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  • 1.
    Asplund, Erik
    et al.
    inno Scandinavia AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno AG.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Framsyn för Norrbotten och Västerbotten: en idéskrift om utvecklingsinsatser idag och imorgon2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapport från DARE delprojekt regional framsyn. Etapp 1; scenarier och förslag på aktiviteter.Detta dokument är slutrapporten från den regionala framsynsprocessen som drevs 2008-2009 inom projektet DARE – Development Arena for Research and Entrepreneurship.Framsynen har verkat efter ett normativt och handlingsinriktat angreppssätt. Ledmotiv för processen har varit frågor som: Hur vill vi ha det? Varför är det inte så nu? Vad behöver vi göra nu och i framtiden? Regionen kan sägas kännetecknas av att den är rik på naturresurser och fattig på folk. Det är bakgrunden till de fokusområden som framsynen behandlat- Grönare näringsliv (hur kan nya och miljöeffektivare produkter och tjänsterutvecklas effektivare?)- Demografiutveckling (hur kan samhällsfunktionerna bestå med inverteradebefolkningspyramider och hur kan utvecklingen mot en åldrande befolkningvändas?)Lite tvärs över båda frågorna ovan hamnar ett annat fokus; regionens attraktivitet. Inom detta område har en ung framsyn genomförts med deltagare från olika delar av Norrbotten.Framsynen har gått steg för steg genom visioner, analys av framgångsfaktorer, scenarieskapande, förslag på åtgärder och prioritering av dessa. Under genomförandet har det uppstått ett antal avknoppningar i form av t ex nya samarbeten och projekt. Ett av de sistnämnda var den unga framsynen som genomfördes med finansiering av Norrbottens läns landsting.Bland de prioriterade förslagen som redovisas i denna rapport dominerar olika aktiviteter för att knyta samman olika aktörer och grupper inom regionen och på så sätt göra mer av mindre. Många av förslagen visar regionala aktörers förväntningar på universitetens roll i den regionala utvecklingen och markerar ett intresse av tätare samverkan meduniversiteten. Förslagen berör alla verksamheter inom universiteten, såväl utbildning, forskning och förvaltning. Bland de prioriterade förslagen finns:• Stimulera gröna affärs och teknikutvecklingsallianser för regionens småföretag• Stimulera ”den lille forskaren” – en modell för småföretagens forskarkollektiv• Utred grönare näringsliv som gemensamt profilområde för regionens universitet• Stärk företagsnyttig forskning & utvecklingsinsatser kring ”age management”• Etablera ett ”integrationsnätverk” för universitetens studenter & det regionalasamhället• Utveckla dialogen mellan universiteten & avnämargrupper i utvecklingen avutbildningar • Skapa regionalt utvecklingslab för bättre samverkan mellan universiteten ochomgivande samhälleInom DARE-projektet kommer nu det material som utvecklats inom framsynsprocessen att användas för utveckling av samverkan inom universiteten, mellan universiteten och med andra intressenter av den regionala utvecklingen, inte minst då de som deltagit i framsynen.

  • 2.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Household waste collection: factors and variations2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambitious household waste recycling programs have been introduced in Sweden and several other countries during recent decades. Many different waste- sorting and collection schemes have been developed, but the evaluation and comparison of the results is made difficult by the lack of comparable data. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to answer the following questions: How can household waste flows be described and monitored? Which factors affect the collection results? and, What is a useful basis for the evaluation of collection systems? Waste flow analysis and waste component classification were performed in a number of Swedish municipalities, revealing a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita. Eleven site-specific variables were investigated and multivariate data analysis was performed. The study was carried out on three levels: 1) household waste as the material in itself, classified into physical components, 2) the householders and their handling of waste, in terms of average amounts of different waste categories and recyclables per capita, and 3) the municipalities, as the authority responsible for household waste management, where local conditions influence waste generation and pathways. A significant finding was that property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased collection of sorted metal, plastic, and paper packaging. Weight-based billing, i.e. when waste collection is charged per kilogram of waste collected, showed divergent effects, which are investigated and discussed. Monitoring methods are suggested regarding the waste flow from households. A step-by-step method for evaluation and comparisons of collection systems was outlined, including a set of indicators. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the studies emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  • 3.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    To evaluate source sorting programs in household waste collection systems2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When evaluating and comparing household waste collection systems, various aspects are relevant to consider, e.g. environmental objectives, technical function, operating cost, types of recycling materials collected separately, property-close collection or drop-off system, economic incentives, information strategies, residential structure, social codes, etc. Data describing the actual waste flow is the basic input to evaluating the function of source-sorting programs. The questions raised are: How can household waste quantities and composition be measured? How can waste flow data from different collection systems be interpreted and compared? What factors influence the output of source-sorting programs? The usefulness and weaknesses of solid waste composition studies are discussed. Multivariate data analysis is applied in order to obtain an overview of collection and composition data, and identify influential variables, clusters and trends. In a case study, curbside collection of recyclables and weight-based billing respectively led to increased source-sorting activities. Other influential factors are listed and discussed. Eight indicators are proposed for facilitating comparisons of collection systems in an easily comprehensible way.

