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  • 1.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Mellström, Anna
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Energi AB.
    Chemical and hydraulic conditions in a landfill/deposit for wood-based ash2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 121-129Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Brundin, Herman
    et al.
    SÖRAB.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rihm, Thomas
    RVF service AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Långtidsegenskaper hos tätskikt innehållande bentonit2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bentonit är en starkt vattenupptagande och svällande naturlig lera med låg vattengenomsläpplighet. Huvudkomponenten är mineralet montmorillonit, som tillhör gruppen smektiter och som ger bentoniten dess unika egenskaper. Syftet med uppdraget är att söka identifiera vilka mekanismer och faktorer som kan vara begränsande för funktionen på kort och lång sikt hos tätskikt innehållande bentonitmattor samt blandningar av bentonit och andra material. I rapporten ges underlag för projektering, utformning och drift av deponier med tätskikt innehållande bentonit. Där redovisas också tre fallstudier från Högbytorp, Löt och Tveta.

  • 3. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Formation of secondary mineral phases during the ageing of RDF fly ashes2010Ingår i: The 6th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, 2010, s. 110-112Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Factors influencing chemical and mineralogical changes in RDF fly ashes during aging2014Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, nr 3, artikel-id 4013014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aging should be considered for reliable long-term assessments of the environmental risks of the use of refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ash as landfill top cover liner material. Mineral transformations that occur in RDF fly ash, and the effects of selected factors on these transformations, were studied on compacted fly ash specimens in an accelerated aging experiment using a reduced factorial design. Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, relative air humidity, time, and the quality of added water were varied in six factor combinations. Acid neutralization capacity and leaching behavior were analyzed after four different periods of time. The results were evaluated with multivariate data analysis. A significant change in the acid neutralization capacity, a decrease in leaching of Ba, Ca, Cl − , Cr, Cu, Pb, K, and Na, and an increase in solubility of Mg, Si, Zn, and SO 2− 4 could be attributed to different aging conditions

  • 5.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing2015Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 141, nr 5, artikel-id 4014083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fly ashes was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Aging affected the chemical stability of RDF fly ash in terms of leaching behavior, ANC, and mineralogical transformations. The design of experiment model evaluation showed that the use of RDF ashes in a top cover liner construction has the following advantages: most of the investigated hazardous elements like Pb, Cl, Cr, Cu, etc., will not be released from the ashes, and their buffer capacity will increase with time. However, aging has the disadvantage that leaching of Zn and SO 4 is likely to increase. The multivariate data analysis of the coefficients of variation did not reveal any systematic errors in the performance of the experiment. However, batch leaching test not always reflect the real situation in the landfill top cover environment.

  • 6.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ageing of ashes in a landfill top cover2011Ingår i: SARDINIA 2011: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2011 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA Publisher, Italy , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on studies on the effects of accelerated ageing on refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ashes, in experiments under controlled laboratory conditions, intended to derive models to predict the stability of RDF fly ashes used in a landfill liner and the mineralogi-cal changes that occur in them. A reduced factorial design was applied, followed by multivariate data analysis, to evaluate the effects of five factors — carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, temperature, relative air humidity (RH), time and the quality of added water — on mineral transformations within the ashes, and leaching behaviour. The pH values of these ash specimens ranged from 7.2 to 7.6, indicating advanced carbonation. Ageing decreased pH values from 12.4 to 7.2, conse-quently affecting the leaching behaviour of most chemicals measured in the leachates. Levels of Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Pb, K and Na decreased over the study period while those of Mg, Zn and SO4 increased. Clay minerals could not be detected neither in fresh nor in aged ashes. However, geo-chemical modelling indicated that such minerals may precipitate.

  • 7.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Verksamhetsstöd, Externfinansiering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University. Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Effect of residue combinations on plant uptake of nutrients and potentially toxic elements2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 132, s. 287-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the plant pot experiment was to evaluate potential environmental impacts of combined industrial residues to be used as soil fertilisers by analysing i) element availability in fly ash and biosolids mixed with soil both individual and in combination, ii) changes in element phytoavailability in soil fertilised with these materials and iii) impact of the fertilisers on plant growth and element uptake.Plant pot experiments were carried out, using soil to which fresh residue mixtures had been added. The results showed that element availability did not correlate with plant growth in the fertilised soil with. The largest concentrations of K (3534mg/l), Mg (184mg/l), P (1.8mg/l), S (760mg/l), Cu (0.39mg/l) and Zn (0.58mg/l) in soil pore water were found in the soil mixture with biosolids and MSWI fly ashes; however plants did not grow at all in mixtures containing the latter, most likely due to the high concentration of chlorides (82g/kg in the leachate) in this ash. It is known that high salinity of soil can reduce germination by e.g. limiting water absorption by the seeds. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in grown plants were negligible in most of the soils and were below the instrument detection limit values.The proportions of biofuel fly ash and biosolids can be adjusted in order to balance the amount and availability of macronutrients, while the possible increase of potentially toxic elements in biomass is negligible seeing as the plant uptake of such elements was low. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 8. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Wolters, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Tekedo AB, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Elements availability in soil fertilized with pelletized fly ash and biosolids2015Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 159, s. 27-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of combined and pelletized industrial residues on availability and mobility of nutrients and potentially toxic elements in soil, plant growth and element uptake. Plant pot experiments were carried out using soil to which 2% of pelletized residue containing biosolids mixed with either municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MFA) or biofuel fly ash (BFA) was added. The tests showed that the plant growth did not correspond to the content of available nutrients in fertilised soil. MFA application to soil resulted in elevated concentrations of P (506 mg/kg), As (2.7 mg/kg), Cd (0.8 mg/kg) and Pb (12.1 mg/kg) in soil, lower plant uptake of Al (25 mg/kg) and Ba (51 mg/kg), but higher accumulation of As (4.3 mg/kg) and Cd (0.3 mg/kg) in plants compared to the unamended soil and soil amended with BFA. On average, the biomass of the plants grown in the soil containing MFA was larger than in other soils.Considering the use of industrial residue mixtures as soil amendments or fertilizers, the amount of added elements should not exceed those taken up by plants, by this preventing the increase of soil background concentrations.

