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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy, Lunds universitet.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Autio, Erkko
    Imperial College Business School.
    Ejermo, Olof
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy, Lunds universitet.
    Lavesson, Niclas
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy, Lunds universitet.
    Lööf, Hans
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Savin, Maxim
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Det innovativa Sverige: Sverige som kunskapsnation i en internationell kontext2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I debatten om Sveriges prestationer när det gäller innovation och entreprenörskap blandas lovord med domedagsprofetior. Det pratas bland annat om svenska paradoxer och entreprenöriella klimatförändringar, men utifrån en rad olika källor och definitioner. I denna rapport reder nio forskare, från de tre ledande innovationsforskningscentrumen CESIS, CiiR och CIRCLE, ut begreppen. De levererar en nyanserad bild av Sverige som innovations- och kunskapsnation.• Hur står sig ”det nya Sverige” i en internationell jämförelse?• Existerar den svenska paradoxen?• I vilket land får en investerad FoU-krona störst effekt?• Och är sambandet mellan nyföretagande och innovation alltid positivt?Detta är några av de frågor som får svar. Rapporten har produceratsi samarbete mellan VINNOVA och ESBRI.

  • 2.
    Andrésen, Edith
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Processes in collaborative entrepreneurship: a longitudinal case study of how multiple actors exploit a radically new opportunity2014In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 713-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this longitudinal case study, the authors integrate the theory on social movement with the entrepreneurship literature on opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploitation. They construct a model on collaborative entrepreneurial processes in which multiple partners are involved in identifying, forming, and exploiting an opportunity. Three interdependent subprocesses are identified: (1) the opportunity conceptualization dialogue, (2) resource mobilization and, (3) legitimacy building, which significantly contribute to our understanding of how individuals across different organizations become engaged in collaborative entrepreneurial processes. The model of collaborative entrepreneurial processes complements traditional models of the entrepreneurial process, which place the individual entrepreneur at the center of the process and does not consider group mobilization processes in which the actors aim to be creative and innovative in collaborating with actors from other organizations or firms.

  • 3.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Corporate venturing deal syndication and innovation: the information exchange paradox2011In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 134-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many incumbent corporations make equity investments in young technological start-ups to enhance their innovation effectiveness, and the great majority syndicate at least some of their investments with other incumbents. While syndication is generally held to benefit incumbent corporations, this study demonstrates that it may also be detrimental to corporate innovation, by elaborating the notion of an information exchange paradox - essentially, that information exchanges within CVC networks must, somehow, be both open and closed at the same time. Corporations must try to appropriate the knowledge championed by their investees and fellow-investors, but also protect their own know-how from leaking to competitors. Unlike prior CVC research, we demonstrate that knowledge sharing in open innovation forums may be counterproductive. Using a unique data set of the investment decisions made by 163 corporations over four years we show that, for some, participating in syndicate networks may involve losses that outweigh their gains. Our analysis establishes two key findings. First, corporations need to consider the trade-off between the number of ventures they support and the position they take in their syndication networks. The best strategies appear to be maximizing isolationist (supporting many ventures but staying away from the network centre) or minimizing centralist (supporting few ventures, but occupying a central network position) - the other two options (maximizing centralist and minimizing isolationist strategies) are far less effective in converting CVC investments into corporate innovation. Second, this picture is particularly applicable to highly concentrated industries dominated by several powerful incumbents: in fragmented industries these strategy differences are far less pronounced, so the choice of CVC syndication strategy will depend on other considerations. This supports a contingency view of syndication, implying that ensuring incumbent corporations really benefit from equity investments in start-ups is a not a trivial task for their managers

