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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Andersson, Eira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Projekt: Att bryta malm och könsmönster – En genusmedveten och hållbar strategisk F&I-agenda för den svenska gruvsektorn2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt innebär att ta fram en forskningsagenda för och tillsammans med gruvsektorn. Projektet pågår 2012-2013 med finansiering från VINNOVA. Ylva Fältholm är projektledare. Agendan ska integreras med gruvindustrins övergripande agenda (där arbetet leds av Nordic Roch Tech Center)

  • 2.
    Andersson, Eira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Breaking ore and gender patterns: a strategic and sustainable R&I-agenda for the Swedish mining industry2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish mining industry experiences a major production and economic boost and Luleå University of Technology (LTU) has established itself as Europe’s leading mining university. Together they are, along with other actors in society, a leading innovation system. This innovation system, however, face a number of challenges, such as recruitment problems, demand for new technology and research, mining communities that need be upgraded and restructured and unequal, gendered work, organizations and innovation policy initiatives.In this paper we present a gender aware research and innovation agenda in the mining sector, which aims to create more gender equal innovation and thus contribute to a socially sustainable and internationally competitive development of the Swedish mining sector. The agenda, a result of interactive collaboration between the project team, LTU mining researchers and actors from e.g. LKAB, Boliden AB, Northland resources as well as The County Council of Norrbotten and the local communities, contains a list of tentative projects, defined by the innovation system. Some examples of projects are; Key roles of middle management for a gender equal mining industry, Gender patterns among mining entrepreneur companies, Gender aware and strategic recruitment, promotion and retention practices in the mining industry and Attractive and gender equal mining communities. The long-¬‐term vision, defined by the innovation system, is that the Swedish mining industry is a field of excellence, that the industry is well known for being world-¬‐class at breaking ore and gender patterns, that gender aware organizations and workplace cultures are created and sustained for efficiency, productivity and innovation as well as that regions and communities are characterized by economic growth, openness, tolerance and collaboration between mining companies and society. Drawing on theories and reflections on “undoing gender”, “degendering” and “gender toning down” we will in the paper also introduce a discussion on the relations between global mining industry, work organizations (mining companies, entrepreneur companies), labour unions, other actors, surrounding local communities and regional context etc. when it comes to doing and constructions of masculinities.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Eira
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Breaking ore and gender patterns: A gender aware and sustainable strategic R&I agenda for the Swedish mining industry2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Berglund, Knut-Erland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Four levels of social Innovations in women's networks2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Berglund, Knut-Erland
    et al.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Nahnfeldt, Cecilia
    Svenska kyrkan.
    Social innovation i Svenska kyrkan2016In: Svensk kyrkotidning, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 13-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag ser vi hur kyrkan ställer om sina verksamheter för att hantera aktuella samhällsutmaningar såsom flyktingströmmar, fattigdom, hemlöshet och andra former av social exkludering. Det finns en mängd exempel på hur kyrkan utvecklar innovativa arbetssätt för att möta olika sociala behov i den vardagliga verksamheten. Begreppet social innovation kan bidra till att synliggöra och förstärka kyrkans innovativa utveckling av sociala arbetssätt och metoder inom och mellan organisations- och sektorsgränser. Det kan därigenom bidra till att förtydliga kyrkans förändrade roll i samhället, exempelvis vad gäller dess bidrag till lokal och regional utveckling. Vi vill här beskriva den satsning som forskningsenheten inlett på att kartlägga och analysera social innovation i Svenska kyrkans nutida och historiska verksamheter.

  • 6.
    Berglund, Knut-Erland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Nahnfeldt, Cecilia
    Svenska kyrkans forskningsenhet.
    Social innovation now and then in the Church of Sweden2016In: Diaconia. Journal for the Study of Christian Social Practice, ISSN 1869-3261, E-ISSN 2196-9027, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 125-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social innovation – referring to the development and implementation of new social practices

    to improve the quality of life, well-being, relations and empowerment of individuals

    and communities – shares similarities with the diaconal work performed as part of Christian

    social practices and the welfare services provided by Christian communities and parishes.

    Based on the results from a study of innovative social practices in the Church of Sweden,

    this article scrutinizes the character of a selection of historical and contemporary examples

    of social innovation in the Church, in order to further develop the knowledge of how to develop

    new forms of diaconal work related to welfare services as the societal context changes.

    By pinpointing the content, process, empowerment, innovation and normativity of social

    innovation, the analysis highlights pivotal components in the transition from social exclusion

    to social inclusion in the Church’s specific settings.

  • 7.
    Burman, Lena
    Emma Resurscentrum.
    Wilma: en bok om unga kvinnor i Vilhelmina2004Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Bäckström, Izabelle
    et al.
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Behavioural implications of employee-driven innovation: a critical discourse analysis2018In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Danilda, Inger
    et al.
    Encounter AB.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Nordregio.
    Gender mainstreaming in EU's promotion of innovation and clusters2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we elaborate a gendered perspective on entrepreneurship, technology and innovation as implemented in European Union policies promoting innovation and clusters. In this endeavour, we employ Squire's (2005), Walby's (2005) and Rees' (2005) classifications of different kinds of gender mainstreaming. Our study comprises the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), which provides resources for regions throughout the Union. During the period 2007-2013 priority is given to measures promoting entrepreneurship, development of small and medium-sized enterprises, innovation and clusters. Gender mainstreaming is perceived as a key element in the implementation of ERDF. However, evaluations carried out between 2000-2006 show that there are several obstacles for the integration of a gender perspective in ERDF, e.g. that concepts such as entrepreneurship, innovation, technology and clusters are perceived of as gender neutral and that a gender perspective is not applied when promoting innovation and clusters. Our study investigates how gender mainstreaming is approached in the Operational Programmes (OP) for the period 2007-2013 within the framework of the European Territorial Cooperation Objective supported by the ERDF. Ten of in total 13 programmes supporting transnational cooperation between different European regions are analysed in a gender perspective. The study shows that most OPs lack gender SWOT-analyses and/or an integration of a gender perspective in the overall SWOT analysis for the territorial cooperation areas. Few make any references linking gender equality to economic growth, entrepreneurship, innovation or clusters. Positive actions for women in entrepreneurship, innovation and technology are rare. Gender equality is referred to as a horizontal objective and in relation to non-discrimination, but it is not mentioned in relation to specific objectives and measures. In theory, most of the programmes are open to initiatives supporting entrepreneurship, innovation and clusters in sectors where many women are active, such as for example tourism. But underlying assumptions of innovation and clusters, as well as an extensive focus on high-tech sectors, in practice constitute obstacles for women's participation and potential benefits of the ERDF.

