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  • 1.
    Greberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Innovative mining methods and processes for deep steeply dipping deposits: -I2Mine Subtask 2.1.12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a summary of the work done by LTU in the 7:th frame work project I2mine, subtask 2.1.1 (Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future, subtask 2.1.1 Development of innovative mining methods and processes for deep steeply dipping deposits).The main objective of the research presented in this report is to develop potential new mining methods or alter/modify already existing mining methods for mining of deep steeply dipping large hard rock ore bodies, and to develop mining methods which are safe, rational, and with a minimum of operational losses. Focus is on large scale underground hard rock mining methods and cut and fill and stoping methods.The processes are developed with focus on three issues: Safe mining, Green Mining and high productivity.

  • 2.
    Greberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Gustafson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Alternative Process Flow for Underground Mining Operations: Analysis of Conceptual Transport Methods Using Discrete Event Simulation2016In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the near surface deposits are being mined out, underground mines will increasingly operate at greater depths. This will increase the challenges related to transporting materials from deeper levels to the surface. For many years, the ore and waste transportation from most deep underground mines has depended on some or all of the following: truck haulage, conveyor belts, shafts, rails, and ore pass systems. In sub-level caving, and where ore passes are used, trains operating on the main lower level transport the ore from ore passes to a crusher, for subsequent hoisting to the surface through the shaft system. In many mines, the use of the ore pass system has led to several problems related to the ore pass availability, causing production disturbances and incurred cost and time for ore pass rehabilitation. These production disturbances have an impact on the mining activities since they increase the operational costs, and lower the mine throughput. A continued dependency on rock mass transportation using ore passes will generate high capital costs for various supporting structures such as rail tracks, shaft extensions, and crushers for every new main level. This study was conducted at an existing underground mine and analyzed the transport of ore from loading areas at the lower levels up to the existing shaft points using trucks without employing ore passes. The results show that, when the costs of extending ore passes to lower levels become too great or ore passes cannot be used for production, haul trucks can be a feasible alternative method for transport of ore and waste up the ramp to the existing crusher located at the previous main level. The use of trucks will avoid installing infrastructure at the next main level and extending the ore passes to lower levels, hence reducing costs.

  • 3.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Haulage system optimization for underground mines: A discrete event simulation and mixed integer programming approach2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In coming decades, many underground mines will operate at greater depths, which will affect many operational factors such as increased rock stress, longer haulage distances, and higher energy consumption, which potentially can generate lower production rates. The increased rock stresses may lead to smaller sized openings, further restricting the size of loading and hauling equipment that can be used. Longer hauling distances result in increased energy consumption for loading and hauling equipment, and in turn, high energy consumption increases heat and gas emissions for diesel equipment. Heat emission increases ventilation costs as large volumes of air must be circulated to cool diesel engines and simultaneously maintain adequate air quality for personnel.The research presented in this thesis was carried out to evaluate and analyze different haulage systems, including diesel and electric trucks, shafts, and belt conveyors. The aim was to determine how these various material-handling equipment may produce the desired production objectives and lead to lower energy costs. The net present value (NPV) of the mine plan at increasing mining rates and altered commodity prices was also analyzed. The method used was the combination of discrete event simulation and mixed integer programing. Discrete event simulation was used to estimate mine production for different haulage systems, and the results were used to compute appropriate mining costs for each hauling option. Mixed integer programming (MIP) was then used to generate the optimal production schedule and mine plan. The analysis showed that an increasing use of electric trucks will have positive effects on production improvement because electric trucks have shorter cycle times than their diesel counterparts. Therefore, electric trucks can make more cycles than diesel trucks in the same period of time. The analysis also showed that low-profile equipment will remain viable for haulage in high stress environments that result in smaller sized mine openings. In addition, when friction hoist systems are used, rope speed and skip payload play important roles in production improvement. With belt conveyors, production improvements can be obtained by increasing surcharge angle and running the belt at a low speed. For long hauls, the troughing angle should be increased and the belt operated at a higher speed.Energy costs increase with depth and are higher for diesel trucks compared with other haulage options. At 1000-meter depths and with current energy prices, energy costs for diesel trucks, electric trucks, belt conveyor, and shaft account for 62%, 54%, 25%, and 14% of the total haulage costs, respectively. These findings indicate that minimizing the usage of diesel engine machines will have greater benefits towards cost reductions in an era of increasing energy prices and greater mine depths. Diesel machines also have high heat and gas emissions, which increases operating costs particularly for deeper mines where heat emissions increase ventilation costs.Changes in mine plans based on changing commodity prices at a fixed mining rate resulted in an increase in the NPV from $96M to ultimately $755M for the studied case. An increase in mining rate from 300,000 to 450,000 tonnes raised the NPV to $773.45M. This finding indicates that even though an increase in mining rates increases costs, companies may find that pursuing such a course is beneficial at certain commodity prices, especially when the price is elevated. When the price falls, increasing mining rate may need a detail evaluation of other parameters such as grade, recovery, and investment changes.The evaluation showed that the method of combining discrete event simulation and mixed integer programming can yield a feasible solution and better understanding of the operational systems and reduce risks in selecting a system before it is implemented. This study provides mining companies an analysis of the use of underground haulage systems that can aid decision making.