  • 9.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Zamora, Carles Belmonte
    LTU.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements2014Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 276, s. 171-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g. N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  • 10.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Desogus, Paolo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Schulenburg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Arenella, Mariarita
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover2013Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 12, s. 8649-8662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe0) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe0 was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe0 treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required.

  • 11.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Labor, B.
    Badania Dydaktycne.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sustainability of nuclear energy with regard to decommissioning and waste management2013Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 246-264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability aspects of nuclear power are analysed with regard to such environmental liabilities that are associated with decommissioning of nuclear facilities and with nuclear waste management. Sustainability is defined and evaluated based on information searches that also include energy from combustion of coal. It is concluded that the claims on sustainability put forward by different parties are inconsistent and that coherent methodologies for evaluation are needed together with appropriately structured knowledge bases. Examples are presented from the perspective of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. It is found that nuclear power can qualify as sustainable only if the nuclear liability associated with protection of health and the environment - now and in the future – is appropriately managed. Sustainability awareness is analysed in a historic perspective, and it is found that it has been around for at least as long as agriculture, and that at least some of the shortcomings are actually modern inventions. Comprehensive perspectives are essential, since sustainability awareness may appear as trends. It is a historical fact that planning for decommissioning and estimation of associated costs are frequently treacherous exercises. However, costs must be relatively accurately estimated already at early stages so that adequate funds are available at the time when they are needed. Thus, the timing of the technical planning is often governed by the needs for financial planning. It is the duty of the present generation to assess what is adequate and to find responsible solutions. But the next generation should also be asked to carefully consider the perspective that they provide to us.

  • 12.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Division of nuclear liabilities between different license holders and owners2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2011 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management: ICEM2011 : September 25-29, 2011, Reims, France., New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2011, Vol. PARTS A AND B, s. 985-994Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was one of the first six countries to build and operate a nuclear power reactor. Thus, there exists a corresponding legacy in terms of liabilities for decommissioning and waste management of the historic facilities. Compliance with the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) and its corollary on equity between generations implies that plans for decommissioning must be made and funds set aside for its execution. The need for precision in the cost estimates often governs the timing of the technical planning. Cost estimates are treacherous since cost raisers may be identified and evaluated only after considerable efforts have been made. Further complications and challenges arise as a result of changes that take place between construction and decommissioning of facilities in terms of the entities involved as owners, operators, license holders, Authorities and financiers. From this perspective, the present paper summarizes the general legislation as well as the legislation that applies particularly to nuclear activities. It also summarizes the relation between the nuclear decommissioning fund system and financial reporting. Three examples are provided that wholly or partially fall under the Studsvik act (that specifically covers old facilities): The Ågesta nuclear power plant The Ranstad uranium mining and beneficiation facility The Neutron Research Laboratory at Studsvik The findings include the following: It is important that the legislation be clear as to what is included and not. The rationale for the legislation should also be clear and well communicated. Old agreements can be significant for the assessment of liabilities, even in cases where a party may no longer exist. Support for assessment of when activities are continuing or not (which may have a strong significance for the liability) can be found in court cases on chemically contaminated soil. Analysis of facilities and the work carried out at different times can be very helpful in determining whether or not a facility is auxiliary. In order to be essentially correct, annual reporting must be coherent with the declarations of the funding system and in compliance with the IAR/IFRS standards. Keeping of searchable records is essential Research is essential, not only to provide bases for high quality decisions, but also to promote consensus based on agreement on factual circumstances

  • 13.
    Pearce,, C.I
    et al.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Weaver, J.L
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, United States.
    Vicenzi, E.P
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, United States.
    Lam, T
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, United States.
    Depriest, P.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, United States.
    Koestler, R.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Varga, T
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Miller, M.D.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Arey, B.W.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Conroy, M.A.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    McCloy, J.S.
    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Schweiger, M.J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Peeler, D.K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States.
    Kruger, A.A
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA, United States.
    Investigating alteration of pre-viking hillfort glasses from the broborg Hillfort Site, Sweden2017Ingår i: Materials science & technology conference and exhibition 2017 (MS&T'17)., Association for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH , 2017, Vol. 2, s. 957-959Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alunframställning och att lära av historien2015Ingår i: Kemivaerlden, Biotech, Kemisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1653-5596, nr 6, s. 42-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Classification of ash as hazardous or non-hazardous waste2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion and incineration are utilized extensively in Sweden for the generation of heat and electricity. Substantial volumes of ash with varying chemical composition are also generated in the process. Classification of such ash as hazardous or non-hazardous under the European union legislation is, in principle, a “mission impossible” since the chemical forms of the inorganic components are very complex. Consequently, a method has been identifiedaccording to which reference substances are selected such that they represent the hazards of the actual forms of those trace elements that might influence health and the environment. The reference substances have been selected such that the hazard is not underestimated, that the result becomes reasonable realistic and that the evaluation is feasible to carry out. There areindications, especially with regard to ecotoxicity, that the method is overly cautious, and a potential is identified for combining testing with information from Authority data bases. It is explained and exemplified that ash may be very susceptible to ageing, and that this in many cases, and for most of the elements of interest, may improve the properties considerably. This not only influences the status of an ash with regard to the acceptance criteria for landfilling, butalso influences the classification. Leach properties are important when the degree of solid solution is to be assessed. Elements with similar properties, especially regarding their ionic radii, tend to exchange for each other even in solids. The effect is strongest for those elements that are the lowest abundance. Solid solution effects may lead to that trace elements become as inaccessible as the major elements in a certain crystalline phase. Iron(hydr)oxides and other ironrich phases frequently act as sinks for chromium, nickel and zinc, and in many cases this implies that most of these elements may not contribute to a classification as hazardous. The method has been applied to around 30 facilities with typically several ashes at each facility. It is concluded that this approach has lead to that many ashes have been classified in a cautious bur also reasonably realistic manner which at the same time has been practical.