  • 10.
    Danilda, Inger
    et al.
    Encounter AB.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Torstensson, Britt-Marie
    Nationellt Resurscentrum.
    Women resource centres: a quattro helix innovation system on the European agenda2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1990s public funds were initiated by the Swedish government, channelled through the County Administrative Boards, to encourage the establishment of Women Resource Centres (WRCs). Since then, WRCs all over the country have worked to increase women's participation in regional development. According to an earlier study, WRCs have systematically organized innovation systems at the local, regional and national level in Sweden by linking actors from different spheres of society around topics such as new technology, culture and service industry.2 Gradually, the Swedish innovation system of WRCs has expanded internationally through funding from various European Union funds encouraging transnational cooperation. In 2006 the European association WINNET Europe was formed, gathering WRCs from 21 countries. In this paper, we set out to analyse how WRCs have organised an innovation system on the European level, gathering actors from different spheres of society encountering both support and resistance. We describe this process of internationalisation in the light of theories of innovation systems and triple helix. The questions we try to answer are: Which actors have been mobilised and what resistance and successes has been encountered? How might these factors be related to the ambition of gender mainstreaming in Sweden and EU? The answer to the first question is that in order to properly analyse the European innovation system of WRCs a new category of helixes has to be introduced. Our suggestion is that this new helix is to be called ‘Quattro helix', exposing the crucial roles of the private, public and academic sector, as well as of the civil sector. Regarding the second question, we have distinguished how WRCs have experienced problems with mobilising organisational and economic support at the regional level, simultaneously being attended to and encouraged by actors on European level.

  • 11.
    Danilda, Inger
    et al.
    Encounter AB.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Torstensson, Britt-Marie
    Swedish National Federation of Resource Centres for Women.
    Women resource centres: a quattro helix innovation system on the European agenda2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1990s public funds were initiated by the Swedish government, channelled through the County Administrative Boards, to encourage the establishment of Women Resource Centres (WRCs). Since then, WRCs all over the country have worked to increase women's participation in regional development. According to an earlier study, WRCs have systematically organized innovation systems at the local, regional and national level in Sweden by linking actors from different spheres of society around topics such as new technology, culture and service industry.2 Gradually, the Swedish innovation system of WRCs has expanded internationally through funding from various European Union funds encouraging transnational cooperation. In 2006 the European association WINNET Europe was formed, gathering WRCs from 21 countries. In this paper, we set out to analyse how WRCs have organised an innovation system on the European level, gathering actors from different spheres of society encountering both support and resistance. We describe this process of internationalisation in the light of theories of innovation systems and triple helix. The questions we try to answer are: Which actors have been mobilised and what resistance and successes has been encountered? How might these factors be related to the ambition of gender mainstreaming in Sweden and EU?

  • 12.
    Hedlund, Gun
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    New steering methods in regional policy: transforming the alliance of ‘state feminism’2012In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the theory of ‘state feminism’ is applied on the area of regional development policy, supplementing existing research about state–citizen relationships in northern and southern Europe. Based on Swedish data, it is argued that the former alliance between the women's movement and the welfare state has been transformed as a result of new steering methods in regional development policy in a way that is best understood as a paradox. This paradox includes both stronger and weaker relations. The public support to Women Resource Centres (WRCs) in Sweden is used as an example of ‘state feminism’. The ability of the WRCs to affect policy has changed over time, however, due to the adoption of new steering methods based on networks and market-orientation in Swedish regional development policy. The conclusions induce further development of ‘state feminism’ theory, making it more up-to-date with the prevalent interaction between women's movements and European welfare states.

  • 13.
    Jansson, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Karlberg, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, External, LTU Business AB.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Projekt: Social innovation i Norrbotten2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Identifiera exempel på hur social innovation – i betydelsen av nya varor, tjänster metoder m.m. som är utvecklade på ett socialt inkluderande sätt och som leder till social förändring – kan vara en väg till jämlik och jämställd regional tillväxt i Norrbotten. Deltagande organisationer: Coompanion Nord, Hushållningssällskapet Norrbotten, Sunderby folkhögskola, Hela Sverige Ska Leva Norrbotten, Winnet Norrbotten, MagmaFinansiär: Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten

  • 14.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Ramirez-Pasillas, Marcela
    Jönköping University.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Clusters as a Take-Off for Glocal Strategies: The Role of Social Capital2016In: Handbook of Social Capital and Regional Development / [ed] Westlund, H. och Larsson, J.P, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 469-491Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter conceptualizes and operationalizes the potential of social capital in the making of sustainable strategies for individual firms in localized clusters as well as for the clusters as collectives. Global competitiveness is created out of local collaboration between firms that to a varying degree are internationalized, thereby building generic ‘glocal’ strategies. These strategies are in turn energized by the individual and collective social capital that originates in the egocentric personal networks of the local firms and the sociocentric personal network that the overall cluster of firms constitutes. The personal ties between firms that build these networks concern business or social exchange or a combination of the two. We inform how these features of network ties can be operationalized to provide a database for comparative studies of localized clusters of firms. The overall localized social capital that the cluster contains is activated through spontaneous self-organizing as well as formal organizing. The interaction between the spontaneous and formal structures turns the cluster into an ‘organizing context’, that is, an enacted environment for the local firms that is co-constructed by themselves. To illustrate how clusters build organizing contexts that accommodate glocal strategies by accumulating and using social capital, we tell the story of a Swedish community (Lammhult) and its firm cluster. This is known as ‘The kingdom of furniture’. The proposed model of personal networking and the illustrated example together inform how local actors may successfully initiate a process that aims at the creation of viable glocal strategies anchored in personal relations and networks. A ‘first mover advantage’ enables the cluster representatives to define what further enforcements external private and public bodies may contribute with.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Anders W.
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics at Linnaeus University.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Making a case for gender-inclusive innovation through the concept of creative imitation2011In: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2000-7396, E-ISSN 2000-7396, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through creative imitation, this article aims to make the case for a more inclusive view on innovation related to gender. In entrepreneurship theory, innovation is usually associated with creativity as something extraordinary, followed by generalisations of how innovation is brought about, which are based upon dichotomies that lead to exclusion of those who are expected to innovate. Innovation policy tends to associate innovation with industrial, large-scale product development, to the neglect of other types of innovations. Therefore, policy and research both tend to disregard certain innovations that are pursued by certain actors in certain areas. In particular, women entrepreneurs are neglected, as are innovations within women-dominated industries. This marginalisation is, arguably, related to how innovation is conceptualised, which this article will scrutinise by means of gender theory and narrative theory. The article highlights the example of a businesswoman who has pursued innovation in the area of wedding arrangements, which represents one of the categories that have been marginalised in research and policy on innovation. The woman's story of one of her innovations is analysed based upon data collected at dialogue seminars. This illustrates how innovation – when regarded as a mediation between creativity and imitation – appears to be both extraordinary and everyday, as well as tied to the context in which it appears. This serves to bridge dichotomies and end up with an inclusive approach in terms of who is expected to innovate, where, and what. In so doing, this article challenges common assumptions regarding innovation and offers an original interpretation of how innovation is associated to imitation and gendered relations.

