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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ingalena
    et al.
    Obesity Unit, M73, Huddinge University Hospital.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association, Karolinska Institute.
    Rössner, Stephan
    Obesity Unit, M73, Huddinge University Hospital.
    Meal pattern and risk factor evaluation in one-year completers of a weight reduction program for obese men: The 'Gustaf' study2000In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 247, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in meal patterns and in obesity related risk factors after 1 year of treatment in obese men. Design: Data from two 24-h dietary recalls, performed at base-line and after 1 year of treatment, were related to changes in medical risk factors. Setting: Academic obesity unit. Subjects: Sixty-three men, aged 44 (eight) years (mean [SD]) and Base- line Body Mass Index (BMI) 37.4 (4.6) kg m-2, who had completed 1 year of treatment. The men were subdivided by tertiles according to weight change: tertile I (n = 21), mean +0.3 kg, tertile II (n = 21), mean -5.8 kg and tertile III (n = 21), mean -14.2 kg. Main outcome measures: Weight loss, changes in meal patterns and in obesity related medical risk factors. Results: The reported mean energy intake decreased after treatment in tertiles II and III by 700 (1300) kcal (P < 0.05) and 700 (900) kcal (P = 0.001), respectively. In tertile III the energy-% from fat decreased (P < 0.05) with a reciprocal increase in energy-% from protein (P < 0.05). The frequency of snacks of a low nutritional quality decreased (P < 0.01) in tertile III together with an increase in energy-% from 'hot meals of good quality' (P < 0.05). Obesity related risk factors (anthropometry, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, blood glucose and plasma insulin) improved in a beneficial way only in tertile III. Conclusions: The weight loss in the successful tertile III men was to a great extent explained by fewer low quality snacks but more energy from high quality meals. These changes reflected the behaviour modification strategy recommended.

  • 2.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Gustafsson, Inga Britt
    Department of Culinary Art.
    Haraldsdóttir, Johanna
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary/Agricultural University, Copenhagen.
    Nydahl, Margaretha C.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Vessby, Bengt O.H.
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Ytterfors, Arne
    Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Precoded food records compared with weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-over design, 82 women and men recorded their food intake by a precoded 7-day record book (PR) including both standard portions in household measures and photographs, and a weighed 7-day record (WR), respectively. Single 24-h urine samples, for determination of nitrogen excretion, were collected for 39 subjects during the WR period. Comparing the PR to the WR method, the mean intake of some foods, as cheese, was higher, and bread and vegetables lower. For energy and nutrients, the fat energy percent (E%) was higher, and protein E%, dietary fibre, iron, thiamin, folate, carotene and α-tocopherol were all lower. Protein intake registered by the PR method was 20% lower compared to 24-h urine samples, and 11% lower for the WR method. The results indicate that some of the standard portion sizes, used by the PR method, contributed to the observed differences in food and nutrient intakes. The subjects found it easier and less time-consuming to record their food intake with the PR than with the WR method. The time spent on processing data was reduced by 50% when using the PR method. The results of the study will be used for improvements in the design of the PR for use in large-scale dietary surveys for monitoring dietary habits.

  • 3. Brattberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Socialtjänstens roll i det förebyggande folkhälsoarbetet1997Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Byström, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Kännedom, attityd och levnadsmönster bland högskolestuderande angående kost, motion och trötthet2003Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Byström, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå university, National Institute for Working Life.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Måltidens inverkan på vakenhet och prestation2002Report (Other academic)
  • 6. Erlandsson, Maja
    et al.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Månsson, Helena Lindmark
    Mjölk & mejeriprodukter: viktiga näringskällor2005In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Gillberg, M.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Pernler, H.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nordlund, G.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Norberg, H.
    Longitudinal changes in the sleep habits of Swedish adolescents2012In: Vol. 15, no Suppl. 1, p. 83-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Graaf, Cees De
    et al.
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University.
    Gaag, Monique A. Van Der
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University.
    Kafatos, Anthony George
    School of Health Sciences, University of Crete.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Langvagen 35, S-756 52, Uppsala.
    Kearney, John M.
    Institute of European Food Studies, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Stages of dietary change among nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union1997In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 2, p. S47-S56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the distribution across the different stages of change for each of the 15 participating European countries, and the effect of socio-demographic variables such as sex and education on this distribution. Also to assess the relationships between stages of change and influences of food choice, and other variables. Design: A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. Setting: The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. Subjects: 14,331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Subjects were divided into five different categories according to their attitudes towards 'changing their eating habits in order to eat healthier': (1) Precontemplation; do not consider any changes, (2) Contemplation; consider changes, (3) Decision; make plans to change, (4) Action; carry out the changes, and (5) Maintenance; maintained changes for more than six months. Results: 52% of the subjects were in the precontemplation stage, whereas 31% of the subjects were in the maintenance stage. Two, one, and seven percent of subjects were in the contemplation, decision and action stage, respectively. In the Mediterranean countries, and in Germany, there were more people (55-64%) in the precontemplation stage, whereas in the Scandinavian countries there were less people in precontemplation stage (20-38%). The opposite was true for the maintenance stage, whereas women and people with a higher education level tended to be more in the maintenance stage. With respect to influences on food choice, subjects in precontemplation stage found that taste was more important, whereas people in maintenance stage found that health was more important. Conclusions: The stages of change model makes a useful distinction between people with different attitudes towards nutrition and health. Nutrition education can benefit from this distinction.