  • 16.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Classification of waste as hazardous or non-hazardous: the cases of ash and slag2012Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 285-296Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anyone who owns and manages waste is obligated by law to know if it is hazardous or non-hazardous. However, proper classification of waste from incineration and combustion facilities as well as from steel mills may initially appear as a "mission impossible". In such waste, oxides of various elements appear in the form of various phases with non-stoichiometric and varying compositions that do not appear in the data bases on hazardous properties of various substances. The trace elements - which are the ones of highest significance for the classification - do not form phases of their own but are included in the phases formed by the major elements in the form of solid solution. Different batches of waste may have different ranges of compositions rendering direct testing an insurmountable task. A method is presented by means of which such residues can be classified in a conservative but still reasonably realistic and feasible manner. According to this method, elements of interest are regarded as if they appeared as simple oxides or as mixed oxides with iron. These reference substances are selected in such a manner that they can be found in databases on hazardous properties of various substances. Such data of the reference substances can then be used together with data from chemical analysis to calculate whether the waste in question is hazardous or non-hazardous. This approach has been pursued in Sweden at more than 30 plants with good results. It is anticipated that the method - after adjustment - can be used also under upcoming new legislation

  • 17.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Long-term developments in residues from the processing of alum shale and possible remedies2014Ingår i: Energy production and management in the 21st century: the quest for sustainable energy / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; E.R. Magaril, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 789-800Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In large parts of the world, the gas market has changed dramatically due to the fracking of rock, including shale. It is also anticipated that significant changes will take place in the oil market due to the rapid introduction of the processing of shale for the purpose of oil and gas generation. Many fear that there will be substantial consequences for the environment, especially in the long term. The purpose of the present paper is to share some experiences from related historical activities in Sweden where alum shale has been used for oil extraction, burning of lime, alum production and uranium beneficiation. Legacies exist in terms of shale ash and fines as well as residues from the leaching of uranium, in quantities of a total of tens of millions of tonnes, and at various stages of remediation. The long-term integrity of these residues is analyzed with regard to the possibility of development of acid mine drainage, and in view of the low Ca and high S content. It is found that such developments cannot be excluded for the cases in which the alum shale had not been (properly) combusted. Waste materials having appropriately high pH acid buffering capacities to inhibit acidification are identified together with injection as a promising method of application. The need for mixing on a local scale is discussed together with the possible influence of the injection of slurry on ongoing fires. It is found that further knowledge is needed on a number of issues.

  • 18.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Tekedo AB.
    Mätmetodik och sorteringsteknik med avseende på krom, koppar och arsenik (CCA) i träbaserade bränslen2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the work that has lead to the present report has been to investigate the prerequisites for purer fuels - and thereby also purer ashes - through sorting of impregnated wood. The work has comprised information and literature searches with regard to copper, chromium and arsenic in fuels and ashes together with the prerequisites for measuring and sorting. The work has also comprised a number of visits and interviews. The compilation made in the present report shows that it is technically and practically possible andfeasible to identify wood that contains copper, chromium and arsenic as well as to quantify these elements in incoming fuels. In the case of arsenic, the result of such an identification and sorting depends only on how comprehensively it is being carried out, since in practice, impregnated wood is the only source forthis element.

  • 19.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reducing risk and uncertainty associated with nuclear waste processing and disposal: a Hanfort tank waste study2018Ingår i: Materials Research Society, 2018 Fall Meeting & Exhibit, ET15: Scientific basis for nuclear waste management: Perspectives on strategy, risk and uncertainty in radioactive waste management, Materials Research Society, 2018, Vol. ET15.01, artikel-id ET15.01.04Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carolyn Pearce1 David Peeler1 Rolf Sjöblom2 Mark Triplett1 Kirk Cantrell1 Robert Moore1 MichaelSchweiger1 Vicky Freedman1 Matthew Fountain1 Sue Clark1 Albert Kruger3

    1, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States2, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, , Sweden3, U.S. Department of Energy—Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington,United States