  • 16.
    Kristoffersson, Maria
    et al.
    Emma Resurscentrum.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    På jakt efter jämställda kluster i Västerbotten2003Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A striking pattern: Co-construction of innovation, men and masculinity in Sweden’s innovation policy2012In: Promoting innovation: Policies, Practices and Procedures, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2012, p. 47-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the mutual interconnectedness of gender and innovation in innovation policy, using Sweden as an empirical case. Firstly, the priority pattern of actors and industries in innovation policy programmes and strategies is examined. Secondly, the link from the priority pattern to men and masculinities is scrutinised. Thirdly, the dynamics of this link are discussed in relation to prospects for a policy that is not based on segregating and hierarchical gender constructions. The empirical data covers all national (and a selection of regional) policy programmes promoting innovation systems and clusters since the turn of the millennium in Sweden, as described in public policy documents. It is revealed that the groups of Basic and Manufacturing Industries and New Technologies, both primarily employing men as employees and entrepreneurs, have been given high priority within Sweden’s innovation policy whilst the group of Service and Experience Industries, employing mostly women, has been given low priority. On a symbolic level, the two prioritised groups can be connected to two forms of masculinities: one based on physical strength and mechanical skills and the other on a calculating rationality among technological experts. Introducing the concept of co-construction of gender and innovation, it is highlighted how gender/masculinity and innovation are mutually constructed within the innovation policy when the pattern of prioritisation coincides with the gender-segregated labour market. Three different strategies could be combined to change these gendered patterns: inclusion, reversal and displacement. These reduce formal barriers to women and men in the formulation of policy programmes and strategies, acknowledge the importance of areas employing many women in policy priorities and reach beyond dualistic gender constructions by including a wide range of actors, areas and innovations. Innovation systems and clusters which manage to bridge the gap between different industries have the potential to reach beyond segregating and hierarchical gender constructions in Sweden’s innovation policy.

  • 18.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Action research methods furthering change in Sweden's innovation policy2009In: Conference HSS09, 1-3 June 2009, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project Lyftet, four regional networks came together in order to lift their experiences of promoting women's entrepreneurship and innovation to a joint platform of knowledge. The networks consisted of women running their own companies and/or working as business promoters. Participating at dialogue seminars arranged within each network, the network members shared experiences from their processes with each other as well as with the four researchers being involved. The aim of these dialogue seminars was to create a free space where the network members could discuss Sweden's innovation and entrepreneurship policy from a gender perspective, in the light of their own efforts to promote women's entrepreneurship and innovation, without being hampered by the norms conveyed in the existing innovation and entrepreneurship policy programs. In this paper, I discuss how action research methods might shed a light on how the dialogue seminars helped the participants to challenge delimiting assumptions within Sweden's innovation policy. The results expose how the alignment of Participatory Action Research (PAR) helped to articulate critique against the contemporary innovation policy from a gender perspective and how the alignment of Participatory and Appreciative Action Research (PAAR) helped to discern aspects and measures fostering change on the area of innovation policy.

  • 19.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Activity: Technoogy, Social Process and Gender in the Information Society: a joint project between Luleå university of technology & Malardalen university 2005-20082007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Aktivitet: Equality, Growth and Innovation - In Theory and Practice2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Book review2006In: Nordregio News, ISSN 1650-5891, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 26-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of Innovationer - Dynamik och förnyelse i ekonomi och samhällsliv, 2005, Benner, Mats (red.), Lund: Studentlitteratur, 251 p.and Dynamiska innovationssystem i Norden? Volym 1. Sammanfattande analys och bedömning, Gergils, Håkan, Studieförbundet Näringsliv och samhälle: Stockholm, 107 p.

  • 22.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bottom-up development of innovation theory and policy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the role of policy networks in public promotion of innovation has been highlighted in Western innovation policies and innovation theories. However, a knowledge gap still prevails concerning the paradox that while emphasizing decentralization and inclusion in theory, innovation theories and policies are characterized by a top-down approach in practice, ascribing superiority to certain actors and areas in advance while marginalizing others. This motivates the application of analytical approaches and empirical data that are more considerate towards a multitude of actors, areas and aspects in order to fully understand the dynamics of policy networks such as innovation systems and clusters. In this article, some of the marginalized actors and areas get to prove their importance empirically by means of existing tools of bottom-up policy analysis. A bottom-up approach has previously been applied in relation to innovation systems and clusters only in a few research studies. The paper portrays how four Swedish policy networks have challenged prevailing innovation policy and innovation research by highlighting the role of non-profit actors, services and creative industries and women’s entrepreneurship and innovation. They have challenged the norms by expanding the range of relevant actors in such policy networks, resulting in entrepreneurial types of innovation systems. The bottom-up generated data contributes to the further development of existing innovation theories by exposing a causal relation between context, organization and outcomes – implying that experiences of marginalization evoke entrepreneurial types of innovation systems rather that institutional, engendering a wider range of innovations. The acknowledgement of such a causal relation increases the ability of innovation theories to correctly inform Western policies aiming to enhance innovation and evoke “smart, sustainable and inclusive growth”, emphasized in the new EU2020 strategy.

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Challenging and changing Sweden's innovation policy by re-thinking action research2008In: Gender, Intersectionality and Regional Development: Nordic Conference on Gender, Intersectionality and Regional Development, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project Lyftet four regional networks came together in order to lift their experiences of promoting women's entrepreneurship and innovation to a joint platform of knowledge. Participating at dialogue seminars arranged within each network, the network members shared experiences with each other as well as with the four researchers being involved (me being one of them). My part of the research dealt with how the participants in the dialogues seminars came to challenge delimiting assumptions within Sweden's innovation policy. In this paper, I will use two alignments of action research to scrutinize our common strive to spread the preferential right of interpretation more equally among women and men on the area of innovation policy. Specifically, I will investigate how Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Participatory and Appreciative Action Research (PAAR) might cast a light over this process. As I will show, the tools provided by these two alignments of action research have the potential to enhance proceeding from criticism to change, thus linking two crucial - but sometimes competing - aspects of gender equality aspirations. Tony Ghaye (2007), one of the initiators of PAAR, offers a bridge between criticism and action in writing that: "Being critical is not negatively pulling everything apart. It's more about trying to see things differently and do different things" (p 52).

  • 24.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Combining criticism with change in innovation policy: by means of participatory and appreciative action research2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, two alignments of action research are used to scrutinize a R&D initiative intended to spread the preferential right of interpretation more equally among women and men in innovation policy. Specifically, it is investigated how Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Participatory and Appreciative Action Research (PAAR) cast a light over the challenges and potentials of this endeavour. The R&D initiative was a project pursued 2002-2005 involving four Swedish regional networks in order to “lift” their experiences of promoting women’s entrepreneurship and innovation to a joint platform of knowledge. Participating at dialogue seminars arranged within each network, the network members shared experiences with each other as well as with the four researchers being involved. The tools provided by the two alignments of action research expose how the knowledge development within the R&D project combined criticism with change, thus linking two crucial - but sometimes competing - aspects of gender equality aspirations.