  • 4.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Optimization using discrete event simulation and mixed integer programming: application on haulage systems for deep underground mines2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of discrete event simulation for the optimization of the haulage methods of underground operations at great depth is presented. The discrete event simulation was carried out to evaluate four haulage methods for the improvement of the overall mine production and a minimizing of the operating costs. Other techniques can be applied to achieve the same objective but discrete event simulation is known for its advantage of more accurately accounting for real world uncertainty and diversity. Discrete event simulation is then combined with mixed integer programming to improve decision-making in the process of generating and optimizing the mine plans associated with each hauling option. The haulage system is one of the most important operations in underground mines as it involves the transportation of the mined out material from the draw points to the processing plant. When the depth increases, hauling of ore from deeper levels need to be evaluated in order to account for the constraints, configuration and current utilization of the ore handling system for improvement of productivity and operations. The increase in mine depth affects many factors among which are the increases in haulage distance from mine areas to the mine surface. The increase in haul distance results in an increase in the energy cost of the specific hauling equipment. The haulage process is one of the most energy-intensive activities in a mining operation and thus one of the main contributors to energy cost. This research uses the combination of discrete event simulation and mixed integer programing to compare the operating values of the mine plans generated for an orebody at depth levels of 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 meters for diesel and electric trucks, shaft and belt conveyor haulage systems for the current and future energy prices.The results shows that, in comparison with analytical methods, discrete event simulation combined with Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is faster and generates a more feasible solution, increases the understanding of the behavior of various systems, and reduces risk when selecting the operational systems. It is indicated that the energy cost increases as the mine depth increases and it differs for each haulage method for both current and future energy prices with higher costs in diesel trucks and lowest costs when using a shaft haulage system. The energy costs for diesel trucks account for 38.2%, 46.8% and 63.1% of operating costs at the current energy price, and 64.9%, 72.5% and 83.7% of operating costs at the future energy prices at the 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 meter depth levels respectively, while the energy cost for the shaft haulage system accounts for 10.8%, 13.0% and 15.4% of operating costs at the current energy price, and for 26.6%, 30.9% and 35.4% of operating costs at the future energy price at the 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 meter depth levels respectively. The energy costs is further analyzed based on haulage costs as a percentage of the total operating cost for all options, and the results show that diesel truck haulage is substantially more expensive compared to other haulage options with least energy cost on shaft haulage system with increasing depth. This study thus provides mining companies operating at great depths, a broad and up-to-date analysis of the impact on energy costs on the haulage methods as the mine depth increases.

  • 5.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Optimization of Truck-Loader haulage system in an underground mine: A simulation approach using SimMine2012In: MassMin 2012: 6th International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining, Sudbury, In. Canada, June 10-14 2012, Sudbury, Canada, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    working face and transporting it to the dumping point where it is reloaded into trucks for further transportation. In some cases, trucks can be loaded directly at the working face or at a dumping point. Due to a limited size of the drifts and the ramps used in transporting material, the size of the haulage equipment is an important factor to consider when seeking to optimize the haulage system. This paper studies the haulage system of a mine which operates a fleet of three Load-Haul-Dump (LHD) machines and three dump trucks, using SimMine simulation software. Its aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing the number of trucks on the overall mine throughput. The results indicated that the capacity of the existing loading equipment does not match the number of trucks; this affects the haulage system and the mine production. The study resulted in the recommendation to increase the fleet of dump trucks.