    The Department of Energy’s Environmental Management cleanup effort is focusedon developing and implementing innovative and high impact technologies andsolutions that positively impact the overall mission lifecycle by: (1) reducing lifecyclecosts; (2) accelerating lifecycle schedules; (3) mitigating mission uncertainties,vulnerabilities, and risks; and (4) minimizing the mortgage associated with longterm,post-closure and post-completion stewardship. Pacific Northwest NationalLaboratory and its partnering institutions, are focused on reducing risk anduncertainty across the integrated flowsheet which includes safe waste storage,retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, disposal, and tank closure. In thispresentation, an overview of the major Hanford flowsheet unit operations will beprovided and examples of specific projects focused on reducing risks anduncertainties will be explored.For example, a key issue of Hanford tank waste processing and disposal is that,although radionuclides (e.g., technetium) drive the disposal risk for the low-activityflowsheet, the presence of ‘benign’ elements (e.g., aluminum) dictate processinglimits or rates in both retrieval and pretreatment unit operations and have otherpotential downstream negative impacts. Thus, safe, cost-effective, and efficient wasteprocessing depends on a fundamental understanding of aluminum chemistry in highionic strength, highly alkaline solutions where water activity is low. Once the wastehas been retrieved, processed, and immobilized, controlling the behavior of riskdriving elements (e.g., Tc and/or I for low-activity waste) in the waste form and theenvironment becomes essential for waste form disposal or tank closure.With respect to low-activity waste form disposal, material solutions mustdemonstrate that the risk driving radioactive elements will be contained in a mannerwholly consistent with statutory requirements. Modelling future performanceremains a challenge for performance assessment (PA) formalism. An appealingoption is to perform an inverse PA (IPA) and look far into the past. Archeologicalartifacts, analogous to wasteform materials (i.e. glass and concrete) that have beenleft by our ancestors and exposed to the environment for thousands of years can beused to check for comprehensiveness as well as to validate and refine predictedwasteform durability. An IPA describes the features, events and processes that haveinfluenced the corrosion of a material over time and can help establish the mostlikely scenarios that should be included in PA for the future. An IPA for ancient glassfrom a hillfort at Broborg, Sweden (ca. 400-575 AD), used to fortify the fort wallswill also be one of the key focal points of this presentation.

  • 20.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sustainability of combustion and incineration of renewable fuels: example of Sweden2013Ingår i: Energy and sustainability IV / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; A.M. Marinov; C.A. Safta, Southampton: WIT Press, 2013, s. 173-184Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the statistics at the EC Commission, Sweden is the Champion byfar in Europe in terms of renewable energy. It comprised around 45% of the totalin the year 2008. This position has been reached by a combination of naturalresources, political determination and technology development.A major contributor to this is the extensive utilization of district heatingwhich amounts to around 50 TWh per year, and which covers about half of thetotal need for industrial and domestic buildings. The district heating is basedmainly on combustion of bio fuels together with waste and some peat.This practice is generally very positive from a sustainability perspective forthe following reasons: (1) bio fuels are renewable, and so is peat, although over alonger time span; (2) waste is being recovered for energy purposes; and (3) ashmaterial is, in many cases, re-circulated and recycled.However, sustainability is not only about total percentages, but also on thequality in the processes, especially in terms of qualification of fuels and ashesand the associated possibilities for more efficient combustion and incinerationprocesses as well as ash utilization. Efficiency in this regard of course alsoincludes protection of health and the environment. These aspects are explored ina technical as well as a legal perspective, and some possibilities for furtherdevelopment and improvement are identified and discussed.The compilation and analyses are based on more than ten years of researchreports (mostly in Swedish) financed by District Heating in Sweden (SvenskFjärrvärme), [The Swedish] Thermal Engineering Research Institute(Värmeforsk), the Swedish Waste Management (Avfall Sverige) and SvenskaEnergiaskor AB (which translates to: “Swedish Energy Ashes Inc.”).

  • 21.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The long-term effects of nuclear accidents2014Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 355-366Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present paper is to present some examples, based mainly on Swedish work, of late effects of nuclear accidents together with their implications and possible remedies, or absence of need for remedies. It took six years after the Three Mile Island accident before it was realized that the core was partially converted into very corrosion resistant corium which was distributed throughout the reactor system in the form of fines. It is essential that techniques for removal of such debris be developed for the Fukushima plant in order for large areas to become accessible. The ability of caesium-137 to bind irreversibly to soil material is essential in conjunction with ploughing, since it will not only imply self-shielding but also that caesium-137 is hindered from entering the groundwater as well as plants. Disposal of top soil material may be greatly facilitated if such immobilization can eliminate the need for a top seal. However, such operations are irreversible, and knowledge of the long-term properties of the soil material must be available before any decisions can be made. Thus, previous experience, especially on the long term behaviour is essential. Such long-term results are available in Sweden from tests started already in the early 60's. The issues have been studied in substantial detail since the level of protection has been much higher in Sweden than e. g. in Japan. Otherwise, the total fallouts are comparable in magnitude with Sweden receiving around 5% of the total from Chernobyl, and Japan receiving from Fukushima what corresponds to about 8 % of that from Chernobyl, all figured as caesium-137. The distribution is much more concentrated in Japan, however. The major need for protection in Sweden relates to ash and reindeer in which areas Authority restrictions still apply. Even modest levels of caesium-137 in the bio-fuel may lead to levels in the ash that warrant consideration.

  • 22.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Cato, Anna
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Financial planning for the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant2012Ingår i: Environmental Impact / [ed] C.A. Brebbia, Southampton: WIT Press, 2012, s. 3-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    After their service life is over, nuclear power plants must be decommissioned. Accordingly, Sweden has a system with segregated funds to cover the costs. Payments to the funds are dictated by the results of recurrent cost estimates. Recently, differences have been observed between different estimations for the Barsebäck BWR:s. Therefore, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, who oversees the system, has commissioned the present study with the objective to investigate the reasons. The work comprises analyses of generic deviances as well as specific ones. It was found that the variations are within the ranges observed elsewhere, but that the precision in comparisons between different reactors can be improved. No new cost raisers were identified for the Barsebäck reactors. It was found that the cost estimation community strongly recommends the parametric method for early estimates whilst the cost calculations on decommissioning are mostly based on the bottom-up method. It is proposed that the parametric method be attempted for comparison between different reactors

