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  • 1.
    Birnbaum, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tracing the sources of legitimacy: The impact of deliberation in participatory natural resource management2015In: Policy sciences, ISSN 0032-2687, E-ISSN 1573-0891, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 443-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely assumed that stakeholder participation has great potential to improve the perceived legitimacy of natural resource management (NRM) and that the deliberative-democratic qualities of participatory procedures are central to the prospects of success. However, attempts to measure the actual effects of deliberation on the perceived legitimacy of participatory NRM are rare. This article examines the links between deliberation and legitimacy in participatory NRM empirically by tracing the determinants of stakeholders’ level of policy support and their views about procedural fairness. The study uses statistical methods to analyse survey data from a state-led initiative to develop new plans for ecosystem-based coastal and marine management through a participatory approach in five coastal areas in Sweden. We find that the perceived quality of deliberation had a positive impact on these aspects of legitimacy. However, both policy support and perceived procedural fairness were mainly driven by instrumental-substantive considerations rather than deliberative-democratic qualities of the process.

  • 2.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Collaborative Networks for Effective Ecosystem-Based Management: A Set of Working Hypotheses2017In: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 289-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) represents a comprehensive approach to better govern the environment that also illustrates the collaborative trend in policy and public administration. The need for stakeholder involvement and collaboration is strongly articulated, yet how and for what purposes collaboration would be effective remains largely untested. We address this gap by developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses specifying how certain patterns of collaborations among actors affect their joint ability to accomplish EBM. Content analyses of management plans drawn from five EBM planning processes in Sweden are combined with analyses of the collaborative networks through which these plans have been developed. Our results indicate that system thinking and the ability to integrate across different management phases are favored by collaborations between different kinds of actors, and by project leaders being centrally located in the networks. We also find that dense substructures of collaboration increase the level of specificity in the plans in regards to explicating constraints on human activities. Having many collaborative ties does however not enhance the overall level of specificity. Our results also show that different network characteristics can give rise to similar EBM outcomes. This observed equifinality suggests there is no single blueprint for well-performing collaborative networks. 

  • 3.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no 3 Suppl., p. 357-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework’s usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Universitetens roll i Forskarstation Östra Norrbotten: delrapport2003Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Network governance of the commons2008In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of the commons is closely associated with the potential to find ways to strengthen contemporary management systems, making them more responsive to a number of complexities, like the dynamics of ecosystems and related, but often fragmented, institutions. A discussion on the desirability of finding ways to establish so-called cross-scale linkages has recently been vitalised in the literature. In the same vein, concepts like adaptive management, co-management and adaptive co-management have been discussed. In essence, these ways of organizing management incorporate an implicit assumption about the establishment of social networks and is more closely related to network governance and social network theory, than to political administrative hierarchy. However, so far, attempts to incorporate social network analysis (SNA) in this literature have been rather few, and not particularly elaborate. In this paper, a framework for such an approach will be presented. The framework provides an analytical skeleton for the understanding of joint management and the establishment of cross-scale linkages. The relationships between structural network properties - like density, centrality and heterogeneity - and innovation in adaptive co-management systems are highlighted as important to consider when crafting institutions for natural resource management. The paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the understanding of co-management, and thereby to the survival of the commons.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Network governance of the commons2006In: IASCP 2006 Conference Papers, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of the commons is closely associated with the potential to find ways to strengthen contemporary management systems, making them more responsive to a number of complexities, like the dynamics of ecosystems and related, but often fragmented, institutions. A discussion on the desirability of finding ways to establish socalled cross-scale linkages, i.e. connections among different actors from different levels, i.e. connections among different actors from different levels of organisation and geographical settings, recently has been vitalised in the literature. The establishment of such linkages is believed to have many advantages for the sustainable management of the commons. In the same vein, concepts like adaptive management, comanagement and adaptive co-management have been discussed. In essence, these ways of organizing management to generate alternative governance systems are more closely related to network governance and social network theory, than to political administrative hierarchy. However, so far, attempts to incorporate social network analysis (SNA) in this literature have been rather few, and not particularly elaborate. In this paper, a framework for such an approach will be presented. The framework provides an analytical skeleton for the understanding of joint management and the establishment of cross-scale linkages. The relationships between structural network properties - like density, centrality and heterogeneity, and innovation in adaptive co-management systems - are highlighted as major features of high functioning management systems. The paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the understanding of co-management, and thereby to the survival of the commons.