  • 9.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM), Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Department of Medical Science and Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Changes in blood lipid profile and endocrine response as a result of an isocaloric high carbohydrate or high-fat diet in consideration of circadian rhythm2001In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 15, no 4, p. A640-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Swedish Dairy Association, Karolinska Institute.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, IPM - National Institute of Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Swedish Dairy Association, Karolinska Institute.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Department of Medical Science and Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University Hospital, IPM - National Institute of Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, IPM - National Institute of Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy2002In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 132, no 7, p. 1892-1899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because night work is becoming more prevalent, we studied whether feeding at different times of a 24-h period would elicit different metabolic responses and whether dietary macronutrient composition would affect these responses. Seven men (26-43 y, 19.9-26.6 kg/m2) consumed two isocaloric diets, in a crossover design. The diets were a high carbohydrate (HC) diet [65 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 20E% fat] and a high fat (HF) diet (40E% carbohydrates, 45E% fat). After a 6-d diet-adjustment period, the men were kept awake for 24 h and the food (continuation of respective diet) was provided as six isocaloric meals (i.e., every 4 h). Energy and substrate turnover, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were measured throughout the 24-h period. Significantly higher energy expenditure and NEFA concentration, and lower blood glucose and TAG concentrations were observed when the men consumed the HF diet than when they consumed the HC diet. Significant circadian patterns were seen in body and skin temperature (nadir, 0400-0500 h). When the men consumed the HF diet, significant circadian patterns were seen in fat oxidation (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1200-0800 h), heat release (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1600-0800 h), heart rate (nadir, 0000 h), blood glucose (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0000-0400 h), NEFA (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 1200-2000 h) and TAG (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0400-0800 h) concentrations. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, MAP and glycerol concentration did not display circadian patterns. Unequal variances eradicated most circadian effects in the HC-diet data. The increased TAG concentration in response to feeding at 0400 h might be involved in the higher TAG concentrations seen in shift workers. Distinct macronutrient/circadian-dependent postprandial responses were seen in most studied variables.

  • 11.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM), Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Changes in energy expenditure and substrate utilization as a result of a nigh carbohydrate or high fat diet in consideration of diurnal rhythm2000In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 14, no 4, p. A790-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM), Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Department of Medical Science and Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Endocrine responses to nocturnal eating: Possible implications for night work2003In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 2748-2755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Night work is becoming more common and shift workers display several metabolic disturbances. Aim: To study the endocrine responses in relation to time of day during a 24-h period and how dietary macronutrient composition affects these responses. Design: Seven males (26-43 y and 19.9-26.6 kg · m-2) were studied in a crossover design. Isocaloric diets described as highcarbohydrates (HC; 65 energy percent (E%) carbohydrates and 20E% fat) or high-fat (HF; 40E% carbohydrates and 45E% fat) were given. After a 6-day diet adjustment period, the subjects were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic unit and were served an isocaloric meal (continuation of respective diet) every 4-h. Blood samples were taken throughout the 24-h period. Results: Insulin and leptin responses to meal intake differed with respect to time of day (p ≤ 0.05). Time of day affected glucagon, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (fT4), total triiodothyronine (tT3), cortisol, chromogranin A (CgA) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) concentrations (p ≤ 0.05). Meal intake decreased cortisol concentration after meals at 0800, 1200 and 0400 but not at 1600, 2000 and 0000 h. The PP's postprandial increase was greater during 0800-1600 h compared to 2000-0800 h. With the HC meals, lower glucagon and CgA concentrations (p ≤ 0.05), and a tendency for lower tT3 concentrations (p = 0.053) were observed compared to the HF meals. Conclusion: Insulin, PP, TSH, fT4, cortisol and leptin responses to meal intake differed with respect to time of day. The decreased evening/nocturnal responses of cortisol and PP to meal intake indicate that nocturnal eating and night work might have health implications.