  • 25.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Combining criticism with change in Sweden's innovation policy: by means of participatory and appreciative action research2009In: Feminist research methods: 4-6 February, Stockholm University, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project Lyftet (appr. The Lifting), 2002-2005, four regional networks came together in order to "lift" their experiences of promoting women's entrepreneurship and innovation to a joint platform of knowledge. Participating at dialogue seminars arranged within each network, the network members shared experiences with each other as well as with the four researchers being involved (me being one of them). My part of the research dealt with how the participants in the dialogues seminars came to challenge delimiting assumptions within Sweden's innovation policy. In this paper, I will use two alignments of action research to scrutinize our common strive to spread the preferential right of interpretation more equally among women and men on the area of innovation policy. Specifically, I will investigate how Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Participatory and Appreciative Action Research (PAAR) might cast a light over this process. As I will show, the tools provided by these two alignments of action research have the potential to combine criticism with change, thus linking two crucial - but sometimes competing - aspects of gender equality aspirations. Tony Ghaye (2007, p 52), one of the initiators of PAAR, offers a bridge between criticism and action in writing that: "Being critical is not negatively pulling everything apart. It's more about trying to see things differently and do different things".

  • 26.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Deconstructing gender and innovation: four regional networks challenging Sweden's innovation policy2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Democratising Innovation Policy by Gender Scientific Participatory Research2016In: Action Research for Democracy: New Ideas and Perspectives from Scandinavia, New York: Routledge Mental Health, 2016, p. 62-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter argues that a combination of gender scientific theories/methods and participatory research methods can democratise innovation policy by highlighting and inciting more equal power relations in the development and implementation of innovation policy. The empirical case consists of four regional networks in Sweden promoting women’s entrepreneurship and innovation, challenging the masculine norms of precedent innovation policy strategies and programs. Participatory research methods have been used to develop new knowledge jointly by researchers and participants. The analysis exposes that innovation policy can be democratised by gender scientific participatory research in two manners. Firstly, by ‘democratisation of innovation’ as in widening the range of actors, industries and innovations considered as important to involve in the organisation and promotion of innovation networks. Secondly, by ‘democratic innovation’ as in creating new institutions specifically designed to increase and deepen citizen participation in the political decision-making process, which is exemplified in the organisation of innovation networks bottom-up for and by women in a way that challenges gendered norms in innovation policy. The networks thus contribute to the general trend of opening up innovation to society, motivated by the transition from an industrial to a knowledge intense society. This democratisation of innovation policy can be critically scrutinised, however, due to the neo-liberal assumptions permeating the innovation discourse in society – where innovations primarily are expected to induce economic growth in particular rather than societal development in a more general sense.

  • 28.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Den nya innovationspolitikens inkluderande ambitioner: Språngbräda eller hämsko för innovationer ur humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning?2013In: Är det nå’n innovation?: Att nyttiggöra hum/sam-forskning, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2013, p. 52-77Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nya innovationspolitik som lanserats på global, europeisk och nationell nivå de senaste åren har tydliga inkluderande ambitioner (European Commission, 2010a, 2010b; OECD, 2010; Näringsdepartementet, 2012). Detta står i kontrast till tidigare innovationspolitiska strategier och program som främst gynnat ett snävt spektrum av aktörer, verksamhetsområden, innovationer och forskningsområden. Ofta är det tekniska produktinnovationer inom basindustri, tillverkningsindustri och IT, baserade på teknisk eller naturvetenskaplig forskning, som främjats (Lindberg, 2009, 2010; Pettersson, 2007). I detta kapitel analyseras i vilken utsträckning de inkluderande ambitionerna breddar det spektrum som fokuseras i innovationspolitiska satsningar. Om så är fallet, utgör de inkluderande ambitionerna då en språngbräda eller hämsko för innovation ur humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, som är forskningsområden som tidigare tillskrivits en ytterst begränsad roll för innovationsutveckling? Det är en viktig fråga att besvara eftersom det avgör vilka människor och vilken kunskap som tillåts forma framtidens innovationer och därigenom vårt framtida samhälle. I förlängningen avgör detta vem som gynnas eller missgynnas av den innovativa samhällsutveckling som förväntas komma till stånd som en följd av den offentliga finansiering som fördelas utifrån de innovationspolitiska strategierna.

  • 29.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Doing gender in Sweden’s innovation policy when transforming academic theory2010In: Proceedings from the international conference Equality growth & sustainability : do they mix?: Linköping university 25-26 november 2010 / [ed] Anna Fogelberg Eriksson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, p. 65-72Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Doing gender in Sweden's innovation policy: when transforming academic theory into regional practice2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the establishment of the new governmental agency Vinnova in 2001 and the initiation of the regional growth agreements in 2000, the Swedish government has promoted innovation by means of regional innovation systems. Just as long, there has been a debate about the gendered aspects of these policy efforts, especially in relation to the transformation of academic theory into regional practice. In this chapter, the matter of how gender is produced in Sweden's innovation policy is discussed in the light of a survey brought out on the pattern of prioritization among regional innovation systems in Sweden. The survey exposes how 75% of the regional innovation systems subject to public promotion via the Vinnväxt programme concerns groups of industries that primarily employ men. From a ‘doing gender' perspective, this pattern implies that gender is done in a manner that distinguishes men from women in relation to regional innovation systems. A seed of change is to be seen, however, in the bottom up initiative to organize regional innovation systems around women's entrepreneurship and innovation, originating from the project Lyftet. In this chapter, this seed of change is interpreted as an alternative to the segregating and hierarchical doing of gender in Sweden's innovation policy, introducing a way where it is unnecessary and undesirable to distinguish women from men when it comes to public promotion of regional innovation systems. Some final thoughts on how different measures of gender mainstreaming influence the doing of gender in the regional practice of innovation policy programs indicate that measures introduced ad hoc in already prioritized formations will not change the encompassing pattern of how different groups of industries are esteemed in the process of prioritization, thus leaving the predominant way of doing gender intact. However, a gleam of hope can be discerned in recent calls made by Vinnova on areas that bridge the gender segregated labour market, e.g. within innovation journalism, e-services and healthcare.

  • 31.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Doing gender in Sweden's innovation policy: when transforming academic theory into regional practice2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the establishment of the new governmental agency Vinnova in 2001 and the initiation of the regional growth agreements in 2000, the Swedish government has promoted innovation by means of regional innovation systems. Just as long, there has been a debate about the gendered aspects of these policy efforts, especially in relation to the transformation of academic theory into regional practice. In this paper, the matter of how gender is produced in Sweden's innovation policy is discussed in the light of a survey brought out on the pattern of prioritization among regional innovation systems in Sweden. The survey exposes how 75% of the regional innovation systems subject to public promotion via the Vinnväxt programme concerns groups of industries that primarily employ men. From a ‘doing gender' perspective, this pattern implies that gender is done in a manner that distinguishes men from women in relation to regional innovation systems. A seed of change is to be seen, however, in the bottom up initiative to organize regional innovation systems around women's entrepreneurship and innovation, originating from the project Lyftet. In this paper, this seed of change is interpreted as an alternative to the segregating and hierarchical doing of gender in Sweden's innovation policy, introducing a way where it is unnecessary and undesirable to distinguish women from men when it comes to public promotion of regional innovation systems. Some final thoughts on how different measures of gender mainstreaming influence the doing of gender in the regional practice of innovation policy programs indicate that measures introduced ad hoc in already prioritized formations will not change the encompassing pattern of how different groups of industries are esteemed in the process of prioritization, thus leaving the predominant way of doing gender intact. However, a gleam of hope can be discerned in recent calls made by Vinnova on areas that bridge the gender segregated labour market, e.g. within innovation journalism, e-services and healthcare.