  • 7.
    Edzen, Svante
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Holst, Marita
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Answers to questions about ”The Creative University”2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the evaluation of ”The Creative University” a questionnaire was sent out to all employees of Luleå University of Technology, during May 2002. The three PhD students who are connected to the evaluation prepared the questionnaire. The purpose of the questionnaire was to gain answers to questions posed about three main areas: The employees participation in the work process, the attitudes of the employees about the contents of the new vision and what shape the communication and meetings between employees has taken. In addition to the introductory background questions, the questionnaire was divided into three parts. The three main areas of the investigation were more or less covered in the three parts of the questionnaire. The first part was in reference to the development work done in the first phase, in which the objectives and the vision of the “Creative University” were formulated. The second part of the questionnaire was about the implementation of the new strategy, a process that is still in progress at the university. The questionnaire was divided into different parts in order to see if there was any difference in the pattern of participation for the different phases. In the second part there were also questions pertaining to the availability of information and to what degree the employees cooperate across boarders. Moreover, the respondents were asked to give an account of their views on how they regard the concept of “Integrated Knowledge Building”. The questionnaire ended with a third part in which the respondents were asked to respond to a number of statements about the contents of the vision and it’s implementation. The collective impressions can be said to be that employees of the University have been informed about the contents of the new vision. The goals of the vision receive support, such as recruiting more students, cooperating interdisciplinary, and an increased contact with the surrounding society. However, there appears to be no collective view of the concept of ”Integrated Knowledge Building”. As a last comment the compilation of the results show that many employees do not feel part of the implementation. The process of change has not affected the daily work for the majority of employees

  • 8.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 9.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology, Division of Population Genetics, Stockholm University.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jansson, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    Stockholm University.
    Edman, Mari
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology, Division of Population Genetics, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lack of recognition of genetic biodiversity:: international policy and its implementation in Baltic Sea marine protected areas2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 661-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic diversity is needed for species’ adaptation to changing selective pressures and is particularly important in regions with rapid environmental change such as the Baltic Sea. Conservation measures should consider maintaining large gene pools to maximize species’ adaptive potential for long-term survival. In this study, we explored concerns regarding genetic variation in international and national policies that governs biodiversity and evaluated if and how such policy is put into practice in management plans governing Baltic Sea Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Germany. We performed qualitative and quantitative textual analysis of 240 documents and found that agreed international and national policies on genetic biodiversity are not reflected in management plans for Baltic Sea MPAs. Management plans in all countries are largely void of goals and strategies for genetic biodiversity, which can partly be explained by a general lack of conservation genetics in policies directed toward aquatic environments.

  • 10.
    Lundmark, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Klas
    Department of Education and Special EducationUniversity of Gothenburg.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Laikre, Linda
    Department of ZoologyStockholm University.
    Effectiveness of short-term knowledge communication on Baltic Sea marine genetic biodiversity to public managers2017In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 841-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of two forms of short-term knowledge communication – lectures and group deliberations – on public managers’ policy beliefs regarding genetic biodiversity in the Baltic Sea. Genetic biodiversity is a key component of biological variation, but despite scientific knowledge and far-reaching political goals, genetic biodiversity remains neglected in marine management. Previous research highlights lack of knowledge as one explanation to the implementation deficit. This multidisciplinary study builds on the identified need for an improved knowledge-transfer between science and on-going management. A basic knowledge package on genetic biodiversity in the Baltic Sea was presented as either a lecture or a deliberative group discussion to two separate samples of public managers who are involved in Baltic Sea and other biodiversity management at the regional level in Sweden. The empirical findings show that the communicated information has an impact on the public managers’ beliefs on genetic biodiversity of the Baltic Sea. Lectures seem more efficient to transfer knowledge on this theme. Those who received information through a lecture strengthen their confidence in area protection as a management tool to conserve genetic diversity. They were also more convinced of the obligation of authorities at national and regional level to take on larger responsibility for genetic conservation than those managers who participated in deliberative discussion.

  • 11.
    Lundmark, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rova, Carl
    Rönnbäck, Peder
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Structuring social complexities in natural resource governance: exploring a new model for adaptive co-management2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lundmark, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Adaptive co-management: How social networks, deliberation and learning affect legitimacy in carnivore management2014In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive co-management (ACM) is a key concept in science and an increasingly adopted policy response in conservation, associated with a number of positive outcomes. However, the effects and mechanisms of co-management arrangements, including the conditions under which ACM gives rise to higher levels of internal and external legitimacy, are yet to be explored. This endeavor, in turn, requires theoretically driven models providing assumptions and outlining testable hypotheses. Considering the social challenges of ACM and using an institutional change within the Swedish carnivore management system aimed at achieving legitimacy through co-management as an illustrative example, this article develops a conceptual model that encompasses conditions and possible explanations to ACM outcomes. More specifically, drawing on lessons from social theory, we model the impact of three key factors-social networks, deliberation and learning-on the external and internal legitimacy resulting from ACM arrangements. Based on the model proposed, the popular assumptions of ACM outcomes can thus be empirically scrutinized and the conditions for increased legitimacy through ACM arrangements better comprehended.