  • 13.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Löwden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Institutet för psykosocial medicin (IPM), Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Department of Medical Science and Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    The human body may buffer small differences in meal size and timing during a 24-h wake period provided energy balance is maintained2003In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 133, no 9, p. 2748-2755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because ∼20% of the work force in the industrialized world have irregular working hours, it is pertinent to study the consequences of eating at irregular, especially nighttime hours. We studied the postprandial responses during nocturnal fasting vs. e+ating throughout a 24-h wake period. Seven healthy males were studied twice in a crossover design. After a 6-d diet adjustment period [high fat diet, 45 energy percent (en%) fat, 40 en% carbohydrates)] with sleep from 2300 to 0700 h, the men were kept awake for 24 h at the metabolic ward and given either 6 isoenergetic meals, i.e., every 4 h (N-eat) or 4 isoenergetic meals from 0800 to 2000 h followed by a nocturnal fast (N-fast), with the same 24-h energy intake. Energy expenditure, substrate utilization, activity, heat release, body temperature and blood variables were measured over 24 h. Energy expenditure and blood glucose, triacylglycerol, insulin and glucagon concentrations were lower and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations were higher during the nocturnal fast than during nocturnal eating (P < 0.05); however, no 24-h differences between the protocols were apparent. Nocturnal fasting slightly altered the secretory patterns of the thyroid hormones and cortisol (P < 0.05). We found no clear indication that it would be more favorable to ingest few larger daytime meals than smaller meals throughout the 24-h period. The body seems to be able to buffer small differences in meal size and timing provided energy balance is maintained

  • 14.
    Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Karlsson, Berndt H.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Örnkloo, Katarina
    Department of Oncology, Umeå University.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides: Influence of the timing of meal intake during night work2002In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study the postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides to meal intake at different clock times during night work. Eleven night shift working nurses participated. Identical test meals were ingested at 19:30, 23:30 and 03:30, and contained 440 kcal/ 1860 kJ of energy (33 E% fat, 51 E% carbohydrate, 16 E% protein). The food intake was standardized three days before the first test meal. Blood samples were drawn just before the test meals were ingested and thereafter at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes. The postprandial responses were estimated as the total area under the curve (AUC) and significance testing was done using repeated measures ANOVA. The highest insulin level was found after meal intake at 23:30, and the lowest after meal intake 03:30. The glucose response showed the same pattern. The insulin response to food intake in night working nurses is more pronounced in the night compared with morning and evening. The results would have implications for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in night workers.

  • 15.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university, Mittuniversitetet, Department of Health Sciences, Sundsvall.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm.
    Field studies on the effects of food content on wakefulness2000In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation included six drivers engaged in day driving and six drivers engaged in night driving. Changes in wakefulness were analysed by means of a questionnaire where the drivers were asked to rate their wakefulness on a 100 mm rating scale. Changes in wakefulness were analysed during intake of food with higher and lower contents of fat. The day-drivers had their intakes as breakfast and lunch, the night-drivers as dinner and between meals. No significant difference was observed between the two types of intake, meaning that the balance between fat, protein and carbohydrate does not effect the development of drowsiness

  • 16.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Stenudd, Anita
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Onset of drowsiness and satiation after meals with different energy contents2001In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation consisted of a laboratory study with 10 healthy subjects who were both sleep and food deprived prior to each experimental condition. The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of energy content and the bulk of food on wakefulness and satiation. Each subject was tested in four conditions, each with equal food composition but different energy amounts: 100, 500 and 1000 kcal and 100 kcal with low bulk content. Recordings and ratings of wakefulness and satiations were carried out throughout the investigation, starting 30 minutes before and continuing until 90 minutes after intake of the food alternatives. No differences in wakefulness could be observed after the four food alternatives. However, subjects rated themselves as more satiated after the food alternatives with higher energy content and higher bulk