  • 4.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of total waste flow from households in 35 Swedish municipalities2007In: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to identify the total waste flow from households in a number of municipalities (cities) in Sweden, make comparisons and discuss methods as well as obstacles to benchmarking. Overall aim is decision support for local authorities in waste management planning. Average amount of household waste per citizen vary widely within Sweden. There is no obvious explanation to the inconsistent amounts. Weight based collection fees has caused a considerable decrease of collected waste amounts in some Swedish municipalities, but no clear effect in others. In general the amounts per capita of separated recyclables, as well as unseparated waste in bins and bags, have levelled out the last few years. In contrast the diverse wastes delivered by the public to supervised Recycling Centers show a trend of increase. 16 sources of error in collection data have been identified and described.

  • 5. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of recycling programmes in household waste collection systems2010In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 577-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study and a literature review have been carried out to address the two questions: how can waste flow data from collection systems be interpreted and compared? and which factors are decisive in the results of recycling programmes in household waste collection systems? The aim is to contribute to the understanding of how recycling programmes affect the quantity of waste and sorting activities. It is shown how the results from various waste sorting systems can be interpreted and made comparable. A set of waste flow indicators is proposed, which together with generic system descriptions can facilitate comparisons of different collections systems. The evaluation of collection systems depends on the system boundaries and will always be site-specific to some degree. Various factors are relevant, e.g. environmental objectives, technical function, operating costs, types of recyclable materials collected separately, property-close collection or drop-off systems, economic incentives, information strategies, residential structure, social codes, etc. Kerbside collection of recyclables and weight-based billing led to increased waste sorting activities in the case study. Forty-three decisive factors are listed and discussed.

  • 6.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Lokala tidningen påverkar återvinningen: insamlingsystem2007In: Avfall och miljö, ISSN 1654-5087, no 4, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Methods for household waste composition studies2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1100-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question is how to conduct household waste composition studies. The review is divided into three parts: overview of known methods, sampling theory, and the waste components. Twenty methods are listed and commented on. There is no adopted, working international standard. In accordance with Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling, the seven types of sampling errors, when collecting and splitting solid samples, are described and commented on in relation to sampling of household solid waste. It is concluded that the most crucial choices in household waste composition studies are: to divide the investigation into relevant number and types of strata; to decide the required sample size and number of samples; to choose the sampling location, i.e., sampling at household level or sampling from loads of waste collection vehicles; and to choose the type and number of waste component categories to be investigated. Various classifications of household waste components used in composition studies are listed and discussed. Difficulties and weaknesses of the reviewed methods are discussed and concluded in suggested questions for further research.

  • 8. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mindre i tunnan om man betalar per kilo2008In: Avfall och miljö, ISSN 1654-5087, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 17-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pay as you throw: strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing in household waste collection systems in Sweden2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Householders' response to weight-based billing for the collection of household waste was investigated with the aim of providing decision support for waste management policies. Three questions were addressed: How much and what kind of information on weight-based billing is discernible in generic Swedish waste collection statistics? Why do local authorities implement weight-based billing, and how do they perceive the results? and, Which strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing have been observed on the local level? The study showed that municipalities with pay-by-weight schemes collected 20% less household waste per capita than other municipalities. Surprisingly, no part of this difference could be explained by higher recycling rates. Nevertheless, the majority of waste management professionals were convinced that recycling had increased as a result of the billing system. A number of contradicting strengths and weaknesses of weight-based billing were revealed.