  • 13.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Advocacy coalitions and learning in collaborative management systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Coordination and coalition-formation in policy subsystems: a policy network approach2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Policy learning across advocacy coalitions: A policy network approach to the prospects of learning in collaborative management systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contemporary trend within natural resource governance sees a strong increase in collaborative management. The principal idea is that collaborative structures constitute effective arenas for problem solving, an institutional arrangement promoting deliberation and learning among opposing interests. In advisory policy subsystems that are characterized by the existence of many competing policy coalitions collaborative management is often regarded as a response to experienced legitimacy deficits. A successful outcome of such institutional reforms, however, requires that policy learning within and between coalitions take place. Thus the turnout of collaborative arrangements is dependent upon the characteristics of political coalitions for deliberation and learning to evolve across competing coalitions. Uncovering the mechanisms driving the formation and maintenance of coalitions is therefore a key undertaking in policy analysis and the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) has been widely applied for this purpose. This study aimed to explore policy coordination and coalition formation, both inspired by, and with a critical assessment, of the ACF. For this purpose, a case study analysis set within the Swedish game management policy was conducted, applying social network analysis as a tool to identify existing coalitions and a value-survey to capture the actors beliefs on a vide range of matters. The results indicate, firstly, that perceived belief correspondence constitute the rationale determining the formation of coalitions and, secondly, that the catalogue of beliefs shared by actors within a coalition is composed by policy beliefs, in particular the more empirically oriented, as no connection between deep core beliefs and coalitions was found. The study contribute to the theoretical puzzle concerning the driving forces behind coalition formation in general and to the specific area of collaborative game management in particular, as the prospects for learning across the defined coalitions was discussed.

  • 16.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The defining elements of advocacy coalitions: continuing the search for explanations for coordination and coalition structures2013In: Review of Policy Research, ISSN 1541-132X, E-ISSN 1541-1338, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 240-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the theoretical and practical interest in policy networks increases, so does the need for further research into how, and based on what rationales, actors within a policy subsystem engage in interorganizational collective action and form political coalitions. The aim of this paper is to continue the search for explanations for coordination and coalition structures in the setting of Swedish carnivore policy. Based on the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) and a previous case study within the same policy subsystem, the study investigates a set of hypotheses regarding actors' coordinating behavior and the defining elements of coalitions. The empirical analysis indicates, in support of the ACF, that perceived belief correspondence is a better predictor of coordination than perceived influence. Moreover, the explanatory power of empirical policy core beliefs in general, and normative policy core beliefs in particular, is further reinforced, while deep core beliefs seemingly do not influence coalition structure. The relevance of more shallow beliefs for coalition formation cannot be dismissed and therefore calls for additional research.

  • 17.
    Matti, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The rationale determining advocacy coalitions: Examining coordination networks and corresponding beliefs2011In: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 385-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contemporary trend within natural resource governance sees a strong increase in collaborative management. A successful turnout of these arrangements is, however, dependent upon the formation and characteristics of advocacy coalitions. Uncovering the rationale determining coalitions is therefore a key undertaking in policy analysis and the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) has been widely applied for this purpose. This article aspires to test several important hypotheses regarding the nature of coordination networks and the formation of coalitions, treating the ACF both as an inspiration and as a framework in need of further refinement. This is done in the context of a complex and conflict-ridden policy subsystem: the Swedish carnivore-management subsystem. The results indicate, firstly, that perceived belief correspondence, and not perceived influence, is the driving mechanism behind coordination; and, secondly, that the catalog of beliefs shared by actors within a coalition is composed by policy core beliefs, in particular, with a more normative content, while no connection between deep core beliefs and coordination is found.

  • 18.
    Morf, Andrea
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Balancing sustainability in two pioneering marine national parks in Scandinavia2017In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 139, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though marine protected areas (MPAs) have become central instruments in the endeavour towards sustainable development, our knowledge on how different institutional designs influence outcomes is limited. Using a comparative case study design, this paper explores the interplay between institutional arrangements and management outcomes in two adjacent yet institutionally slightly differing MPAs, encompassing a shared marine trench and a partially inhabited archipelago landscape – namely the Koster Sea National Park in Sweden and the Outer Hvaler National Park in Norway. How can differences in the institutional designs governing the two parks, be linked to differences in sustainability outcomes? What lessons can be learnt for the design of MPAs? The study shows that institutional design influences management outcomes in some respects but not in others. Differences in overall management systems had no noticeable effects on sustainability outcomes and how they were perceived, while the differing objectives of the parks and how they are made operational seem to have affected the outcomes. But they have also influenced actors' expectations and their assessment of outcomes. According to this study, conservation arrangements can be broadened beyond mere nature protection. However, the study also underlines the challenges of locally adapted and participatory institutional designs and emphasises the importance of taking users’ varying expectations related to social and economic values into account throughout the whole process. The establishment of national parks is no guarantee for broader sustainable development per se; this also requires resources and proper embedding and integration with relevant sectors and tiers in the overall management system.

  • 19.
    Newell, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Network management and renewable energy development: An analytical framework with empirical illustrations2017In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 23, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The promotion of renewable energy is an essential component of energy and climate policies, but it is increasingly recognized that the transition toward an increased use of renewable energy sources constitutes a complex socio-political process. Policy is manifested in multi-actor networks beyond formal hierarchies and must therefore build on a comprehensive empirical understanding of the local collaboration processes that make investments in renewable energy projects possible. The objectives of this article are to: (a) propose an analytical framework within which the local development processes leading to renewable energy investments can be understood, in particular emphasizing the management of the relevant actor networks; and (b) provide empirical illustrations of the framework based on existing research. The article argues that, based on network management theory, some network structures can be expected to be more successful than others in facilitating renewable energy development, and we recognize the ways in which networks and their structure tend to be placed within certain institutional contexts of rules. By consulting selected research on wind power development at the local level we illustrate the added value of the proposed framework, and outline the seeds of a future research agenda.