  • 17.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university, Mittuniversitetet, Department of Health Sciences, Sundsvall.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm.
    Söderberg, Lena
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Laboratory studies of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on wakefulness2000In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in wakefulness before and after exposure to carbohydrate intake were tested in 30 test persons. Changes in wakefulness were tested via EEG and subjective estimates. The intakes consisted of 400 ml glucose, 250 kcal (GI 100), 400 ml fructose, 209 kcal (GI 20), and 400 ml water. The study has indicated that intake of fructose, glucose and water had a similar stimulating effect on wakefulness in drowsy subjects immediately after intake. Our results also indicate that intake of fructose can lead to a delay in the development of drowsiness. Compared to water, a 20-30 minutes delay of the point in time when high-degree drowsiness developed, took place. There was no significant difference between glucose and water.

  • 18.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Fältstudier avseende kostinnehållets inverkan på vakenhet1997Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Löwden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Institute for Psychosocial Medicine/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Institute for Psychosocial Medicine/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Institute for Psychosocial Medicine/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Institute for Psychosocial Medicine/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Institute for Psychosocial Medicine/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Institute for Psychosocial Medicine/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Time of day type of food--relation to mood and hunger during 24 hours of constant conditions2001In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 30, no 1-2, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A six-day high-carbohydrate meal (HC; 65 E% (energy percent) carbohydrates, 20 E% fat and 15 E% protein) and a six-day high-fat meal (HF; 40 E% carbohydrates, 45 E% fat and 15 E% protein) were given to seven healthy subjects in a crossover design. On the last day subjects were kept awake for 24 hours in a metabolic laboratory while substrate utilisation and energy expenditure were measured by indirect calorimetry. The subjects were given isocaloric meals every four hours. Results showed that hunger decreased at night (F = 4.2, p < 0.05) and linearly increased after meal intake. Macronutrient composition (fat/carbohydrates) seemed to be of less importance for hunger. Hunger and thirst were found to be strongly associated with gastrointestinal substances, for hunger the strongest being a negative correlation with triacylglycerol (partial correlation = -0.39). It is suggested that it might not be necessary for shift workers to eat full portions at night but that satiation will occur with less food. Possibly lack of adjustment of nocturnal food intake might be one reason why overweight is common in shift work populations.

  • 20.
    Löwden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, IPM - National Institute of Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Forslund, Jeanette M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Forslund, Anders H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet2004In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  • 21.
    Löwden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute.
    Moreno, C.R.C.
    School of Public Health, University of São Paulo.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Kristianstad University College.
    Tucker, Philip T.
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University.
    Eating and shift work: Effects on habits, metabolism, and performance2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 150-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to individuals who work during the day, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases (eg, obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels, and metabolic syndrome). At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating, however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. In this overview, we examine studies on food and nutrition among shift workers [ie, dietary assessment (designs, methods, variables) and the factors that might influence eating habits and metabolic parameters]. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. We conclude with some dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers.

  • 22.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Umeå university, National Institute for Working Life.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Byström, Marianne
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Missing a Meal: Effects on Alertness during Sedentary Work2004In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acute effects of missing a meal on alertness. The participants were ten university students between 20–29 years old, five females and five males. Participants were chosen on the basis of their good sleep and eating practices. Measurements were collected during an eight hour period starting at 8.00 AM on four separate days. During the test period, participants carried out their normal study activities while on separate days receiving either just breakfast, just lunch, both lunch and breakfast, or no meal at all. During the test period, EEG was monitored continuously while subjective ratings of performance and tiredness were collected every half-hour. The results showed that while there were neither physiological nor subjective indications of tiredness which could be attributed to meal consumption, subjective feelings of lack of energy and motivation was significantly more pronounced at the end of the workday when missing a meal or two.