  • 32.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ett slående mönster: hur Sveriges innovationspolitik formar genus och vice versa2008In: Genus i norrsken, ISSN 1654-7640, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 3-12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel tittar jag närmare på vilka aktörer och verksamhetsområden som fått del av de ekonomiska medel som fördelas via Sveriges innovationspolitik. Jag undersöker hur detta mönster bidrar till att forma föreställningar om genus och hur föreställningar om genus bidrar till att forma innovationspolitiken. Det rådande prioriteringsmönstret får konsekvenser för kvinnors och mäns villkor på arbetsmarknaden.

  • 33.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    From exclusion to inclusion in public innovation support?: Innovative practices in bottom-up networks2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 91-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether hitherto marginalized actors, industries and innovations – such as women, services industries and service innovations – could be acknowledged by the use of a bottom-up approach in innovation research in a way that helps make public innovation support more inclusive. It is scrutinized whether the relation between context, organization and outcomes in publically financed innovation networks such as clusters and innovation systems serves to highlight how more inclusive innovation support could be designed. Four regional innovation networks promoting women’s entrepreneurship and innovation in Sweden are analyzed by a bottom-up approach, since while emphasizing decentralization and inclusion in theory, most innovation theories and policies are in practice characterized by a top-down approach, ascribing superiority to certain actors, industries and innovations while marginalizing others in a distinct – often gendered – pattern. The bottom-up approach makes it possible to expose that being a marginalized actor in public innovation support is related to the organization of entrepreneurial types of innovation systems, based on contacts established ad hoc and resources gathered from scratch, making a wider range of actors, industries and innovations relevant than in insti-tutional types of innovation systems favored in prevalent public innovation support. By acknowledging both types of innovation systems, more inclusive innovation policies could be designed and more nuanced innovation theories could be developed.

  • 34.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gender in regional innovation systems: Why it matters and how it is mainstreamed in the Swedish case2012In: Innovation governance in an open economy: Shaping regional nodes in a globalized world, New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2012, p. 231-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gender theory in promoting small business entrepreneurship in a context of "cluster" and "innovation systems": experiences from northern Sweden2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Genusgränser i Sveriges innovationspolitik2011In: Bortom rösträtten: kön, politik och medborgarskap i Norden, Huddinge: Samtidshistoriska institutet, Södertörns högskola , 2011, p. 192-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Genusgränser i sveriges innovationspolitik: en fråga om genus och teknik2008In: Bortom rösträtten: Nordisk workshop om kön, politik och medborgarskap, Samtidshistoriska institutet, Södertörns högskola, den 12 juni 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    När regeringen hösten 2007 offentliggjorde sex nyckelbranscher som skulle prioriteras inom Sveriges innovationspolitik reagerade Företagarnas dåvarande vd Gunvor Engström. Hon kritiserade den ensidiga satsningen på "traditionella mansbranscher". I Ekots åtföljande reportage beskrevs de utvalda branscherna med orden "typiskt manliga". Det som fångade mitt intresse var just karaktäriseringen av regeringens urval med ord som har att göra med män och manlighet. I detta konferenspapper vill jag därför utforska konstruktioner och värderingar av kön/genus i Sveriges innovationspolitik. En fråga jag ställer är hur detta påverkar prioriteringen av formationer och branscher i de policyprogram som skapats för att utveckla innovationssystem och kluster. Jag problematiserar även den roll som teknik tillskrivs i innovation. Till min hjälp har jag forskningsområdet feminist science and technology studies, som bland annat inspirerat mig att analysera innovationspolitiken utifrån en förståelse av genus och teknik som ömsesidigt konstruerade. I detta ingår en kritisk analys av de dualistiska föreställningar om kvinnor, män, femininiteter och maskuliniteter som blir synliga i politiken. land andra har jag inspirerats av Wajcman (1991, 2000), Faulkner (2001), Haraway (1991), Lie (2006), samt Lie & Sörensen (1996). Min analys utgår från ett antal policydokument som jag anser ger en representativ bild av Sveriges innovationspolitik. Dels handlar det om strategier och program på nationell nivå, från regeringen samt från myndigheterna Nutek och Vinnova. Dels har jag valt att hämta material i fyra läns tillväxtprogram: Norrbotten, Västerbotten, Västmanland och Sörmland. Anledningen till att jag valt ut just dessa är att de speglar den regionala utvecklingspolitiken i två delar av landet, norra Norrland och östra Mälardalen. Det är också dessa län som ingår i det projekt - Lyftet - som jag utför min forskning inom. Till att börja med tänker jag skissa en bild över innovationspolitikens form och innehåll. Detta följs av en genomgång av de formationer och branscher som hittills prioriterats i denna. Därefter ger jag mig in på en analys av kön som variabel och genus som symbol i detta prioriteringsmönster. Detta använder jag som utgångspunkt för att visa hur andra formationer och branscher prioriteras lägre i fördelningen av de medel som fördelas via offentliga policyprogram. Slutligen vänder jag blicken mot de möjligheter till en annorlunda prioritering som skymtar i delar av programmen, och som inte bygger på dikotoma konstruktioner utifrån kön/genus