  • 10.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    The choice of waste components in household waste composition studies2006In: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 67-68Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utvärdera och jämföra källsorteringssystem för hushållsavfall: P12/052006Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of different collection systems for sorted household waste in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1298-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composition and quantity per person of municipal solid waste (MSW) have been analyzed in six municipalities in southern Sweden with similar socio-economic conditions but with different collection systems. Samples of residual waste have been sorted, classified and weighed in 21 categories during 26 analyses that took place from 1998-2004. Collection data of the total waste flow, including source sorted recycling materials, in the same area have been compiled and compared. Multivariate data analyses have been applied. Weight-based billing reduced delivered amounts of residual household waste by 50%, but it is unknown to what extent improper material paths had developed. With curbside collection more metal, plastic and paper packaging was separated and left to recycling. When separate collection of biodegradables was included in the curbside system, the overall sorting of dry recyclables increased. The large uncertainty associated with waste composition analyses makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the effects on specific recyclables or the changes in the composition of the residual waste.

  • 13.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    NSR Research/Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    NSR Research/Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Manual för plockanalys av hushållsavfall i kärl och säckar2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är resultatet av ett samarbete mellan NSR och Luleå Tekniska Universitet. Här föreslås en metod för plockanalys av hushållsavfall avsedd för svenska förhållanden. Den bygger på egna praktiska erfarenheter och litteraturstudier. Stor vikt har lagts vid vilken arbetsinsats som är praktiskt och ekonomiskt rimlig i förhållande till resultatets precision. Första delen av rapporten beskriver bakgrunden och diskuterar varje steg i en plockanalys med referenser till tidigare genomförda analyser i Sverige och utomlands. Kostnader och behov av utrustning och personal diskuteras. Rapportens andra del är skriven som en manual, som steg för steg ger instruktioner för genomförande av plockanalys. Här ingår även skyddsåtgärder med hänsyn till risker i arbetsmiljön. Det finns också detaljerade sorteringsinstruktioner, en mall för sorteringsprotokoll samt en mall för utvärdering av resultaten.

  • 14.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Trends in municipal solid waste composition2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, p. 157-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Tapper, Martina
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Återvinning av plast från hushållsavfall: Insamlingsresultat och kvalitet av källsorterad plast2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SammanfattningÖvergripande syfte med projektet Återvinning av plast från hushållsavfall var att bidra till ett förbättrat beslutsunderlag vid val av insamlingssystem för plastförpackningar från hushållen.Projektets specifika mål har varit följande: Samla in unika mätdata av felsorteringsgraden i källsorterad plast  Jämföra felsorteringsgraden vid fastighetsnära insamling (FNI) med återvinningsstationer (ÅVS) Kartlägga kommuners informationsinsatser om källsortering Söka samband mellan insamlingsresultat och informationsarbetets utformningProjektet avgränsades till studier i fem svenska kommuner: Gävle, Göteborg, Lund, Lycksele och Söderköping. Plockanalyser gjordes på samlingsprov från fastighetsnära insamling respektive återvinningsstationer i utvalda kommundelar. Huvudsakliga metoder för projektets genomförande har varit provtagning, plockanalyser, intervjuer, litteraturstudier, utvärdering av insamlingsdata och beräkningar. Plockanalyserna genomfördes under åren 2010-2012.Av 75 m3 material (2 800 kg) insamlat från kärl avsedda för återvinning av plastförpackningar, i fem olika kommuner med varierande insamlings-system, var 72 viktprocent rätt sorterade plastförpackningar och 16 viktprocent var plast-produkter utanför producentansvaret. Resterande 12 viktprocent var andra helt felsorterade material, ungefär en tredjedel andra förpackningar och tidningar och i övrigt diverse andra produkter som t.ex. skor, kläder, blöjor, väskor, vaxdukar, matavfall, samt en mindre del el-, elektronik och farligt avfall. Renheten på plasten var bättre från fastighetsnära insamling (10 % icke plast) än från insamling vid återvinningsstationer (15 % icke plast). Renheten var bäst hos villor med fastighetsnära insamling (6,5 % icke plast). Villahushåll med fastighetsnära insamling var bäst på att sortera rätt även när det saknades engagerade informationsinsatser. Fastighetsnära insamling vid flerfamiljshus är mer problematisk med kraftigt varierande kvalitet. Även plastinsamlingen vid återvinningsstationer visar en ojämn kvalitet med stora variationer. Det gick inte att visa någon egentlig skillnad på plastens renhet från återvinningsstationer jämfört med fastighetsnära insamling vid flerfamiljshus.Hushåll med FNI sorterade mer än hushåll med bringsystem (ÅVS), men i båda insamlingsformerna fanns en stor återvinningspotential för plastförpackningar kvar i restavfall/brännbart (i storleksordningen 14-17 kg per invånare och år). Om målet är att få in så mycket plast som möjligt är det bästa systemet fastighetsnära insamling i kombination med engagerad kommunikation med hushållen om återvinning. Kommuner med fullt utbyggd fastighetsnära insamling samlade in nästan dubbelt så mycket plast per invånare (9,0 kg) jämfört med riksgenomsnittet 4,9 kg (2012). Renhållningstaxans utformning har en underordnad betydelse jämfört med insamlingssystemets fysiska utformning och information. Engagerad kommunikation med hushållen är en avgörande faktor. Kommunikation är särskilt viktigt gentemot hushåll som nyttjar relativt anonyma insamlingssystem, som återvinnings-stationer och flerfamiljshusens källsorteringsrum. Samtidigt är hushåll i flerfamiljshus de som kommunernas kommunikation fungerar sämst med. Det är vanligt att varken kommunen, avfallsentreprenören eller hyresvärden kommunicerar strategiskt om källsortering direkt med hyresgästen. Man missar därför stor del av målgruppen, eftersom den största delen av befolkningen i en större stad bor i flerfamiljshus (ca 80 procent i Göteborg).Det syns en tydlig vilja från hushållen att sortera plast som inte är förpackningar. Det följer även med andra produkter som bara till viss del innehåller plast (elektronik med plasthöljen) eller består av plastliknanden material som t ex gummistövlar. Hushållens val i det här fallet kan ha påverkats av att det under lång tid har kommunicerats ett generellt budskap (avseende förpackningar) att sortera efter huvudbeståndsdelen.