  • 20.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ett framgångsrikt nätverk för samverkan och utveckling?2007In: FÖN Forskarskolan Östra Norrbotten: betrakelser, lärdomar och slutsatser, Luleå: Högskoleförbundet Östra Norrbotten , 2007, p. 23-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Forskarstation Östra Norrbotten - ett politiskt projekt: delrapport 22004Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Genetic concerns in fish stocking: what does the institutional framework say and how is it implemented?2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gränsöverskridande samverkan inom forskning och utbildning: en utvärdering av ett samverkansprojekt mellan Luleå tekniska universitet och Pomor statliga universitet, 1997-20012002Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Innovativa programmet för E-hälsa i norra Sverige: en kartläggning av nätverket2007Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Innovative policy networks: the relation between structure and performance2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central undertaking in this thesis is to explore the explanatory power of the concept of policy networks. The main question is whether there is a relation between the structural features of policy networks and their performance? Does network structure matter for network performance, and in that case, in what sense? In order to investigate the relationship between structure and performance, five implementation networks, engaged in inter-organizational collaboration with the task to create multidisciplinary units, at Luleå University of Technology (LTU), are studied. Each network is analyzed regarding both structural properties and performances. First, network performance is measured by the level of effectiveness and innovation. Next, the structural features of the implementation networks are measured. Drawing upon previous work of Burt, the structural analysis is based on the examination of two specific network mechanisms, namely network closure and global structural holes. Basically, while the former refers to the degree of interconnectedness, the latter considers the extent to which the actors span global structural holes, meaning that they have contacts reaching outside the network in focus. A positive relation between the two above mentioned mechanisms and performance is proposed. The empirical analysis confirms the assumption that there is a relation between structure and performance. While the existence of global structural holes is a necessity for innovative networks to form, their level of effectiveness is positively related to the degree of network closure. Following this, an innovative network is a network in which the actors are tightly connected and, at the same time, have many connections to other actors, engaged in other network constellations. Further, on the basis of the empirical findings, two new hypotheses, specifying the relationship between structure and performance, are suggested. Firstly, it is proposed that the function of prioritizing, so vital for the process of organizing, is facilitated within centrally integrated networks. Secondly, the function of mobilization of resources is facilitated within networks that span a large amount of global structural holes. Accordingly, network structure does matter for the effectiveness of innovative policy networks. To conclude, there is certainly a lot of explanatory power in the concept of policy networks and the formal analytical approach, offered by social network analysis (SNA), is one way to explore its possibilities.

  • 26.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Institutional and substantial uncertainty: explaining the lack of adaptability in fish stocking policy2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1357-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive management implies a system in which policy and practice are constantly revised in a continuous circular process to accommodate new ecological knowledge. In the case of current fish stocking practices, there is an evident gap between science and practice indicating a lack of adaptability. While fish stocking is perceived as a solution to many problems of modern fishery management, scientific researchers warn that current practices, including introducing alien populations, seriously threaten the sustainability of fish stocks. The aim of this study was to address, explain the existence of and, finally, discuss the prospect of narrowing this gap. For this purpose, the characteristics of the policy subsystem were analyzed. The empirical findings highlight the wickedness of the policy problem. The substantial and institutional uncertainties surrounding the issue are proposed as the main reasons for the deficits in adaptability. Fish stocking decisions are made within a complex policy subsystem that involves multiple actors and policy-making institutions, conflicting goals and competing notions of the problem. Cross-coalition learning-learning between coalitions of actors with different problem definitions, forming a joint view-is a necessary and, in the case of fish stocking, lacking variable in the adaptive management process.

  • 27.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Navigating a complex policy system: explaining local divergences in Swedish fish stocking policy2011In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish fish stocking previous termpolicynext term constitutes an example of the disparate challenges associated with adaptive management theory and the realization thereof. The vast substantial and institutional uncertainties of the previous termpolicynext term subsystem have previously been identified as variables that complicate the realization of adaptive previous termpolicynext term making. The aim of this paper is to address and tentatively explain differences in regards to how these uncertainties are handled. What regional variances in Swedish fish stocking previous termpolicynext term can be distinguished and how can these variations be explained? The empirical analysis shows that Swedish fish stocking previous termpolicynext term consists of previous termanext term wide array of different regional previous termpolicies.next term These regional variations are explained by differences in existing implementation resources, previous termpolicynext term beliefs and readings of formal regulations. previous termPolicynext term makers can decrease these divergences in two ways; they can either change formal regulations or influence available implementation resources. Both management approaches might have positive as well as negative effects on the subsystem's adaptability.