  • 23.
    Sepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Preschool children's meal patterns analysed using the Food-Based Classification of Eating Episodes model2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 1748-2976, E-ISSN 1748-2984, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Because of changing food habits that may influence nutritional status it is important, especially in children, reproducibly to describe and analyse the timing and frequency of eating and the composition of different types of eating episodes. Objective: To describe eating patterns of 3-5-year-old Swedish preschool children by analysing 7 day food records using the Food-Based Classification of Eating Episodes (FBCE) model. Design: Food intakes were categorized into four types of "meals" and four types of "snacks", according to their food profile. Complete 7 day weighed and estimated food records for 109 children were processed and analysed. Results: On weekdays the children ate significantly more frequently than on weekend days, having 5.6 and 5.2 eating episodes per day, respectively. More eating episodes were classified as "meals" on weekdays than on weekend days: 72% and 60%, respectively. On average for the whole week, 43% of the daily energy intake was derived from "complete meals" (CM) and 34% from "incomplete meals" (IM). CM contributed significantly more energy and more nutrients, except for calcium, than did IM. In low-quality snacks (LS), sucrose contributed with about one-third of the energy content and the nutrient density was low. Conclusions: The qualitative FBCE model verified nutritional characteristics of the children's diet previously found in the same cohort by the traditional dietary assessment methods. Processing of the dietary data by the model to show the prevalence and temporal distribution of eating episodes appears to be an applicable tool for nutritional screening of children's eating patterns

  • 24.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    et al.
    Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala, National Food Administration.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping.
    Elderly patients' meal patterns: A retrospective study1996In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 263-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine possible causes of malnutrition in geriatric patients on admission to hospital by evaluation and comparison of their meal pattern between periods of working, retirement and hospitalization, respectively. Forty-five consecutive patients aged 60 years or older participated. By use of modified dietary history interviews, a retrospective assessment of food intake was carried out. A qualitative system for meal classification was then applied. In the retirement period there was a strong reduction in daily eating frequency when compared to working and hospital periods. Thus, the daily intake and also distribution of energy and nutrients seem to be reduced during retirement, which might lead to nutritional deficiency.

  • 25.
    Wallin, Gisela van der Ster
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Norring, Claes E.A.
    Eating Disorder Unit Department of Psychiatry Uppsala University.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Holmgren, Sven
    Eating Disorder Unit Department of Psychiatry Uppsala University.
    Food selection in anorectics and bulimics: Food items, nutrient content and nutrient density1995In: Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Print), ISSN 0731-5724, E-ISSN 1541-1087, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 271-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The food selection and nutrient intake were investigated in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and controls. Methods Dietary data was obtained by 24-hour recall, and 7-day recording among eating disordered patients, and by 3-day registration among controls. Results: The intake of energy and nutrients differed from controls, as expected, while there were no differences between anorectics and bulimics in this respect, except for iron. There were only minor differences among the three groups studied with respect to nutrient density. Energy percentages of protein, fat, and carbohydrates, were similar in all groups, but a subdivision of the macronutrients into respective sources showed that bulimics had a lower relative and absolute intake of carbohydrates from bread and cereals than anorectics and controls. Conclusion: Eating disorder patients, despite their marginal food intake, still met the minimum requirement for most nutrients according to the Nordic Nutrient recommendations. Abbreviations: AN = anorexia nervosa, AN/BN = anorectic bulimics, BMI = body mass index, BN = bulimia nervosa, DSM-III-R = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ED = eating disorder, NNR = Nordic Nutrient Recommendation

  • 26.
    Wallin, Gisela van der Ster
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Andersson, Michael I.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Comparisons between recalled and observed dietary intake in anorectics and bulimics: A validation study1995In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A validation study was performed in order to compare the observed versus the self-reported food consumption in anorectics (n = 9), anorectic bulimics (n = 6) and bulimics (n = 10). The observed meals (breakfast, lunch and/or dinner) were served in a hospital setting. Foods on plates were unobtrusively weighed before and after serving to each subject, and the foods consumed were compared with data from a 24-hour recall the subsequent day. Data analyses via a nutrient database comprised amounts of food items from seven food groups as well as energy, macro nutrients, vitamin C, calcium and iron. Analyses of recalled intakes showed consistently high correlations with observed intakes, suggesting that the 24-hour recall gives valid results, and could thus be suitable for this category of patients. This notion contrasts with previous statements, although no validation studies have been undertaken in order to support this view

  • 27.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Att äta är en fråga om tajmning2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 36, p. 2084-2089Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association, Karolinska Institute.
    Dietary assessment and validity: To measure what is meant to measure1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 63-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutritional assessment is the interpretation of information obtained from dietary, biochemical, anthropometric and clinical studies. In individuals, qualitative or quantitative food consumption data may be collected by food frequency questionnaires or interviews (retrospective methods), by use of food records (prospective methods); weighed food record, estimated food record or menu record, or by observations. Nutrient values derived from food composition data or direct chemical analysis represent the maximum available to the body and not the amount actually absorbed and utilized. The design of the study is crucial and the methods for carrying it out are aimed at minimizing bias to improve internal and external validity. This paper will focus on factors of importance to improve the internal validity of dietary assessment studies; selection of method; data collection, assessment of nutrient intakes from food consumption data and evaluation of data.

