leden, Lars
    Utvärdering av trafiksäkerhetshöjande åtgärder för skolbarn i Region Norr2007In: Transportforum 2007, den 10-11 januari 2007 i Linköping, VTI , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 38.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Aktivitet: Transportforum 20082008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39. Leden, Lars
    Cyklande barns trafiksäkerhet: en studie i Onsala1987Report (Other academic)
  • 40. Leden, Lars
    Cyklande barns trafiksäkerhet i olika tätortsmiljöer: en studie av metod för datainsamling och analys1983Report (Other academic)
  • 41. Leden, Lars
    Cyklande barns trafiksäkerhet i tätort: inverkan av gatutformning och reglering1988In: VTIs och TFBs forskardagar: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1988-01-12-13D. 2: Beträffande trafiksäkerhet, trafikmedicin, information i trafiken, minsalt, kollektivtrafik, miljö, salters effekt på betong, Linköping: Väg- och trafikinstitutet (VTI), , 1988, Vol. 2, p. 42-43Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42. Leden, Lars
    Cyklande barns trafiksäkerhet: inverkan av gatu-utformning och reglering1988In: Tie ja liikenne 88. Tampere, 5. - 6.10.1988, Suomen tieyhdistys , 1988, p. 33-39Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Leden, Lars
    Cyklande barns trafiksäkerhet: inverkan av gatuutformning och reglering1988Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 44. Leden, Lars
    Effekt av gatuutformning och reglering i tätort: inledande studie främst av bilisternas trafiksäkerhet1988Report (Other academic)
  • 45. Leden, Lars
    En jämförelse av trafiksäkerheten i Finland, Sverige och Norge1996Report (Other academic)
  • 46. Leden, Lars
    En metod att förbättra trafikmiljön för cyklande barn1990In: Liikennevilkku, ISSN 0355-6689, no 2, p. 17-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Enkät med funktionshindrade 2003 samt skolbarn 2001 och 2002 i Borås2005Report (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gåendes, cyklisters och mopedisters säkerhet på huvudvägar utom tätort i Sverige och Finland2000In: Trafikdage på Aalborg Universitet, 2000, p. 789-800Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 49. Leden, Lars
    Has the city of Gothenburg found a concept to encourage bicycling by improving safety for bicyclists1997In: VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1997-01-08--09, Stockholm: Kommunikationsforskningsberedningen (KFB) , 1997, p. 109-118Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Leden, Lars
    Has the city of Gothenburg found the concept to encourage bicycling by improving safety for bicyclists?1997In: Proceedings of Velo City '97: 10th International Bicycle Planning Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 1997, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
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