  • 6.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Gustafson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Conceptual models regarding mine layout/infrastructure and process flow at greater depths: A literature review on haulage systems2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies. This subtask aims at identifying new conceptual methods and processes for mining of deep, steeply dipping orebodies. The literature review presented in this report is aiming at identifying haulage systems that might be applicable for the given conditions, and serves as input for the future work within subtask 2.1.1 which is carried out by the research subject Mining and Rock Engineering at LTU together with LKAB and Boliden from November 2011 to November 2015.

  • 7.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The use of discrete event simulation for underground haulage mining equipment selection2014In: International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering, ISSN 1754-890X, E-ISSN 1754-8918, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 256-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of equipment for haulage and transportation in underground mines is a challenge due to its impact on both production rates and costs. An under-dimensioned equipment fleet causes production losses, an over-dimensioned equipment fleet involves unnecessary additional capital costs as well as increased risk for traffic disturbances in the mine. Moreover, the combination of haulage and loading equipment needs to be optimized, the size of the different equipment types should create an optimal match for the complete system and also, the point in time when equipment is to be added or removed needs to be identified and well known before the change is made. Analytical methods are the traditional tools for equipment selection and these methods are still common, although the use of other tools such as discrete event simulation has been increasing during the last 10 years. In this paper, the use of discrete event simulation for equipment selection is discussed, and a case study where discrete event simulation was used to compare two different haulage units with the aim of improving production in an existing mine is presented. An overview of simulation of mining operations and an overview of analytical methods for equipment selection are also presented.

  • 8.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Gustafson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Analyzing energy consumption and gas emissions of loading equipment in underground mining2015In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an environment of rising energy prices and mining at greater depths, cost-efficient loading and hauling equipment is essential. Conducted at an underground mining operation, this study analyzes the energy consumption and gas emissions of diesel and electric load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) with similar bucket capacities. Based on energy prices from the first quarter of 2014, results of discrete event simulation show that energy costs for diesel and electric LHDs are US$0.24/t and US$0.07/t, respectively. Also, diesel LHDs emit 2.68 kg CO2 per litre of diesel fuel, whereas using electric machines reduces the need for ventilation to mitigate engine heat and emissions and reduces energy costs.

  • 9.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nehring, Micah
    School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Operating value optimization using simulation and mixed integer programming2014In: International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, ISSN 1748-0930, E-ISSN 1748-0949, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 25-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining operations around the world will increasingly need to operate at greater depths. This significantly influences the complexity of ore extraction and ore transportation to the surface. The increase in mine depth leads to increases in haulage distance from mine areas to the mine surface. This results in an increase in energy costs to haul material further. Due to the increasing cost of future operations, the choice of the haulage method becomes an important factor in the optimization of the mine plan. The haulage process is one of the most energy intensive activities in a mining operation, and thus, one of the main contributors to energy cost. This paper presents the comparison of the operating values of the mine plans at depth levels of 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 meters for diesel and electric trucks, shaft and belt conveyor haulage systems for the current and a predicted future energy price scenario. The aim is to analyze the impact of energy requirements associated with each haulage method, as well as the use of alternative sequencing techniques as mine depth increases. This study is carried out using a combination of discrete event simulation and mixed integer programming as a tool to improve decision making in the process of generating and optimizing the mine plans. Results show that energy cost increases across each haulage method at both current and future energy prices, with increasing depth. This study thus provides a broad and up to date analysis of the impact on operating values that may be experienced with the use of the main haulage systems available at present. Also, the study shows how the combination of discrete event simulation and mixed integer programming generates a good tool for decision support.