  • 29.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Nutritionstorskning, Svensk Mjolk AB.
    Dygnsrytm, matlust och udda matvanor2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 118-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only what we eat, but also when we eat seems to be of importance for well-being, nutritional status, and health. The regulation of food intake (amounts) operates through feed backs from the periphery reporting to the central nervous system about the energy content of the body. Timing of eating is controlled by circadian rhythms in activity and sleep, internal rhythms being entrained by the external light-dark rhythm. Disturbed behavioural rhythms, e.g. shift work and travelling across time zones, interact strongly with internal physiology. Life-style in the 24-hour society makes people stay awake, eat and sleep at the wrong times with respect to human circadian rhythms in metabolism and performance.

  • 30.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    En hungrig elev är en rastlös elev2002In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 33-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Geléhallon dyrare än morötter: prispolitik löser inte fetmaproblemet2003In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 14-, article id 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Mejerierna Service AB.
    Goda matvanor1998In: Barn och ungdom med övervikt, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 1998, p. 15-27Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Kan vi lita på alla larmrapporter?: minisymposium om epidemiologi och kostrekommendationer1998In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    När på dygnet ska vi äta?1996In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 3-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Så tycker EU-konsumenten om mat, näring och hälsa1997In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrition and 3-shift work: the 24-hour intake of energy and nutrients1994In: Ecology of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 0367-0244, E-ISSN 1543-5237, Vol. 32, no 3-4, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption was studied (repeated 24-hour recalls) during five days (four different work shifts and days off) in 16 healthy Swedish male papermill workers (rotating 3-shift). A comparison (energy, fourteen nutrients) between 24-hr periods showed a higher intake of energy and five nutrients during the 12 h work shift day compared to days off. The mean 24-hr energy-intake varied between 16,7 MJ (12 h work shift) and 13,3 MJ (days off). When only work hours were considered, the intake of energy and six nutrients were significantly higher during the morning-shift compared to the night-shift. There were no differences in the quality of the diet or the coffee consumption between 24-hr days or between 8-hr shifts. It was concluded that shift work affects 24 h nutrient intake to a very limited extent, although the distribution within 24 hours may vary.

  • 37.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Andersson, Ingalena
    Obesity Unit, M73, Huddinge University Hospital, Swedish Dairies' Association.
    Food-based classification of eating episodes (FBCE)1999In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept for categorization of eating episodes in dietary surveys was originally developed in studies of shift workers to compare 'meal patterns' between night and day work shifts. The concept has been further improved through experience from applications in dietary surveys in other populations. In this paper, results from categorization of eating episodes in shift workers, elderly women and men during life transition periods, elderly female leg ulcer patients and obese men and their lean controls are shown and discussed. The categorization concept is based on seven food categories with food items of similar nutrient characteristics within each category. Each eating event is categorized as any of four types of 'meals' or four types of 'snacks' due to its combination of food categories. Thus, categorization is based on visible properties (food types) but at the same time reflecting invisible properties (nutrients). Criteria is also established to sub-categorize the 'meal' types as being either 'prepared' or 'quick-prepared' from a behavioural perspective. Use of a defined and reliable concept for categorization is necessary to study eating episodes in dietary surveys, their determinants and also consequences on health and performance. Nocturnal eating during the circadian nadir might affect nutritional status. Since increasingly western populations appear to be moving from regular and planned meals to more episodic eating 'around the clock', such analyses are of increasing interest in a bio-social perspective.