  • 23.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Cato, Anna
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Finansiella aspekter vid avveckling av kärnkraftverk (BWR)2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport behandlas hur framtagna beräkningar av framtida kostnaderför avveckling av kärnkraftverk (BWR) kan valideras. Den metodför validering som berörs är en parametrisk metodansats. Denna behandlasmed utgångspunkt på den planering som görs på Barsbäcksverketrörande rivning av reaktorerna B1 och B2.Syftet med rapportenI föreliggande studie behandlas en alternative metod för att beräkna dentotala miljöskulden rörande rivning och avveckling av kärnreaktorer. Denmetodansats som analyseras är lämplig för bedömning av reliabilitet i derivningsstudier som de svenska reaktorägarna utför vart tredje år. Rapportensom är deskriptiv till sin karaktär visar på frågor som är väl lämpadeatt bedrivas som myndighetsstöd. Resultatet av projektet kan lämna ettpositivt bidrag till att uppnå mera rättvisande skattningar av de framtidakostnaderna för rivning och avveckling av svenska kärnkraftverk (BWR).Resultat för SSM:s verksamhetI studien presenteras i vilka situationer som en parametrisk ansats ärtillämplig. Resonemang sätts in i en autentisk kontext genom att referensergörs till de förberedande aktiviteter som idag genomförs vid Barsebäcksverket.En tentativ slutsats är att den valda metoden är lämplig föratt göra uppskattningar av de framtida kostnader för avveckling för kärnkraftverksom fortfarande är i drift. En fördel med metoden är att den ärkostnadseffektiv, men en nackdel är att det krävs utveckling av databasermed referenskostnader.

  • 24.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    On the possibility of using vitrified forts as anthropogenic analogues for assessment of long-term behaviour of vitrified waste2012Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 225-236Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An information survey was conducted in the areas of natural analogues, vitrified forts, combustion technology and vitrified waste.The main purpose was to identify if vitrified stone material in hillforts might be used as anthropogenic analogues for glass containing waste.Such comparisons are needed in order for predictions to be made regarding the long-term integrity of the waste forms.The scope was to compare the chemistry as well as the processes used for the generation of the glasses. It was found that the vitrified forts contain glass material with wide variations in composition of the major elements.They cover and exceed those in the glasses made of waste with only the exception of phosphorus.Natural glasses as well as archaeological glasses show much narrower ranges of compositions, and they do not coincide with those of the glasses containing waste. Quality of heat analyses indicated that it is likely that the stone material in the forts was melted for the purpose of obtaining long-lasting structures.This narrows the range of possible processes used, and facilitates reconstruction of the ancient methods by means of testing.This, in turn, provides possibilities of comparison between ancient and modern methods, which can then be used as a basis for validation of the use of the analogue.

  • 25.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vitrified forts as anthropogenic analogues for assessment of long-term stability of vitrified waste in natural environments2013Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 380-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The area’s natural analogues, vitrifi ed forts, combustion technology, and vitrifi ed waste have been reviewed.The purpose was to identify if investigations of vitrifi ed rock in hill forts might be warranted for assessing thelong-term integrity of vitrifi ed waste in natural environments. Wastes that are being vitrifi ed include ash fromincineration of domestic waste, contaminated soil and fi ssion products from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.It was found that vitrifi ed materials in at least 200 hill forts constitute good anthropogenic analogues to vitrified waste. The compositions vary considerably from site to site and even within one site and may correspondrelatively well to the spans of parameters in the various vitrifi ed wastes. Glasses in vitrifi ed forts comparefavourably to archaeological artefacts which are soda- and potash-based and consequently have different corrosionbehaviours and may weather too quickly. Natural glasses might be too limited in composition variationand are perhaps also too durable. Combustion technology considerations based on quality of heat analysesindicate that at least some of the vitrifi cations of hill forts were carried out with the specifi c purpose of achievingstrong and durable constructions. This makes it considerably easier to envisage how the vitrifi cations mighthave been carried out, and this, in turn, facilitates comparisons between anthropogenic analogues and modernvitrifi ed wastes.

  • 26.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Tekedo AB.
    Hermansson, Hans-Peter
    Studsvik Nuclear AB.
    Ramqvist, Gunnar
    El-Tekno AB.
    Elektrisk integritet i testkapslar2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Energy generation by waste incineration: the management of impregnated wood2015Ingår i: Energy and Sustainability VI / [ed] Whady Florez-Escobar; Farid Chejne; Fanor Mondragon; Carlos Brebbia, Southampton, UK: WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment , 2015, s. 89-100Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling of organic waste is no longer allowed in Sweden. Instead, essentially all such waste is being recycled, and about half of it goes to incineration which accounts for about 10% of the total need for heating of buildings. Incineration implies destruction of potentially harmful constituents in the waste, but does not destroy contaminant elements such as arsenic which almost exclusively originates from impregnated wood. Methods for identification of chromium, copper and arsenic in such wood are analysed as well as techniques for sorting it into two categories. If incinerated separately, these can give rise to ash with Cr, Cu and As, and ash with only Cu. The former ash has a small volume and can be stabilized/landfilled at a qualified facility, and the latter ash might be used for beneficiation of Cu. In addition, the contamination by As, especially, in other fuels will be small and consequently also in the ash, thus facilitating its use. It is found that such sorting may be achieved using visual inspection as well as x-ray fluorescence (XRF), whilst use of reagents does not appear to offer any advantage over these two. Both methods are already in industrial use in Sweden, thus proving the feasibility of segregation and stabilization of contaminants in impregnated wood.