  • 16.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Åberg, Helena
    Department of Food, Health and Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Berg, Per E.O.
    HB Anttilator, Stagnellsgatan 3, SE, 652 23, Karlstad.
    Inconsistent pathways of household waste2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1798-1806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  • 17. Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Meijer, J-E
    Vukicevic, S.
    How to describe and compare the effects of MSW source sorting systems2005In: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    NSR.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    NSR.
    Utvärdering av hushållens källsortering i sex kommuner: Resultat från plockanalyser vid olika insamlings- och sorteringssystem för hushållsavfall2004Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Viktbaserad renhållningstaxa som styrmedel2009Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Harder, Robin C.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Morrison, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Feng, Fen
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Mangold, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Quantification of goods purchases and waste generation at the level of individual households2014In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 227-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying differences in resource use and waste generation between individual households and exploring the reasons for the variations observed implies the need for disaggregated data on household activities and related physical flows. The collection of disaggregated data for water use, gas use, electricity use, and mobility has been reported in the literature and is normally achieved through sensors and computational algorithms. This study focuses on collecting disaggregated data for goods consumption and related waste generation at the level of individual households. To this end, two data collection approaches were devised and evaluated: (1) triangulating shopping receipt analysis and waste component analysis and (2) tracking goods consumption and waste generation using a smartphone. A case study on two households demonstrated that it is possible to collect quantitative data on goods consumption and related waste generation on a per unit basis for individual households. The study suggested that the type of data collected can be relevant in a number of different research contexts: eco-feedback; user-centered research; living-lab research; and life cycle impacts of household consumption. The approaches presented in this study are most applicable in the context of user-centered or living-lab research. For the other contexts, alternative data sources (e.g., retailers and producers) may be better suited to data collection on larger samples, though at a lesser level of detail, compared with the two data collection approaches devised and evaluated in this study

  • 21.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Solid Waste Generation and Characterization2012In: Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, p. 10000-10013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste is generated in all processes. According to the laws of thermodynamics , materials and energy can be transformed but never destroyed. Even if material is substantially transformed, all matter which is introduced in any kind of process will come out of the process in exactly the same number of kilograms, either as products, by-products , or waste. Waste may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. In many cases, gaseous waste is a dominating outflow when processing solid matter. However, the focus in this article is on solid waste.Waste is often perceived as the remains from consumption. However, the major part of all solid waste is generated already by consumers' demand for products, i.e., before the products were consumed and thrown away. In general, the extraction of natural resources and industrial production processes produce massively more solid waste than the consumer products amount to, e.g., about 20 times according to European waste data [14]. As material flows through society, waste is formed in each step, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The material wastes can either end up in landfills or they can be dispersed in water, air, or soil. The dispersion in liquid phases typically exits the material from the waste management domain and turns it into pollution, albeit solid wastes can also form pollution, such as the floating plastic of the oceans.