  • 28.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Policy networks: the relation between structure and performance2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of policy networks and the need to treat networks seriously have long been emphasized within the field of policy science. However, not many attempts have been made to investigate the explanatory power of policy networks using the tools and theoretical concepts provided by social network analysis (SNA). This historical limitation is the central undertaking of the current thesis, which sets out to clarify the possible relationship between network structure and the organizing capacities and performance of policy networks. Not only is the aim to elucidate how different network qualities affect performance, but the thesis also has a methodological aim of indicating in what ways SNA contributes to and enhances policy network research. Based on the theoretical concepts policy, networks, institutions, and social capital, an analytical framework is formed. A set of hypotheses regarding how network structures are believed to affect the performance of policy networks is suggested. Two particular network qualities-namely, network closure and network heterogeneity-are proposed as central for the process and its outcome. The former reflects the internal structure of a network in terms of density and centralization, while the latter reflects how the network is connected to other networks and addresses its level of diversity and cross-boundary character. The empirical part of the thesis consists of three case studies, in which policy processes within different policy sectors are studied. The empirical analysis confirms the existence of a relationship between network structure and performance. As the level of network closure increases, so does the capability to prioritize, thereby enhancing efficiency. However, the level of network heterogeneity is positively related to the function of resource mobilization, which, in turn, is a central prerequisite for improved effectiveness. The thesis concludes that a significant explanatory power exists in the concept of policy networks and that SNA is a promising way to explore its possibilities, enhancing policy research and the conceptual and theoretical developments within the field. Finally, the implications of the findings for contemporary policy making and public administration are discussed.

  • 29.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Proposal for fitting governance systems to management of genetic biodiversity2012Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Social networks, joint image building,and adaptability: the case of local fishery management2011In: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 288-321Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The challenges of adaptive management: Navigating institutional complexities and substantial uncertainties in fish stocking policy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive management implies a system in which policy and practice are constantly revised in a continuous circular process to accommodate new ecological knowledge. This study set out to address the often complicated link between science and management, which holds a prominent position in adaptive management theory. The topic was elaborated focusing on the empirical case of fish stocking policy. While fish stocking is perceived as a solution to many problems of modern fishery management, scientific researchers warn that current practices, including introducing alien populations, seriously threaten the sustainability of fish stocks. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to address, explain the existence of and, finally, discuss the prospect of narrowing the gap between science and policy, promoting the potential for adaptability.Even though Sweden was used as an empirical point of departure, a multilevel governance perspective was adopted. Two separate studies were conducted; the first aimed at defining the characteristics of the policy subsystem, while the second study analyzed policy making related to fish stocking with a bottom-up approach. The empirical material was collected through documental analyses and interviews. The empirical findings underlined that fish stocking is a wicked policy problem, as the vast substantial and institutional uncertainties characterizing the policy subsystem were identified as variables complicating the realization of adaptive policy making. Fish stocking decisions are made within a complex policy subsystem that involves multiple actors and policy-making institutions, conflicting goals and competing notions of the problem. Policy is produced on the international, European and national levels and within different policy sectors. Moreover, current policies reveal great diversity and range as well as inconsistencies in definitions and terminology. The lower-level bureaucrats, making stocking decisions on the regional level in Sweden, must navigate within this complex policy subsystem. Even though all regions are embedded in the same formal institutional framework of legal rules, regulations and policies, they tend to behave differently. The empirical analysis highlighted some clear divergences in how the issues of genetic diversity and fish stocking are understood and addressed in different regions. These variations were explained by differences in existing implementation resources, policy beliefs and readings of formal regulations. Public policy makers can respond to the above described situation in two ways; they can either change formal regulations or influence available implementation resources. Both management approaches might have positive as well as negative effects on the subsystem’s adaptability. There is a trade off between the need for more detailed regulations on the one hand and the possibility to accommodate regional contexts in policy making on the other. Finally, since the policy problem constitutes an illustrative example of the disparate challenges associated with adaptive management theory and the realization thereof, the findings are likely relevant also for other policy subsystem sharing similar qualities.

  • 32.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Creative University: a general description of the working process2002Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The implementation processes of five different knowledge areas: a compilation of interview data2003Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    ‘Treating networks seriously’ in conservation management: How a network approach can enhance our understanding of collective action, legitimacy, and adaptive capacity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges of conservation management originate in ecological as well as social complexities. Social factors like institutional uncertainties, multi-actor settings, competing goals, and conflicts of interest often impede the evolution of legitimate and adaptive management systems. The argument proposed here is that these challenges should be approached through social networks. Based on social science theories and by means of empirical illustrations from fishery and carnivore management, three arguments for a social network approach are suggested. The first emphasizes the descriptive value of a network perspective; it contributes greatly to the process of defining the boundaries of the social system and to the generation of important information regarding the actors and their interactions. The second argument stresses the theoretical contribution of a network approach and rests on findings from previous research on the interplay between different network characteristics and management outcome. The main message is that the structure of a network affects the way it functions. The third argument is based on a managerial perspective and discusses implications for institutional design. The issue of how to design new, or influence existing, management systems to improve their capacity to deal with social challenges is elaborated. To conclude, research on conservation management has much to gain by ‘treating networks seriously.’