  • 38.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Jämställd inventering av kluster och innovationssystem: en översikt av metoder2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Klusterbygge ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv: en förstudie2002Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Kvinnors tillträde till innovationssystem, kluster och andra innovativa miljöer2010In: Genus i norrsken, ISSN 1654-7640, no 1-2, p. 3-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Leia Accelerator: Hur utvärdera acceleration av jämställt företagande?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta paper utforskas den metod för att accelerera jämställt företagande som lanserats i projektet Leia Accelerator kan och bör utvärderas i ljuset av befintliga erfarenheter om lärande utvärdering och följeforskning, såsom de presenteras i boken Lärande utvärdering genom följeforskning (Svensson m.fl. 2009). I papperet analyseras hur utvärderingen/följeforskningen i Leia Accelerator genomförs, vilken typ av utvärderingsmetod som har valts, samt vilka styrkor och svagheter som finns med den valda metoden. Analysen ligger sedan till grund för slutsatser om de möjligheter och fallgropar som finns i följeforskning som utvärderingsansats. Syftet med projektet Leia Accelerator är att skapa en metod för att accelerera jämställt företagande där begreppet ’jämställt’ definieras som företag till minst hälften ägda av en kvinna och begreppet ’accelerator’ som tillväxt i etablerade företag. En av de slutsatser som kan dras är att projektdeltagarnas behov påverkat vilka typer av utvärdering som använts. Det var projektledningens önskan att utröna om deras metod fick önskad effekt. Denna koppling mellan process och resultat gjorde att både en summativ och en formativ utvärdering var nödvändig, inklusive en effektutvärdering för att påvisa ett orsakssamband mellan metod och acceleration. Under utförandet av dessa typer av utvärdering drogs slutsatsen att flera olika former för datainsamling kan användas för att väga upp varandras svagheter. Genom att använda både kvantitativa insamlingsformer (indikatorer och enkäter) och kvalitativa sådana (deltagande observation, reflektionssamtal och dialogseminarier) har följeforskningen kunnat bidra både till projektets uppsatta mål och till en kritisk reflektion kring målen i sig kopplat till de tillvägagångssätt som använts. En annan slutsats är att de förutsättningar som enligt Svensson m.fl. (2009) måste vara uppfyllda för att följeforskning ska fungera inte alltid är möjliga att uppfylla i praktiken, men att det ändå går att bedriva en givande följeforskning. I Leia Accelerator var två av fyra förutsättningar uppfyllda – det vill säga öppenhet och engagemang hos deltagarna samt en följeforskare med vana att arbeta interaktivt. Dessa två förutsättningar bidrog troligen till att följeforskningen i Leia Accelerator avspeglade de tre element som framhålls som centrala av Svensson m.fl. (2009): närhet och kontinuitet mellan deltagare och utvärderare, löpande återkoppling av data, samt gemensam analys och slutsatser. Frånvaron av de övriga två förutsättningarna – tid och resurser samt stora och långsiktiga projekt – begränsade visserligen möjligheten att på ett fullödigt sätt kombinera en summativ och en formativ utvärdering, men stod inte i vägen för följeforskningens nytta.

  • 42.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lika villkor: ett expanderande innovationssystem2007In: I världen och vardagen: För lika villkor i entreprenörskap och regional utveckling, Nyköping: Länsstyrelsen i Södermanlands län , 2007, 1, p. 70-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige delar staten ut ekonomiska medel till utvecklingen av regionala och sektoriella innovationssystem via myndigheter på regional och nationell nivå. I de program som utarbetas vid länsstyrelser och regionförbund, t.ex. regionala tillväxt- och utvecklingsprogram (RTP & RUP), och vid de nationella myndigheterna Nutek och Vinnova, utpekas i regel specifika områden och aktörer som primära målgrupper för denna finansiering. Det har från flera håll påpekats att det finns aktörer och områden som exkluderats från arbetet med programmen. Bland andra har Emma Resurscentrum visat hur programmen främst främjat mansdominerade branscher på bekostnad av branscher som sysselsätter fler kvinnor som anställda och företagare. På samma sätt har IM-gruppen, i sin utvärdering av statens satsning på att utveckla och driva resurscentra för kvinnor, konstaterat att dessa generellt sett inte tillåtits ge det avtryck i regionala policyprogram som det var tänkt från början.På grund av dessa förhållanden har flera branscher hittills gått miste om långsiktiga projektmedel till utveckling via innovationer och innovationssystem. Detta har också gett upphov till att det i stor utsträckning saknas kunskap om karaktären, tillväxten och potentialen hos dessa branscher när det gäller att bidra till regional utveckling. I detta kapitel vill jag råda bot på dessa brister genom att analysera Lika Villkor som innovationssystem. Särskilt lyfter jag fram hur Lika Villkors verksamheter har bidragit till att fylla igen kunskapsluckor, utveckla en systemsyn och initiera samverkansprocesser i näringar som hittills inte varit föremål för sådana satsningar.

  • 43.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Män och manlighet i svensk innovationspolitik2009In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, no 2-3, p. 29-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I set out to explore how gender is being constructed in Sweden's innovation policy. Specifically, I distinguish a connection between the pattern of prioritization within this policy area and the notions ‘men' as well as ‘masculinity'. My survey of national and regional policy documents regarding public funding of innovation systems and clusters, exposes how in half of the cases the state promotes the group of Basic and Manufacturing Industries. The group of New Technologies is being furthered in a third of the cases. In a fifth of the cases, the group of Service and Experience Industries is being furthered. This means that the groups of Basic and Manufacturing Industries and New Technologies, both primarily employing men as employees and entrepreneurs, has been given high priority within Sweden's innovations policy while the group of Service and Experience Industries, employing mostly women or both men and women to the same extent, has been given a low priority. On a symbolical level, the two prioritized groups can be connected to two forms of masculinities: one based on physical strength and mechanical skills and the other on a calculating rationality among technological experts. Introducing the concept of co-construction of gender and innovation, I make visible how gender and innovation is mutually constructed within the innovation policy when the pattern of prioritization coincides with the gender segregated labour market. This co-construction rests upon an understanding of dualistic gender constructions. In order to achieve a less restricting practice within the making and execution of innovation policy programs, I find it necessary to highlight innovation systems and clusters that manage to bridge the gap between men dominated, women dominated and gender balanced branches of industry, thus erasing the need for segregating and hierarchical gender constructions in Sweden's innovation policy.