  • 38.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Becker, Wulf
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Matvanor före och efter beskattningen av lunchsubventionerna1994Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala, Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University, Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    En spektralanalys av måltiden: kostsociologi - nytt ämne i Uppsala1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 144-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala.
    Becker, Wulf
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Giachetti, Ismène
    CNERNA, 11 Rue Jean Nicot, 75007 Paris.
    Schmitt, Anette
    Rossbergring 70, 64354 Reinheim.
    Winter, A.M.E. Remaut-De
    University of Gent, Faculty of Agriculture and Applied Biological Science.
    Kearney, Mary J.
    Institute of European Food Studies, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Influences on food choice perceived to be important by nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union1997In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 2, p. S8-S15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this baseline survey was to obtain comparable data on perceived influences on food choice from EU member countries as the starting point for EU healthy eating promotion campaigns and programmes. Design: A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. Setting: The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. Subjects: 14,331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Results: The five most important factors influencing consumers food choice were 'quality or freshness' (74%), 'price' (43%), 'taste' (38%), 'trying to eat healthy' (32%) and 'family preferences' (29%). Subjects in different categories (age, sex, education and employment status) selected different factors as having major influence on their food choice. Demographic factors seemed to have greater effects on perceived influences than culture (country): 'quality/freshness', 'price', 'trying to eat healthy', 'family preferences' seemed to be most important in women, 'taste' and 'habit' in males. Females and older and more educated subjects were more likely than other subjects to select 'trying to eat healthy' as having a major influence. 'Price' seemed most important in unemployed and retired subjects.

  • 41.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Nutritionella aspekter på skiftarbete: arbetstidens påverkan på individens näringsintag och måltidsordning : slutrapportering av projekt1993Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrient intake in day workers and shift workers1994In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 332-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 24-h dietary intake, nutritional status parameters and psychosomatic factors of two-shift, three-shift and day workers were compared. Estimations of the dietary intake (across a work cycle) were made by use of a nutrient database. No significant differences were found between the groups for a large number of nutritional variables: intake of energy; intake and percentage of energy from protein, fat, total carbohydrates and sucrose; intake of coffee; and intake and density of vitamins and minerals. Only minor differences were found between the groups with regard to the quantitative intake of alcohol and calcium, and with regard to the quality of the diet (percentage of energy from alcohol, density of calcium). The groups differed significantly with respect to attitude towards work hours (three-shift workers being most negative in their attitude) and sleep disturbances (shift workers being most negative). The three-shift workers were more evening-oriented and they had higher concentrations of glucose in their blood. It was concluded that work hours not related to nutritional intake-at least not when total amounts across time are considered. It was also concluded that work hours were not related to Body Mass Index or blood lipids: triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol

  • 43.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Department of Stress Research, Karolinska Institutet.
    Nutrition and shiftwork: The use of meal classification as a new tool for qualitative/quantitative evaluation of dietary intake in shiftworkers1993In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 36, no 1-3, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Established nutritional science methods and a new concept for meal–classification were applied to shiftworker (rotating 3-shift) data. The frequency of meals and snacks of different nutritional quality as a function of work schedule was evaluated, as well as the content of selected nutrients (energy, fat, sucrose, dietary fibres, ascorbic acid) in these meals and snacks. The results do not indicate that rotating 3-shift work affects the nutritional quality of the diet or the frequency of different types of meals and snacks. A qualitative classification of meals and snacks might be a cost–effective strategy for data–evaluation in field studies of shift workers' eating habits when quantitative estimations of the dietary intake are to be complicated

  • 44.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala, Karolinska Institute.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Department of Stress Research, Karolinska Institute.
    Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers1995In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 253-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the impact of work hours on eating habits the dietary intake of 96 male industrial workers on day work and two- and three-shift work was investigated using repeated 24 h recall. The intake of energy, 14 nutrients, and coffee and tea was computed, using a nutrient data base, for 8 h work and shifts (day, morning, afternoon, night) and for the 24-h periods including these work shifts. No changes in intake of energy, nutrients and coffee/tea were observed between 8 h morning and afternoon shifts, but there was a reduction in intake during 8 h night shifts. Night shift work caused a redistribution of food and coffee intake, but not an overall 24 h reduction. On the whole, the energy-intake and the quality of food intake (percentages of energy from macronutrients and density of micronutrients) were not affected by shift work, although the intake of carbohydrates was lower in day- and three-shift workers during days off. The intake of alcohol was higher during days off in all groups. In summary, two- and three-shift work in this study affected the circadian distribution of food intakes and coffee consumption, but not the overall 24-h consumption.