  • 28.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Signe
    Umeå university.
    Sustainability of combustion and incineration of renewable fuels: the example of Sweden2015Ingår i: Biomass to biofuels, Southampton: WIT Press, 2015, s. 215-226Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the statistics at the EC Commission, Sweden is the Champion byfar in Europe in terms of renewable energy. It comprised around 45% of the totalin the year 2008. This position has been reached by a combination of naturalresources, political determination and technology development.A major contributor to this is the extensive utilization of district heatingwhich amounts to around 50 TWh per year, and which covers about half of thetotal need for industrial and domestic buildings. The district heating is basedmainly on combustion of bio fuels together with waste and some peat.This practice is generally very positive from a sustainability perspective forthe following reasons: (1) bio fuels are renewable, and so is peat, although over a longer time span; (2) waste is being recovered for energy purposes; and (3) ash material is, in many cases, re-circulated and recycled.However, sustainability is not only about total percentages, but also on thequality in the processes, especially in terms of qualification of fuels and ashesand the associated possibilities for more efficient combustion and incinerationprocesses as well as ash utilization. Efficiency in this regard of course alsoincludes protection of health and the environment. These aspects are explored in a technical as well as a legal perspective, and some possibilities for furtherdevelopment and improvement are identified and discussed.The compilation and analyses are based on more than ten years of researchreports (mostly in Swedish) financed by District Heating in Sweden (SvenskFjärrvärme), [The Swedish] Thermal Engineering Research Institute(Värmeforsk), the Swedish Waste Management (Avfall Sverige) and SvenskaEnergiaskor AB (which translates to: “Swedish Energy Ashes Inc.”).Keywords: sustainable, combustion, incineration, bio fuels, waste, ash, Sweden.

  • 29.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Management of intergenerational environmental liabilities: example of decommissioning of nuclear research and development facilities2012Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 135-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The character is described of various prerequisites for and obstacles against fulfilment of the polluter pays principle in the case of decommissioning of old nuclear research and development (R&D) facilities, and the relevance to other areas is analyzed. Background is compiled in the areas of Swedish old nuclear R&D facilities, environmental liabilities in some areas, and legislation. Two completed decommissioning projects and two under planning are described together with some findings on planning for decommissioning and on cost estimation. Also, an example is given on developing a basis for regulation relating to small facilities. It is concluded that although the polluter pays principle is easy to understand, it may be complicated to implement, especially in cases where there is a gap in time between the operations and the decommissioning. Pitfalls may be plentiful and extensive awareness and substantial efforts are warranted for adequate funds to be available at the time when they are needed. Thus, it is essential that internationally available advice and knowledge be utilized, information exchanged, and necessary knowledge acquired. It is also important to realize that the planning is usually dictated by the needs for financial planning, and that there is a substantial difference between end of license and end of liability. A need for information exchange between different areas of technology is identified and it is hoped that the present work might contribute to such processes.

  • 30.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Firma Lindskog.
    Reputation asset and environmental liability2014Ingår i: Environmental Impact II / [ed] C.A. Brebbia; G. Passerini; T-S. Chon, Southampton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 467-478Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The second largest asset to a company may well be its good reputation. Environmental liabilities warrant special attention in this regard since they may well constitute the largest uncertainty in an annual report, and it is not seldom discovered that they have been underestimated. The purpose of the paper is to compile and present a road map as to how to meet the legal and other requirements, and to analyse the alternatives of proactive and reactive approaches. The legal requirements are to be found in various pieces of legislation, on different topics, and with a highly varying degree of detail. It is found that general statements, including the polluter pays principle, together with the requirements on annual reporting provide a good basis for developing a company strategy. Further information about how to plan for decommissioning and restoration, including financial planning can be found in various recommendations and standards from e.g. IAEA, OECD/NEA and ASTM, and support on cost methods is available from AACE and ISPA. More detail can be found in various open sources such as journal articles, conference proceedings and books. It is concluded that a proactive strategy, which includes early technical and financial planning, is associated with the lowest overall costs, and can eliminate many of the otherwise potentially very troublesome cost raisers. It is also concluded that with proper planning, funding is to be made using untaxed assets. Using taxed assets can constitute an efficient road block against proper decommissioning and remediation actions. It is concluded that a proactive and proper management of environmental liabilities – if properly communicated – can constitute an important asset in terms of raised confidence among share holders, customers, interested parties and others.

  • 31.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Long term aspects of landfilling and surface disposal: Lessons learned from nuclear and non-nuclear decommissioning, remediation and waste management2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 35-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of landfilling of conventional waste and that of surface disposal of nuclear waste have developed quite independently and also partly out of phase with each other. The paper analyses what knowledge and experience might be mutually beneficial as well as what further knowledge may be needed.It is found that even though knowledge may exist, and information from lessons learned elsewhere be available, action may be subject to considerable initiation or incubation times. Legislation on financial reporting is summarized and its implications for early technical and financial planning are assessed. Prerequisites for long-term behaviour are analysed for the waste forms as well as for the seals and covers. The rationale for using natural and anthropogenic analogues is compiled, and alternative seals for landfills are analysed based on this information. Lessons learned from nuclear decommissioning are presented, and the difficulties encountered when the decommissioning takes place long times after commissioning and operation of a facility are illuminated. Comparison is made with contaminated soil in which area openly available domestic publications are lass abundant in some areas. The differences between end of license and end of responsibilities are clarified. Uranium-containing waste is presented as an example. Prerequisites are presented for natural uranium together with its progenies and for depleted uranium, initially without any daughters. It is found that both alternatives are associated with a number of issues to consider, and that both call for long-term containment for conventional chemical hazard and radiological hazard reasons.