  • 35.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Network Governance from the Top: The Case of Ecosystem-based Coastal and Marine Management2015In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 55, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary environmental policy incorporates a collaborative approach, and conservation management commonly denotes the formation of governance networks on the sub-national level. This trend toward networks implies a shift in the mode of public governance since state-centered top-down control is replaced by a primary focus on governing networks from the top. Previous research has studied the performance of collaborative networks while the role of the state in these settings has been acknowledged to a lesser extent. Thus, prevailing knowledge concerning how public agencies can govern networks towards the fulfillment of environmental objectives is restricted. This issue is addressed in this paper through an empirical case study of a state-initiated process aimed at implementing the ideas of ecosystem-based management, by means of collaboration networks, in five coastal regions in Sweden. What governance strategies were adopted by the environmental protection agency, and how can the governance outcome be described in terms of ecosystem-based management and stakeholder support? Based on the empirical findings, the influence of the chosen governance approach on the outcomes is discussed. The results clearly illustrate the particular tradeoffs that occur as various governance strategies interact and how these influence both social and ecological aspects. The application of extensive and rigorous governance strategies enhance the fulfillment of ecosystembased management while vagueness and flexibility enable local adaptation and enhance stakeholder support. Governing networks from the top involve a balancing act, and the idea of fulfilling environmental objectives through the dynamic of network is appealing albeit challenging in practice.

  • 36.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Innovative policy networks: the relation between structure and performance2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of policy networks and the need to "treat networks seriously" has long been emphasized within the field of policy analysis. However, not many attempts have been made to investigate the explanatory power of policy networks using the tools and theoretical concepts provided by Social Network analysis (SNA). Accordingly, that is the central undertaking of this paper. Is there a relationship between the structural features of policy networks, their organizing capacities and performance? A comparative case study of five networks within the sector of higher education confirms the assumption about a relationship between the variables. An innovative policy network is a network with a heterogeneous set of actors that are centrally integrated. Further, while the level of network heterogeneity is positively related to the function of resource mobilization, the level of integration facilitates the process of prioritizing. There is certainly a lot of explanatory power in the concept of policy networks and the formal analytical approach (SNA) is one way to explore its possibilities.

  • 37.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Carlsson, Lars
    The performance of policy networks: the relation between network structure and network performance2008In: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 497-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of policy networks has long been emphasized within the field of policy analysis. However, few attempts have been made to investigate the explanatory power of policy networks using the tools and theoretical concepts provided by social network analysis (SNA). This paper aims to address this need by determining if a relationship exists between the structural features of policy networks, their organizing capacities, and their performance. A comparative case study of four networks within the higher education policy sector confirms the assumption related to the existence of such a relation. It is proposed that an efficient and innovative policy network consists of a heterogeneous set of actors that are centrally and densely integrated. Furthermore, while the level of network heterogeneity is positively related to the function of resource mobilization in the process of policymaking, the level of centralized integration promotes the function of prioritizing. These findings are believed to contribute to our understanding of policymaking in contemporary society. The current paper indicates that a significant explanatory power exists in the concept of policy networks and that SNA is one way of advancing its possibilities.

  • 38.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Legitimacy in Co-Management: The Impact of Preexisting Structures, Social Networks and Governance Strategies2014In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 60-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ambition to contribute to the endeavour of co-management, this paper focuses on the critical aspect of legitimacy and sets out to explain stakeholder acceptance in natural resource governance. A comparative study of five coastal and marine areas in Sweden is conducted. The empirical results demonstrate, first, how the past and the present institutional landscape set the underlying conditions and affect stakeholders’ acceptance of new co-management initiatives. Second, the results point to the critical function of network governance. Conscious choices regarding what composition of actors to involve, and in particular the inclusion and commitment of government actors, have significant bearing on stakeholder acceptance. Furthermore, deliberative efforts to reframe the process, adjusting the agenda to ongoing collaborative processes and key stakeholder goals, are seemingly as important. Thus, strivings towards legitimate co-management require skilful manoeuvring of the present institutional landscape as well as deliberate strategies for the evolution of social networks

  • 39.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Network structure and perceived legitimacy in wildlife collaborative management2016In: Review of Policy Research, ISSN 1541-132X, E-ISSN 1541-1338, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 442-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread supposition that collaborative management designs enhance legitimacy must be examined empirically, and the rich diversity of different collaborative arrangements should be better acknowledged in this endeavor. This study adopts a social network perspective and examines three state-initiated and interest-based collaborative management arenas in Swedish wildlife management: wildlife conservation committees (WCCs). Is there a link between social network structures in collaborative management arenas and the perceived legitimacy of output by policy stakeholders? This puzzle is addressed through social network analysis combined with survey data and interviews. The empirical results confirm the notion that collaborative arenas consisting of high network closure with many bridging ties across organizational boundaries enjoy a higher level of support among stakeholders directly involved in management, as members of the committees, than networks with a more sparse structure do. This type of well-integrated network structure seemingly increases stakeholders’ understanding of other actors’ perspectives through deliberation. Contrary to what was expected, though, the empirical analysis did not verify the effect of linking, or outreaching ties between the committee members and the organizations that they represent, on the organizations’ support of WCC decisions. Given the rapid rise of collaborative designs in public administrations, the topic elaborated in this paper is urgent and further research is encouraged.