  • 45.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Children's nutrient intake at preschool and at home2001In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 483-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A preschool-based dietary survey, using 7-d records, was carried out in a suburb of Stockholm. The aim was to assess the intake of food and the quality of the diet of preschool children aged 3-5 y at preschool and at home, and to compare the dietary intake with the Swedish dietary recommendations for preschool children. The respective mean intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrates and sucrose, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake were 14, 38, 50 and 9 at preschool, and at home 14, 36, 52 and 12 on weekdays, 14, 34, 55 and 16 on weekend days. The mean intakes of seven vitamins and minerals were low only for selenium as compared with the recommended level. No differences were found in nutrient density between diet at preschool and diet at home, with the exception of dietary fibre (higher at preschool). On weekdays there was a significantly higher nutrient density for calcium, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C and dietary fibre compared with weekend days. Conclusion: The average intakes of energy and nutrients per meal at preschool compared with the recommended levels for children aged 4-6 y were low for all meals (breakfast, lunch and afternoon snack). This, however, was compensated for by home meals.

  • 46.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Svensk mjölk.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Friskis & svettis.
    Kosten, kroppen, klockan: att äta, sova och arbeta på udda tider2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Bruce, Åke
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    A new approach for evaluation of meal quality and meal patterns1993In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An objective, nutritionally orientated classification system is necessary to evaluate the frequency, nutritional quality and temporal distribution of eating events in dietary surveys. In this paper a system to classify eating events qualitatively with regard to the types of food items consumed is described and demonstrated. It comprises eight food categories and criteria for their combination into four types of meals and three types of snacks of various nutrient composition. The food categories represent food items of animal and plant origin, and also food products containing sucrose and beverages containing alcohol or lacking energy and nutrients. Classification requires individual data collected by established food-record or recall methods. Data on consumed amounts is not required to classify qualitatively the eating events per se, but is required for quantitative calculations of their content, composition and relative contribution to total intakes. The application of the system to dietary data (80 repeated 24-h recalls, 517 eating events) of 16 male three-shift workers showed that classification of eating events was easy and largely unequivocal compared to traditional methods. Subsequent calculations showed expected differences between eating types with regard to content and relative quality. The meal-classification system might be used as a cost-effective method to evaluate the nutritional profile of meal patterns in surveys.

  • 48.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Bruce, Åke
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    A new approach for evaluation of meal quality and meal patterns1997In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 1360-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Nocturnal eating and serum cholesterol of three-shift workers1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES - The goal of this study was to examine the effect of rotating three-shift work on the circadian distribution of dietary intake and to investigate the relationships between displaced eating and nutritional status variables [blood lipids, blood glucose, body mass index (BMI)]. METHODS - Dietary data were collected by 147 replicate 24-h dietary recalls from 22 male industrial workers in rotating three-shift work. The intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated by the use of a nutrient data base. The BMI was calculated, and blood glucose, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured once. RESULTS - The dietary intakes of energy, protein, total fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrates, sucrose, and dietary fibre did not differ between 24-h periods but did differ between work shifts and were lowest during the night. Correlation analyses between dietary intakes and nutritional status parameters showed that those who redistributed their eating most to the night shift had higher levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL and a higher LDL:HDL ratio; 63% of the LDL cholesterol level was explained by carbohydrate intake during night shifts. In contrast, the total intake for whole 24-h periods or across entire shift cycles was not related to serum variables or BMI. CONCLUSIONS - Dietary intake is lower during night shifts (34-37% of 24-h intake of various nutrients) than during morning shifts (43-47%) and afternoon shifts (47-59%). The redistribution of food intake to the night may be associated with metabolic disturbances in lipid metabolism.

  • 50.
    Wissing, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hälsouniversitetet, Norrköping.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping.
    Nutritional intake and physical activity in leg ulcer patients1997In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 571-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the nutritional intake, meal patterns, physical activity and need for help in nine women living in their own homes and being treated for venous leg ulcers. Food habits were identified by use of interviews and food diaries completed by the women during a period of seven days. The intake of energy and nutrients from 304 eating events during seven days was calculated and meal patterns were evaluated using a qualitative system for meal classification. Physical activity and the degree of need were identified with the help of interviews. The intakes of energy and key nutrients for wound healing, such as protein, vitamin C and zinc, were not optimal according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations, although food habits were well organized. Most of the women had hardly any physical activities and the need of help and support varied, from daily visits to visits every second week.

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