  • 32.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Noläng, Bengt
    BenSystems.
    Why trace elements are often immobilized in ashes and slags: On the role of solid solution in iron (hydr)oxides2012Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 114-115Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Weaver, Jamie L.
    Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.
    Peeler, David K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
    McCloy, John S.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
    Kruger, Albert A.
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA.
    Ogenhall, E.
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM), Uppsala.
    Hjärtner-Holdar, Eva
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM), Uppsala.
    Vitrified hillforts as anthropogenic analogues for nuclear waste glasses: project planning and initiation2016Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 897-906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear waste must be deposited in such a manner that it does not cause significant impact on theenvironment or human health. In some cases, the integrity of the repositories will need to sustain fortens to hundreds of thousands of years. In order to ensure such containment, nuclear waste is frequentlyconverted into a very durable glass. It is fundamentally difficult, however, to assure the validity ofsuch containment based on short-term tests alone. To date, some anthropogenic and natural volcanicglasses have been investigated for this purpose. However, glasses produced by ancient cultures for thepurpose of joining rocks in stonewalls have not yet been utilised in spite of the fact that they might offersignificant insight into the long-term durability of glasses in natural environments. Therefore, a projectis being initiated with the scope of obtaining samples and characterising their environment, as well asto investigate them using a suite of advanced materials characterisation techniques. It will be analysedhow the hillfort glasses may have been prepared, and to what extent they have altered under in-situconditions. The ultimate goals are to obtain a better understanding of the alteration behaviour of nuclearwaste glasses and its compositional dependence, and thus to improve and validate models for nuclearwaste glass corrosion. The paper deals with project planning and initiation, and also presents some earlyfindings on fusion of amphibolite and on the process for joining the granite stones in the hillfort walls.Keywords: ageing, amphibolite, analogue, anthropogenic, Broborg, glass, hillfort, hill-fort, leaching,long-lived, nuclear, rampart, waste.

  • 34.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Zietek, A.
    Jönköping Energi AB.
    Gaude, E.
    Miljöhantering i Jönköping AB.
    Fagerqvist, J.
    Avfall Sverige - Swedish Waste Management and Recycling Association, Malmö.
    Karlfeldt Fejde, K.
    Water Environment Technology, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stabilization Of Lead In Incineration Fly Ash By Ageing And Carbonatation In Contact With Moisture And Air2016Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 683-693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues from incineration of waste vary considerably in quality not only depending on the compositionof the waste and the incineration system, but also on the extent and duration of contact withmoisture and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Lead has a rather varying abundance and an even morevarying availability in ash as determined by leach tests. Fresh fly ash from Jönköping Energi AB hasa relatively low content of lead in comparison with other similar ashes but a somewhat high leach ratein relation to the total amount. Thus, in determining the pertinent destinations for this ash, it is appropriateto assess the availability after prolonged contact with moisture and air. It was found that theleaching decreased by up to around three orders of magnitude after such conditioning, which will whattake place in a landfill over time. The effect was confirmed by pilot tests. The paper also describes theash chemistry and possible mechanisms for the stabilization. It is concluded that the stabilization canfacilitate landfilling

  • 35. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF-Process AB.
    Ifwer, Karin
    Tekedo AB, Nyköping.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ecke, Holger
    The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) dry scrubber residue2007Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 144, nr 1-2, s. 477-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-landfilling of incineration ash and cellulose might facilitate the alkaline degradation of cellulose. A major degradation product is isosaccharinic acid (ISA), a complexing agent for metals. The impact of ISA on the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd from a municipal solid waste incineration dry scrubber residue was studied at laboratory using a reduced 25-1 factorial design. Factors investigated were the amount of calcium isosaccharinate (Ca(ISA)2), L/S ratio, temperature, contact time and type of atmosphere (N2, air, O2). The effects of pH and Ca(ISA)2 as well as other factors on the leaching of metals were quantified and modelled using multiple linear regression (α = 0.05). Cd was excluded from the study since the concentrations were below the detection limit. The presence of Ca(ISA)2 resulted in a higher leaching of Cu indicating complex formation. Ca(ISA)2 alone had no effect on the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr. A secondary effect on the mobilization was predicted to occur since Ca(ISA)2 had a positive effect on the pH and the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr increased with increasing pH. The leaching of Pb varied from 24 up to 66 wt.% of the total Pb amount (1.74 ± 0.02 g(kg TS)-1) in the dry scrubber residue. The corresponding interval for Zn (7.29 ± 0.07 g(kg TS)-1) and Cu (0.50 ± 0.02 g(kg TS)-1) were 0.5-14 wt.% of Zn and 0.8-70 wt.% of Cu. Maximum leaching of Cr (0.23 ± 0.03 g(kg TS)-1) was 4.0 wt.%. At conditions similar to a compacted and covered landfill (4 °C, 7 days, 0 vol.% O2) the presence of ISA can increase the leaching of Cu from 2 to 46 wt.% if the amount of cellulose-based waste increases 20 times, from the ratio 1:100 to 1:5. As well, the leaching of Pb, Zn, and Cr can increase from 32 to 54 wt.% (Pb), 0.8-8.0 wt.% (Zn), and 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% (Cr) depending on the amount of cellulose and L/S ratio and pH value. Therefore, a risk (α = 0.05) exists that higher amounts of metals are leached from landfills where cellulose-containing waste and ash are co-disposed. This corresponds to an additional 29 t of Pb and 17 t of Cu leached annually from a compacted and covered landfill in the north of Sweden.