  • 40.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jansson, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen.
    Edman, Mari
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology, Division of Population Genetics, Stockholm University.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology, Division of Population Genetics, Stockholm University.
    Assessment of management practices regarding genetic biodiversity in Baltic Sea marine protected areas2016In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1187-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine, and tentatively explain, how genetic bio- diversity is handled in the management of Baltic Sea Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Genetic biodiversity is critical for species’ adaptation to changing environmental condi- tions and is protected by international agreements. Nevertheless, recent research indicates that genetic biodiversity is neglected in marine environments and in the management of MPAs. This study focuses on Sweden and Finland, which together govern a substantial part of Baltic Sea MPAs, and builds on in-depth interviews with regional conservation man- agers that are responsible for establishing and managing these areas. The empirical findings confirm that genetic biodiversity is absent, or plays a minor role, in contemporary MPA management. The findings also provide several possible explanations to this situation: unclear understandings of formal policy, lack of resources, deficient knowledge base, and the managers’ own policy beliefs. Policy makers and high-level managers need to consider these aspects in their efforts to protect biodiversity.

  • 41.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rova, Carl
    Adaptive co-management networks: a comparative analysis of two fishery conservation areas in Sweden2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-management constitutes a certain type of institutional arrangement that has gained increased attention among both policy makers and researchers involved in the field of natural resource management. Yet the concept of co-management is broad, and our knowledge about how different kinds of management structures affect the ability to deal with challenges pertinent to the commons is limited. One of these challenges is to foster an adaptive management process, i.e., a process in which rules are continuously revised and changed according to what is known about the ecological system. We aim to address the relationship between different kinds of co-management structures and adaptive management. To this end, we conducted a comparative case study of two Fishery Conservation Areas in Sweden. The concept of networks and the formal method of social network analysis are applied as theoretical and methodological devices. Building on previous research, we propose that adaptive management processes occur in co-management networks consisting of a heterogeneous set of actors that are centrally and densely integrated. Networks of this kind are believed to promote a management process in which actors with disparate perspectives and resources formulate a common view regarding the condition of the ecosystem, the basic problem to be solved, and what measures to adopt. The empirical findings support the existence of such a relationship. Nonetheless, the restricted empirical material, an inability to control for hidden variables, and a lack of success in determining causality among variables are all factors that call for more research.

  • 42.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rova, Carl
    The network structure of adaptive governance: a single case study of a fish managment area2010In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 528-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of establishing adaptive management systems is a widely discussed topic in the literature on natural resource management. Adaptive management essentially focuses on achieving a governance process that is both sensitive to and has the capacity to continuously react to changes within the ecosystem being managed. The adoption of a network approach that perceives governance structures as social networks, searching for the kind of network features promoting this important feature, has been requested by researchers in the field. In particular, the possibilities associated with the application of a formal network approach, using the tools and concepts of social network analysis (SNA), have been identified as having significant potential for advancing this branch of research. This paper aims to address the relation between network structure and adaptability using an empirical approach. With the point of departure in a previously generated theoretical framework as well as related hypotheses, this paper presents a case study of a governance process within a fish management area in Sweden. The hypotheses state that, although higher levels of network density and centralisation promote the rule-forming process, the level of network heterogeneity is important for the existence and spread of ecological knowledge among the actors involved. According to the empirical results, restricted by the single-case study design, this assumption is still a well-working hypothesis. However, in order to advance our knowledge concerning these issues and test the validity of the hypotheses, more empirical work using a similar approach in multiple case study designs is needed.