  • 10.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nehring, Micah
    School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Evaluation of the impact of commodity price change on the mine plan of deep underground mining2015In: International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, ISSN 2095-2686, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluctuations in commodity prices influences mining operations to continually update and adjust their mine plans in order to capture additional value under the new market condition. Some of the adjustments could include changes to the production sequencing, changes to the point at which the open pit transitions to the underground, and the time for changing or modifying the existing ore handling systems as a result of an increase in mine depth. This paper seeks to present a method for quantifying the net present value component of optimal mine plans that may be directly attributed to the change in commodity prices, and more importantly the changes in the mine plan itself. The evaluation is conducted on a deep underground copper deposit amenable to sublevel stoping whereby optimal mine plans were generated across a total of ten copper price scenarios ranging between $5250/t Cu and $9750/t Cu. Discrete event simulation in conjunction with mixed integer programming was used to attain a viable production strategy and then to generate optimal mine plans. The analysis indicates that the increase in prices results in an increase in net present value from $96.57M to ultimately reach $755.65M. In an environment where mining operations must be looking to gain as much value as possible from the rights to exploiting a finite resource, it is simply not appropriate to keep operating under the same mine plan if commodity prices have altered during the course of operation.

  • 11.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nehring, Micah
    University of Queensland, School of Mechanics & Mineral Engnineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Financial analysis of the impact of increasing mining rate in underground mining, using simulation and mixed integer programming2017In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper challenges the traditional notion that mine planners need to plan production so as to incur the lowest mining cost. For a given mine configuration, a mine that increases its mining rate will incur increased mining costs. In an environment in which operations are fixated on cost reduction, a proposal that increases costs will not be readily accepted. Such a proposal requires financial justification-the increase in costs might be recuperated by the additional production. This paper evaluates the net present value (NPV) across a range of copper prices for two underground orebodies located at different depths, using a production rate of 300 kt per quarter and a scenario that introduces additional equipment and costs for 450 kt per quarter. The evaluation was based on the changes of NPV for the orebody located at a shallow depth compared with the orebody at a greater depth. Discrete event simulation combined with mixed integer programming was used for analysis. Unlike traditional sensitivity analysis, this study re-optimizes the mine plan for each commodity price at each production rate. The results show that, for the low mining rate at the final copper price, an NPV of A$ 1530.64 million is achieved, whereas an NPV of A$ 1537.59 million is achieved at a higher mining rate. Even though pushing mining rates beyond traditional limits may increase mining costs, this option may be beneficial at certain commodity prices, particularly when prices are elevated.

  • 12.
    Salama, Abubakary
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sundqvist, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Future loading system at Kiirunavaara underground mine2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies.

  • 13.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Kristina
    LKAB, Research & Development, 983 81 Malmberget.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ore pass loss mitigation approach in Malmberget mine2016In: Seventh International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining: (MassMin 2016), Sydney: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2016, p. 617-622Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s underground mass mining the ore pass is an important part of the infrastructure, since it connects two or more of the mine levels and used for conveying or storing large amounts of material. One of the main risks related to an ore pass is when operational or structural failure occurs thus leading to long-term loss of functionality. Developing or rehabilitating an ore pass when major failure has occurred is a time-consuming and expensive operation, and the risk of a long-term ore pass loss motivates the development of alternative transportation strategies in order to ensure the continuation of smooth operations in large underground systems. The study presented in this paper has been done at the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) Malmberget mine in Sweden, where the iron ore deposits are being extracted using sublevel caving. The study analyses the transportation system in one of the mine’s ore bodies using discrete event simulation (DES) with a focus on maintaining ore transportation in the event of the loss of an ore pass.

  • 14.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. University of Dar Es Salaam, Department of Chemical and Mining Engineering.
    Novikov, Evgeny
    Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm.
    Evaluation of near to face sorting plant in an underground mine: A case study from Kristineberg mine2016In: 2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World, Phoenix, United States, 21 - 24 February 2016, New York: Society for Mining, Metalurgy and Exploration, 2016, p. 379-383Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining of ore bodies that are located at great depths enforces long distances to move the excavated rock masses to the surface. The excavated rock mass contains not only ore that can be economically extracted from the face but also waste, which is usually discarded several steps further downstream in the process. As a result large amount of rock masses are transported to the surface, influencing the costs at which the ore is produced. Reducing the amount of waste being transported to the surface by introducing near to face sorting plant would improve the in many cases strained transport system in the deep mine. In this study, one of Boliden’s cut and fill mines was analysed with respect to the challenges related to mass movement and increasing mining depth. The study aims to evaluate the use of the new near to face sorting system in the operating underground mine. Discrete event simulation was used to study and analyse the mass movement with and without the near to face sorting plant. The paper shows how the underground mass movement system and the production were influenced when a near to face sorting equipment was added into the current system.