  • 44.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Organisering av innovationssystem och innovativa processer: ett avstamp inför interaktiv genusforskning med civilsamhället som position2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett avstamp inför den forskning som jag avser bedriva inom ramen för min doktorandtjänst vid Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för arbetsvetenskap. Målet är att jag mot slutet av 2009 ska ha producerat en doktorsavhandling som analyserar hur kön/genus görs, ordnas och värderas inom Sveriges innovationspolitik (som utgör en del av den regionala utvecklingspolitiken), och hur denna politik förhåller sig till den organisering av innovationssystem och innovativa processer som drivs av fyra nätverk av kvinnor i Norrbotten, Västerbotten, Västmanland och Södermanland. Syftet med rapporten är att visa hur jag bär med mig en särskild förförståelse, kombinerat med vissa specifika förväntningar och intressen, som påverkar hur jag lägger upp min forskning. Att öppet redovisa sina ingångar ses inom feministisk kvalitativ forskning som en förutsättning för att kunna nå fram till tillförlitliga resultat. Med detta ideal i sikte visar jag att min bakgrund medför att jag i min forskning särskilt intresserar mig för hur organisering av innovationssystem och innovativa processer bedrivs inom civilsamhället via Resurscentra för kvinnor. Med avstamp i en beskrivning av den kunskapsutveckling som kom till stånd inom Emma Resurscentrum - ett lokalt resurscentrum för kvinnor i Vilhelmina - under åren 2002-2005 presenterar jag några tankar inför min nuvarande forskning inom Lyftet. Jag har valt att lägga upp min forskningsprocess utifrån de ideal som samlas under beteckningen "interaktiv forskning". Detta angreppssätt kännetecknas av en kombination av forskning och utvecklingsarbete, där idealet är att kunskapsbildning sker interaktivt och jämlikt mellan forskare och övriga deltagare, vilket borgar för att de resultat som framkommer verkligen är användbara för de aktiva. Samtidigt skapas tillförlitliga forskningsresultat tack vare den ständiga återkopplingen till empirin. Jag ringar in min position till området "civilsamhället". Gemensamt för civilsamhällets organisationer och nätverk är att de alla syftar till att förverkliga en eller flera idéer. Min position i civilsamhället ger mig möjligheter att lyfta fram hur Sveriges innovationspolitik överensstämmer med och/eller avviker från den organisering av innovationssystem och innovativa processer som drivs på civilsamhällets arena. Detta är en relevant pusselbit för att förstå hur regional utveckling kommer till stånd. "Resurscentra för kvinnor" utgör en del av civilsamhället. I rapporten beskrivs hur olika resurscentra uppvisar skilda sätt att organisera sig och hur detta påverkar deras anknytning till civilsamhället. Rapporten berör även hur resurscentras framväxt har att göra med deras roll i politiken för regional utveckling. Som många andra lokala resurscentrum för kvinnor bildades Emma Resurscentrum i början av 90-talet då regeringen tillkännagav sin satsning på bildandet av sådana centra. 1995 omorganiserades Emma Resurscentrum till en ideell förening, och har sedan dess behållit den organisationsformen. Därmed kan Emma Resurscentrum numera anses vara helt inlemmat i civilsamhället. Under perioden hösten 2002 - våren 2005 drev Emma Resurscentrum projekten "Klusterbygge ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv" och "Jämställdhet som drivkraft i kluster", med mig som projektledare. Under projektens gång ställdes vi inför en rad vägskäl, där det blev nödvändigt att välja riktning både vad gäller utvecklingen av teori och av empiri på området. I rapporten beskriver jag några av dessa vägval mer ingående. De vägval som jag valt att lägga fokus berör tre olika områden. För det första anser jag att valet av teori är relevant - det vill säga vilken befintlig forskning som vi ansåg oss ha nytta av i analysen av politiken för utveckling av innovationssystem och kluster. Till detta kommer den forskning som vi själva valde att initiera under projektens gång. För det andra vill jag belysa de studieobjekt som vi valde att basera våra analyser på. För det tredje tar jag upp de målgrupper som vi riktade resultaten av våra analyser till. Utöver detta presenteras den modell för genusanalys och aktivt jämställdhetsarbete i 'innovationssystem' och 'kluster' som utarbetades av Emma Resurscentrum inom ramen för projekten. Modellen består av tre cirklar organiserade som en piltavla med rubrikerna: Fokus (innersta cirkeln), Exkludering/inkludering (mellersta cirkeln), produktutveckling (yttersta cirkeln). Som ett led i min interaktiva forskningsansats vill jag ta till vara på Emma Resurscentrums cirkelmodell. Jag hoppas att modellen kan fungera dels som en metod och en teori för genusforskning om organisering av innovationssystem och innovativa processer, dels som ett verktyg för aktivt jämställdhetsarbete med utgångspunkt i Lyftets projektplan. Detta kräver dock en viss utveckling av modellen så som den ser ut i Emma Resurscentrums version. I rapporten för jag ett resonemang kring hur en sådan utveckling skulle kunna se ut.

  • 45.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Promoting and sustaining rural social innovation2017In: European Public & Social Innovation Review, ISSN 2529-9824, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bringing together conclusions from previous studies of social innovation in rural, local, multi-stakeholder and welfare contexts, this study aims to further develop the scientific insights into the specific mechanisms of rural social innovation, based on a case study of the Swedish part of the European project “Social empowerment in rural areas” (SEMPRE). By analyzing its aims and activities, crucial aspects of rural social innovation are pinpointed in a way that helps discern the main challenges and potentials in promoting and sustaining such innovation. The identified aspects include the identification of urgent societal challenges of rural decline, initiatives to increase the rural attractiveness by innovative forms of social service delivery, empowering mobilization of vulnerable groups, such as rural immigrants, in social service design and delivery, multi-stakeholder involvement of local community actors, as well as participatory workshops to delineate needs/visions, develop solutions to these, and implement the solutions in micro-projects. 

  • 46.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Relating inclusiveness and innovativeness in inclusive innovation2018In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 103-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in innovative solutions to societal challenges in policy and research has opened up the innovation area for a wider range of participants and beneficiaries than previously acknowledged, which in this article is studied in terms of inclusive innovation. In order to strengthen the conceptual connection between the dawning field of inclusive innovation studies and more established fields within innovation studies, the study scrutinizes how innovativeness relates to inclusiveness and vice versa in the light of previous knowledge. The conceptual outline is applied in a comparative case study of two regional innovation processes in Sweden, that share the ambition to tackle societal challenges by cross-boundary interaction, guided by values of equality and sustainability, at the same time as differing in scope and beneficiaries, due to their industrial and societal orientations. The combined theoretical and practical insights help delineate six distinct links between innovativeness and inclusiveness in inclusive innovation.