  • 43.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Nätverk för regional utveckling: en fallstudie av utmaningar för praktisk samverkan mellan forskning, näringsliv och politik2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nätverk, samverkan och innovation är vanligen förekommande koncept i diskussionen om regional utveckling. I en allt mer kunskapsbaserad ekonomi betraktas etablerandet av nätverk, bestående av privata såväl som offentliga aktörer, ofta som en förutsättning för innovativa miljöer och regional tillväxt. Många frågor kring dessa nätverk och deras utveckling är dock fortfarande obesvarade där t.ex. kunskapen om vad som kännetecknar framgångsrika nätverk samt på vilket sätt offentlig policy kan stödja framväxten av dessa är begränsad. Detta bidrag bygger på en fallstudie av ett samverkansnätverk mellan näringsliv, politik och akademi som har etablerats till följd av arbetet med Forskarstation Östra Norrbotten (FÖN). Baserat på kvalitativa intervjuer och social nätverksanalys kartläggs och analyseras nätverket bakom FÖN i syfte att besvara ett antal angelägna frågor. Hur kan FÖN- projektet karaktäriseras i termer av måluppfyllelse? I vilka avseenden har projektet varit framgångsrikt, respektive mindre framgångsrikt? Varför utsätts den här typen av samverkanskonstellationer för särskilda påfrestningar och utmaningar? Hur kan dessa övervinnas? Nätverksanalysen visar att FÖN, mycket framgångsrikt, har skapat ett stort sektorsövergripande nätverk. Analysen visar dock att de politiska och akademiska aktörerna har dominerat processen, medan näringslivets representanter i dag främst återfinns i nätverkets periferi. Detta avspelar sig även i aktörernas upplevda måluppfyllelse, där gruppen näringsliv är minst nöjd med processen och dess resultat. FÖN kan, vid studiens tidpunkt, därför närmast karaktäriseras som "en obalanserad Triple Helix". Arbetsprocessen kring FÖN illustrerar också tydligt de svårigheter som uppstår när olika organisationslogiker möts, där aktörerna har olika förväntningar på bidrag och belöningar och deras grad av åtagande varierar över tid. Det är dock rimligt att förvänta sig att aktörerna fyller olika funktioner i olika faser av processen och att ledarskapet växlar. En ökad förståelse för dessa mekanismer är därför också viktig för utformningen och utvärderingen av offentliga policyinitiativ. Offentliga satsningar i nätverksbyggande bör inriktas mot att, (1) skapa de initiala förutsättningarna för samverkan, samt (2) skapa goda förutsättningar för växlingar i ledarskap under processens gång. Den senare uppgiften är avgörande för att lovvärda initiativ ska bli långsiktigt framgångsrika nätverk för regional utveckling.

  • 44.
    Sandström, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Research, industry and public sector cooperation: a dynamic perspective2012In: International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, E-ISSN 1753-0679, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 144-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While networks between research, industry and the public sector are regarded as prerequisites for innovation and regional development, establishing these structures is not trivial and their success is far from given. To deepen our knowledge of these networks, a dynamic model describing the coordinating functions and their drivers within such constellations is presented and empirically examined by means of an explorative case study. The model illustrates the challenges of co-operation in cross-sector constellations, which stem from different logics and expectations, and how different actors’ degree of commitment varies over time. In successful cross-sector collaboration, actors fulfil different functions during different phases, and leadership shifts over time. A greater understanding of these dynamics can enhance public policy initiatives aimed at sustaining co-operation for innovation and regional growth.

  • 45.
    Sevä, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Decisions at Street Level: Assessing and explaining the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive in Sweden2017In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 74-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the role of street-level bureaucrats in water management and examines what factors influence the implementation of the programme of measures that are part of the European Water Framework Directive. The impact of two factors - the bureaucrats' policy understandings and their implementation resources - on implementation is examined through a qualitative case study at sub-national level in Sweden. The results verify the critical role of these bureaucrats as only one-third make decisions, or take action, based on the programme of measures. The results further suggest that the bureaucrats' understandings of how coherent the policies are, and whom they consult in cases of uncertainty, are important. The implementing bureaucrats perceive policy as coherent and have rich networks of advice, including responsible government authorities, while the non-implementing bureaucrats experience significant policy incoherencies and have sparse advice networks. Thus, policy-makers can support implementation by adjusting policy and by improving existing, and organizing new, resources to provide these bureaucrats with guidance

  • 46.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Disentangling adaptive multi-level governance designs and their outcomes: a comparative analysis of water- and wildlife management in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University.
    Utter, Fred M.
    University of Washington.
    Ghani, Nurul Izza Ab
    University of Helsinki.
    André, Carl
    University of Gothenburg.
    Faveri, Jacquelin De
    University of Helsinki.
    Johansson, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University.
    Merilä, Juha
    University of Helsinki.
    Mikhailova, Natalia
    Russian Adademy of Sciences.
    Pereyra, Ricardo
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Teacher, Amber G. F.
    University of Exeter.
    Wenne, Roman
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Vasemägi, Anti
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Zbawicka, Malgorzata
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Primmer, Craig R.
    University of Turku.
    Genetic biodiversity in the Baltic Sea: species-specific patterns challenge management2013In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 22, no 13-14, p. 3045-3065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity is a prerequisite to understanding the demography of populations, and is fundamental to successful management and conservation of species. In the sea, it has been observed that oceanographic and other physical forces can constitute barriers to gene flow that may result in similar population genetic structures in different species. Such similarities among species would greatly simplify management of genetic biodiversity. Here, we tested for shared genetic patterns in a complex marine area, the Baltic Sea. We assessed spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity and differentiation in seven ecologically important species of the Baltic ecosystem-Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), northern pike (Esox lucius), European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), blue mussel (Mytilus spp.), and bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus). We used nuclear genetic data of putatively neutral microsatellite and SNP loci from samples collected from seven regions throughout the Baltic Sea, and reference samples from North Atlantic areas. Overall, patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among sampling regions were unique for each species, although all six species with Atlantic samples indicated strong resistence to Atlantic-Baltic gene-flow. Major genetic barriers were not shared among species within the Baltic Sea; most species show genetic heterogeneity, but significant isolation by distance was only detected in pike and whitefish. These species-specific patterns of genetic structure preclude generalizations and emphasize the need to undertake genetic surveys for species separately, and to design management plans taking into consideration the specific structures of each species.

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