  • 15.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Novikov, Evgeny
    Introducing a sorting plant in the Kristineberg mine: an analysis of the effects on production2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies. Reaching the ore bodies that are located at greater depths require extensive transportation systems. The transported ore before being refined contains not only minerals that can be economically extracted from the production face but also waste. To reduce the amount of transporting unnecessary material up to the surface near to face sorting plant has been introduced. In this study near to face sorting plant was integrated in the simulation model that was based on one of the Boliden’s cut and fill mines for possible enhancement of the currentand future transportation systems to reduce the unnecessary amount of mass movement upstream. In this study discrete event simulation was used to study and analyse the mass movement before and after near to face sorter implementation. The paper shows the effects on the production rate and distribution of rock mass in the underground mine. When miningoperations will continue to reach greater depths, utilizing sorting technique would be advantageous, as it enables to leave the waste behind, hence reduces the costs necessary for transporting and processing unnecessary material further upstream. Taking into consideration the sorting plant speeds equal to or higher than 70 tph, the sorting plant was able to maintain the speed of the simulated production. If the sorting plant will maintain the speed at 30 tph during the simulation it was not possible to fulfil the yearly production blasting plan. In cases of necessary stockpiling of the material in front of the sorting plant, some of the material would have to bypass the sorting plant and be transported up via hoisting system with the rest of the ore. However, further studies with regards to the feasibility of the pre-concentration and integration issues should be addressed.

  • 16.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mechanical excavation and drilling and blasting: a comparison using discrete event simulation2014In: Mine Planning and Equipment Selection: Proceedings of the 22nd MPES Conference, Dresden, Germany, 14th – 19th October 2013 / [ed] Carsten Drebenstedt; Raj Singhal, Springer-Verlag GmbH , 2014, Vol. 1, p. 367-378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mine development is often a bottleneck in mining operations and is strongly influenced by the choice of excavation method. In this paper, the two well-recognized methods, conventional drill and blast and mechanical excavation, are compared and discussed. The former method is the continuation of a long tradition in mining, while the latter method started to be used in 1960s, when mechanical excavators such as roadheaders, continuous miners or tunnel boring machines were developed. The rate at which the tunnel advances is one of the most important factors for mine development. By evaluating and selecting the right technique, the speed and effectiveness of the development could be improved. This paper aims to estimate and compare the advancement rate between the mechanical excavator and drill and blast method using simulation with AutoMod. This study has been done for one of Boliden Mineral AB’s mines in Sweden. For the drill and blast method, the study shows increased performance for two simultaneously drilled tunnels when compared with a single one. Furthermore, the simulation runs have estimated the total tunnel development times for the specified development lengths. The study is concluded by sketching an interesting picture of mine development using the mechanical excavator.

  • 17.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Production rate comparison using different Load-Haul-Dump fleet configurations: Case study from Kiirunavaara Mine2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Greberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sundqvist, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Alternative fleet configuration for Malmberget mine2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the work done by Luleå University of Technology within the EU 7th framework project I2Mine, Innovative Technologies and Concepts for the Sustainable and Intelligent Deep Mine of the Future. The work is performed within work package 2 Novel mining and underground processing methods, subtask 2.1.1 Novel mining methods and processes for deep, steeply dipping orebodies.

  • 19.
    Skawina, Bartlomiej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salama, Abubakary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Svanberg, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Gustafson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates in a sublevel caving mine2018In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orepass failure is a well-known problem in deep mines, and the risk of losing an orepass is associated with severe production disturbances. In the near future, one possible scenario in the Loussavaara Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB) Malmberget mine is to concentrate the mining operation in fewer, but larger, production areas. In this paper we evaluate the effects of orepass loss on loading, hauling, and dumping operations and production rates using discrete event simulation, by simulating part of the Malmberget mine loading and hauling system under different environmental and operational constraints.

1 - 19 of 19
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