  • 36. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Berg, M.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Wikman, K.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in MSWI dry scrubber residue2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 13-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Ecke, Holger
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Selektiv mobilisering av kritiska element hos energiaskor2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMAK syftade till att undersöka möjligheterna att selektivt separera element med hög mobilitet i botten- och flygaska. I faktordesignade extraktionsförsök identifierades de faktorer som har en signifikant och avgörande inverkan på elementens mobilitet. Försöken stöddes av kemiska jämviktsberäkningar med PHREEQC-2. Den optimala faktorinställningen användes sedan för att bedöma askans behandling enligt den kommande EU-lagstiftningen samt avfallsförordningen, Naturvårdsverkets generella riktvärden för förorenad mark och kemikalineinspektionens föreskrifter. Målet är att erhålla en produkt som på ett robust och ekonomiskt sätt kan omhändertas och helst återanvändas. Dessa behandlingar visade sig dock inte förändra botten- eller flygaskans klassificering enligt Rådets beslut om acceptanskriterier vid deponering.

  • 38.
    Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Andreas, Lale
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of ashes in a landfill covers2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 201-202Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39. Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Mellström, A.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Utilization of secondary construction materials in a landfill cover system2005Ingår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Vicenzi, Edward P
    et al.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, USA; National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD USA.
    Pearce, Carolyn I
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Weaver, Jamie L
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD USA.
    McCloy, John S
    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA USA.
    Wight, Scott
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD USA.
    Lam, Thomas
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD, USA.
    Whittaker, Scott
    National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Peeler, David K
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Schweiger, Michael J
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.
    Kruger, Albert A
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA USA.
    Compositional Imaging and Analysis of Late Iron Age Glass from the Broborg Vitrified Hillfort, Sweden2018Ingår i: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 24, nr S1, s. 2134-2135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Weaver, Jamie L
    et al.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, USA.
    Pearce, Carolyn I
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Arey, Bruce
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Conroy, Michele
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    Vicenzi, Edward P
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA .
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Koestler, Robert
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA.
    DePriest, Paula T
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA .
    Lam, Thomas F
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, USA .
    Peeler, David K
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, USA.
    McCloy, John S
    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, USA.
    Kruger, Albert A
    Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, USA.
    Microscopic Identification of Micro-Organisms on Pre-Viking Swedish Hillfort Glass2018Ingår i: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 24, nr S1, s. 2136-2137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Weaver, Jamie L.
    et al.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Pearce, Carolyn I.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    McCloy, John S.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland. School of Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Washington State University, USA.
    Miller, Micah
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Varga, Tamas
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Arey, Bruce W.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Conroy, Michele A.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Peeler, David K.
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland.
    Koestler, Robert J.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, USA.
    DePriest, Paula T.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, USA.
    Vicenzi, Edward P.
    Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, USA.
    Hjarthner‐Holdar, Eva
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM).
    Ogenhall, Erik
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory, National Historical Museums (SHMM).
    Kruger, Albert A.
    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, USA.
    Pre‐Viking Swedish Hillfort Glass: A Prospective Long‐Term Alteration Analogue for Vitrified Nuclear Waste2018Ingår i: The International Journal of Applied Glass Science (IJAGS), E-ISSN 2041-1294, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 540-554Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Models for long‐term glass alteration are required to satisfy performance predictions of vitrified nuclear waste in various disposal scenarios. Durability parameters are usually extracted from short‐term laboratory tests, and sometimes checked with long‐term natural experiments on glasses, termed analogues. In this paper, a unique potential ancient glass analogue from Sweden is discussed. The hillfort glass found at Broborg represents a unique case study as a vitrified waste glass analogue to compare to Low Activity Waste glass to be emplaced in near surface conditions at Hanford (Washington State). Glasses at Broborg have similar and dissimilar compositions to LAW glass, allowing the testing of long‐term alteration of different glass chemistries. Additionally, the environmental history of the site is reasonably well documented. Initial investigations on previously collected samples established methodologies for handling and characterizing these artifacts by laboratory methods while preserving their alteration layers and cultural context. Evidence of possible biologically influenced glass alteration, and differential alteration in the two types of glass found at the Broborg site is presented.

  • 43.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Injektering av flygaska i hushållsavfallsdeponi2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Totalt har cirka 100 ton askslurry injekterats vid pilotförsök på Tveta Återvinningsanläggning, vilket uppskattningsvis motsvarar en utfyllnad av cirka 12-16 % av de tillgängliga hålrummen inom injekteringsområdet på deponin. Slutsatsen när det gäller injekteringen är att aska blandar sig väl med vatten till en pumpbar slurry som kan injekteras utan risk för härdning i injekteringsutrustningen. Varken avfallet eller det injekterade materialet gav under pilotförsöken något mottryck och inget tyder på att avfallet i deponin trycks undan av den injekterade askan utan istället rinner askslurryn genom håligheter i avfallet. I deponin stelnar askan, inom uppskattningsvis några dagar, till hårda men något spröda klumpar som kan bidra till en ökad stabilitet i deponin.Den ekonomiska bedömningen är att kostnaden för injektering med en utrustning med en kapacitet på 10 ton/h i perforerade rör i en hushållsavfallsdeponi blir cirka 800 SEK/ton torr aska. Emellertid kan kostnaden troligtvis komma ner i nivå med dagens skatt för deponering, d.v.s. 370 SEK/ton, genom att borrning och injektering sker i ett steg samt genom införandet av två skift.

  • 44.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil2015Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, s. 42-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) in soils has increased by a factor of 3 to 10 in recent times mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels combined with long-range atmospheric transport processes. Other sources as chlor-alkali plants, gold mining and cement production can also be significant, at least locally. This paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources that have contributed to the increase of Hg concentration in soil and reviews major remediation techniques and their applications to control soil Hg contamination. The focus is on soil washing, stabilisation/solidification, thermal treatment and biological techniques; but also the factors that influence Hg mobilisation in soil and therefore are crucial for evaluating and optimizing remediation techniques are discussed. Further research on bioremediation is encouraged and future study should focus on the implementation of different remediation techniques under field conditions.

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