  • 22.
    Lundmark, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Fokusgrupper för förbättrat samarbetsklimat mellan landstingets politiker och tjänstemän: en pilotstudie i Västernorrlands, Västerbottens och Norrbottens läns landsting2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under hösten 2009 genomfördes en pilotstudie, där tjänstemän och förtroendevalda från Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns landsting samt Landstinget Västernorrland fick diskutera rollfördelning och samarbetsklimat i fokusgrupper, under ledning av två forskare från Luleå tekniska universitet. Syftet var att inventera deltagarnas erfarenheter och bidra till bättre förståelse för respektive parts arbetssituation och problembild. I rapporten redovisas de olika upplevelser och tolkningar som framkommit under diskussionerna, med särskild betoning på de förslag som deltagarna själva lyft fram som möjliga strategier att göra rollerna tydligare och förbättra samarbetsklimatet. Fokusgruppsdeltagarna var överens om att det behövs fler tillfällen att diskutera rollerna. Förståelsen för rollerna behöver fördjupas i en ständigt pågående process. Det är viktigt för både politiker och tjänstemän att förstå sin egen roll och att ha respekt för varandras roller. Det behövs också en medvetenhet om det gränsland som alltid kommer att finnas, där politik och förvaltning överlappar. Studien visar att heltids- och fritidspolitiker har helt olika förutsättningar att arbeta politiskt. Heltidspolitiker är med och sätter dagordningen, har täta kontakter med tjänstemännen och får god inblick i de ärenden som är på väg upp till beslut. Fritidspolitiker, särskilt de som enbart sitter i fullmäktige, kan uppleva beslutsförslagen som både svåra att förstå och svåra att påverka. Fokusgruppsdiskussionerna visade att fritidpolitiker i allmänhet och oppositionen i synnerhet behöver bättre förutsättningar för att kunna arbeta politiskt på ett meningsfullt sätt, till exempel föreslogs att överväga organisationsförändringar (Oppositionen med i beredningar? Tjänstemannatid reserverad för oppositionen? Politiska sekreterare?). Förbättrad måluppföljning lyftes fram som en förutsättning för att politiker ska kunna arbeta med mål på ett meningsfullt sätt. De förtroendevalda önskade också mer nyanserade beslutsunderlag samt tydligt medborgarperspektiv i beslutsunderlagens konsekvensanalyser. Tjänstemännen önskade en större politisk tydlighet och målinriktning hos de förtroendevalda. Fokusgruppsmetoden har fungerat bra, både för att inventera erfarenheter av relationen och för att förbättra deltagarnas förståelse för den andra gruppens situation.

  • 23.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Högskolan i Borås.
    Bolton, Kim
    Physics Department, Göteborg University, Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    A Procedure to Transform Recycling Behavior for Source Separation of Household Waste2016In: Recycling, ISSN 2313-4321, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 147-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household waste separation at the source is a central part of waste management systems in Sweden. Resource recovery of materials and energy increased substantially after separate collection was implemented in the 1990s. A procedure to transform recycling behavior for the sorting of household waste—called the recycling behavior transition (RBT) procedure—was designed and implemented in a waste management system in Sweden. Repeated use of this procedure, which will assist in the continual improvement of household sorting, consists of the following four consecutive steps: (i) evaluating the current sorting behavior; (ii) identifying appropriate interventions; (iii) implementing the interventions, and; (iv) assessing the quantitative effect of the interventions. This procedure follows action research methodology and it is the first time that such a procedure has been developed and implemented for the sorting of household waste. The procedure can easily be adapted to any source separation system (which may have different local situations) and, by improving the source separation, will increase the resource recovery in the waste management system. The RBT procedure, together with its strengths and weaknesses, is discussed in this paper, and its implementation is exemplified by a pilot study done in Sweden.

  • 24.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Bolton, Kim
    Physics Department, Göteborg University, Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Lundin, Magnus
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 40, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household’s application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system.

  • 25.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Source Separation of Household Waste: Technology and Social Aspects2015In: Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste, Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, , 2015, p. 61-76Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Ch 4. Separate collection, i.e. source separation, of recyclable materials is crucial for sustainable management of household waste. Functioning and efficient source separation schemes require consideration of the local circumstances and understanding of the influential of behavioural factors pertaining to householders. There are a number of different approaches and technical systems used for source separation. This chapter discusses the role of citizens and presents examples of comprehensive source separation systems. Some recommendations for establishing, monitoring and evaluating separate collection systems concludes the chapter.

  • 26.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Ordoñez, Isabel
    Division of Design & Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bolton, Kim
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review2017In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 1099-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

1 - 26 of 26
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