  • 47.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Samlade tankar kring hållbara kluster: inspiration för politiker, tjänstemän, företagare och andra2004Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Samverkansnätverk för innovation: en interaktiv och genusvetenskaplig utmaning av innovationspolitik och innovationsforskning2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, politicians, civil servants and scientists have drawn attention to the role that joint action plays in the emergence of innovations. Among other things, the importance of the joint action networks with participants from different sectors of society has been stressed. Joint action networks - otherwise referred to as ‘innovation systems', ‘triple helix' and ‘clusters' - are believed to contribute to the development of innovations. Through national and regional authorities, public funding is distributed to such joint action networks in order to encourage innovation and with the ultimate goal of attaining ‘sustainable growth'. However, critiques have been articulated towards the public promotion of innovation systems and clusters that marginalises certain actors and areas. In particular, women and industries employing many women have been disadvantaged by the priorities made. The marginalization occurs despite the fact that several of the industries employing many women - primarily services industries - are attributed a central role in the transformation of Western economies to become more dynamic and knowledge-based. Neither policy makers nor researchers have analyzed how joint action networks promote innovation within women dominated settings. This dissertation strives to address that gap by depicting some Swedish efforts employed to organize joint action networks based on women's entrepreneurship and innovation. Both policy and research have been characterized by a ‘top down' approach, discerning only a limited scope of actors and areas as relevant in the area of joint action networks promoting innovation. In contrast, this thesis considers that a ‘bottom up‘ approach could highlight the importance of a broader spectrum of actors and areas. The dissertation extends the arena for knowledge development in the area of joint action networks by depicting some of the actors and areas currently marginalized in innovation policy and innovation research. This study questions the existing norms utilised to categorise and measure innovation systems and clusters and scrutinises how gender is "done" both in innovation research and innovation policy, which is also the purpose of the thesis. The core of this thesis is to offer a participative and gender scientific challenge to innovation policy and research. The empirical data includes efforts to promote women's entrepreneurship and innovation being pursued by four regional joint action networks in Sweden. These are: SAGA and Emma Resource Centre in northern Sweden, as well as Företagsamma Kvinnor (Enterpreneurial Women) and Lika Villkor (Equal Conditions) in central Sweden. These networks had problematized the use of innovation systems and clusters as theoretical concepts and policy tools before the thesis work was initiated. Selecting these same networks to work with for the purposes of this thesis is thus particularly suitable to illustrate and challenge the prevalent innovation policies and research. The analytical frame of reference used to highlight the empirical data consists of three comprehensive groups of theories. These three groups of theories are:A bottom up approach to studies of policies, on the basis of Carlsson's (1996, 2000a, 2000b) approach for non-hierarchical studies of policies.Doing gender in policy and research, on the basis of West & Zimmerman's (1987) approach of ‘doing gender' and Bacchi's (1999) approach to studies of problem representation in policies.Organization and classification of innovation systems, on the basis of Frankelius' (2005) approach to studies of innovation systems.One of my aims in this study is to depict actors and activities that have been given a low priority in policy and research. The theories employed in the study make it possible to study the organization of innovation systems and management of innovation policy with a ‘bottom up' approach. As an analytical approach, ‘bottom up' implies that policies in a given field are studied on the basis of how people at the grassroots level identify policy problems and try to find solutions. This approach does not distinguish crucial actors and relevant areas in advance. Instead, the relevance of different actors and areas is established through empirical studies. The low prioritized areas and actors would not be as apparent if those parts of the theories were used that draws attention only to the importance of a few - centrally distinguished - actors and areas, as is the case in a ‘top down' approach. The research process depicted in this dissertation has been conducted by means of a participatory research approach. In this kind of approach, knowledge is developed jointly by researchers and the actors concerned by the research issues. Thus, the knowledge development has been characterized by a mutual influence between practice and theory. Participatory research (also known as ‘action research') has a long tradition within Nordic work life sciences. Within this stream of research, two different traditions have emerged: one emphasizing a pragmatic approach to participatory research and the other promoting a more critical approach. The first focuses dialogue within a group, stressing the importance of organizational learning and consensus. The latter tradition highlights how the dialogue between participants and researchers enhances a critical reorientation of existing norms and practices. This tradition can thus initiate social change in a broader sense than the pragmatic approach. The research process described in the dissertation adheres mainly to the critical tradition of participatory research, examining prevailing norms in innovation policy and innovation research. This challenge of norms has taken place in ‘dialogue seminars' arranged as a part of a mutual Research and Development (R&D) process. At these seminars, participants from the four regional networks were encouraged to discuss their experiences of promoting women's entrepreneurship and innovation. In the empirical chapter the results from the discussions at the dialogue seminars are presented, together with some additional data gathered from the networks' existing documents about their activities. Each network is described separately under three different headlines: Organization, Innovation and Surroundings. The empirical data reveals how the four networks have organized themselves around the topic of women's entrepreneurship and innovation. The SAGA network specifically focused technological development and thereto shared the focus of local and regional development with Emma Resource Centre. The network Företagsamma Kvinnor especially highlighted entrepreneurial women's ability to support themselves economically, while Lika Villkor stressed the importance of increasing the impact of local resource centres for women in the region. All networks involved actors from four different sectors: the public, the private, the academic and the non-profit sector. Concerning the topic of innovation, a wide range of innovations could be distinguished in connection with the activities of the four networks. For example, a new system for ICT connection has been developed in a sparsely populated area. New methods for mapping and supporting innovation systems and clusters within areas employing many women have also been developed. Wedding arrangements with a touch of local cultural history is another innovation. Three of the networks have primarily been active in areas employing many women, such as the services industries. One of the networks was equally active in the area of ICT, which is an industry employing mainly men. These networks have acknowledged that actors in their surrounding have influenced their activities, for example by granting or refusing funding.The empirical data is analyzed and discussed in the two last chapters of the dissertation. There it is portrayed how the four regional networks have challenged prevailing innovation policy and innovation research. The analysis shows that these networks have organized themselves in a manner that is consistent with the logic of innovation systems, gathering actors from different sectors in order to develop new knowledge and enhance innovation. Therefore, they could very well be classified as such, even though the contemporary research and policy on innovation systems have systematically excluded milieus focusing women as actors and areas employing many women. However, the four networks have not unconditionally accepted the prevalent norms for how innovation systems are supposed to be organized. Rather they have challenged these norms by expanding the range of relevant actors in such joint action networks. Besides women and areas employing many women, they have involved the non-profit sector contributing with new ideas, consistency and knowledge. They have also expanded the range of innovations emanating from joint action networks, including new services, methods and experiences besides new physical products. The purpose of the thesis was to examine how a ‘bottom up' approach can highlight how gender is done in innovation policy and innovation research. This purpose is fulfilled by the conclusion that gender is done in a segregating and hierarchical manner in innovation policy and innovation research when women and areas employing many women are marginalized in the promotion of innovation systems and clusters. The four networks have challenged this way of doing gender by proposing a less segregating and hierarchical tactic, opening up for many different actors at many different areas promoting many different kinds of innovations. This conclusion calls for further development of existing theories on how innovation is promoted by joint action networks. The development includes 1) a new operationalization of ‘innovation', ‘innovation systems' and ‘clusters' to comprise a wider range of actors and areas and 2) a shift from ‘triple helix' to ‘quattro helix' as a theoretical model in order to include the non-profit sector as well. Policy implications to be drawn from the analysis are the inclusion of a wider range of actors and activities in the innovation policy priority patterns, reaching beyond segregating and hierarchical notions of gender.

  • 49.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Sveriges innovationspolitik: en fråga om genus och teknik2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    När regeringen hösten 2007 offentliggjorde sex nyckelbranscher som skulle prioriteras inom Sveriges innovationspolitik reagerade Företagarnas dåvarande vd Gunvor Engström. Hon kritiserade urvalet med argumentet att det hela såg ut som en satsning på "traditionella mansbranscher". I Ekots reportage om hennes reaktion beskrivs de utvalda branscherna dessutom med orden "typiskt manliga" [1]. Det som fångade mitt intresse var just karaktäriseringen av regeringens urval med ord som har att göra med män och manlighet. Därför kommer du nu att få följa med mig i en utforskning av de konstruktioner och värderingar av kön/genus som Sveriges innovationspolitik bygger på. Särskilt ska jag titta närmare på de konsekvenser dessa får för vilka formationer och branscher som prioriteras i de policyprogram som syftar till att utveckla innovationssystem och kluster. I samband med detta problematiserar jag den roll som teknik tillskrivs i innovation. Till min hjälp har jag forskningsområdet "feminist science and technology studiess" [2], som bland annat inspirerat mig att analysera innovationspolitiken utifrån en förståelse av genus och teknik som ömsesidigt konstruerade [3]. I detta ingår en kritisk analys av de dualistiska föreställningar om kvinnor, män, femininiteter och maskuliniteter som blir synliga i innovationspolitiken. [1] www.sr.se/ekot 29 sep 2007[2] För en översikt över området feminist science and technology studies, se Lie 2006 eller Lykke 2007 [3] Faulkner 2001, sid 12

  • 50.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Undoing gender by social innovation policies?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undoing gender by social innovation policies?

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