  • 4.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    George, Nerine Mary
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Technological Advancement through Imitation by Industry Incumbents in Strategic Alliances2013In: Uddevalla Symposium 2013. Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansa City, MO, USA / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2013, p. 87-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the conventional wisdom, this study demonstrates that technological laggards and not industry front-runners are most likely to experience high rates of technological advancement in strategic alliances. We further suggest that imitation and not innovation is the primary source of such advancement based on the fact that technological progress by laggards is most visible in industries that lack strong appropriability regimes. Finally, we present empirical evidence suggesting that lagging established corporations prefer to imitate from startups and not from fellow-incumbents. These results are derived from a careful analysis of a longitudinal sample of over 150 incumbents with varying degree of technological prowess who engage in partnerships with both startups and fellow-incumbents across a wide representation of industries. Our paper contributes to technological innovation, strategic alliance, entrepreneurship, and imitation literatures and provides non-trivial implications for startups.

  • 5.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Kent State University, Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Peck, Simon
    Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Corporate venture capital: The role of governance factors2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 4744-4749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on corporate venture capital (CVC) has consistently proven its importance for innovation and other strategic goals, yet information on the antecedents of CVC activity is scarce. This study provides theoretical arguments for the role of governance factors including board, CEO, and institutional ownership characteristics. Empirical evidence from an international sample of global CVC investments shows that factors such as having a board with multiple board mandates and institutional ownership are important factors for CVC activity. The conclusion is that the role of governance factors is important, and that subsequent research should not ignore this group of factors.

  • 6. Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Troutt, Marvin D.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Brandberry, Alan A.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Measuring arbitrage opportunities a minimum performance inefficiency estimation technique2010In: Organizational research methods, ISSN 1094-4281, E-ISSN 1552-7425, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs respond to opportunities that come in two basic forms: innovation and arbitrage. This article presents a technique called the minimum performance inefficiency (MPI) estimation method that could be used to estimate arbitrage opportunities. The technique has several advantages over the conceptually similar data envelopment analysis (DEA) and other techniques. The authors validate the technique with a well-known data set and illustrate its use based on secondary data from the publishing industry.

  • 7.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Troutt, Marvin
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Measuring arbitrage opportunities across industries2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Troutt, Marvin
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Measuring arbitrage opportunities across industries with frontier-based estimates of efficiency: methodological implications for time series data2010In: SMA 2010 Meeting: October 27-30, 2010 - TradeWinds Island Grand Resort, St. Pete Beach, Florida, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Start-up rates and innovation: A cross-country examination2012In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 41-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the widespread assumptions of the positive relationship between start-up rates and innovation, the empirical support for this conjecture in the crosscountry context is largely lacking. We draw upon recent advances in the entrepreneurship literature to propose that the relationship between start-up rates and innovation is not uniformly positive, as expected by the early scholars of entrepreneurship, but instead depends on the country's stage of development. The relationship is positive in the developed countries, but negative in countries in early development stages. On balance, there is a weak negative association between start-up rates and innovation. We test our hypotheses on a multi-source dataset that covers 35 countries over the period from 1996 to 2002. The relationships are robust to the choice of three moderators and two dependent variables, as well as a number of post-hoc tests. Our findings indicate that broad-strokes policy efforts that aim at promotion of entrepreneurship as a means to boost country innovativeness may be misguided, and instead suggest a contingency approach

  • 10.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Technological arbitrage opportunities and interindustry differences in entry rates2014In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 437-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the relationship between technological arbitrage opportunities and entry rates in twenty-six industries over the course of five years. Arbitrage opportunities are shown to be a positive and significant predictor of business entry rates. Such positive effect is weakened in industries with strong appropriability regime including effective patents, secrecy, and lead time. Adding arbitrage opportunities to the typical determinants of entrepreneurship such as innovative opportunities significantly increases predictive power of the regression models.

  • 11.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Autio, Erkko
    Imperial College Business School.
    Operationalizing opportunities in entrepreneurship research: use of data envelopment analysis2011In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the impressive development of substantive theories in entrepreneurship, without the development of measurement theories, further advancement of the field is problematic. In particular, the notion of opportunities, central to entrepreneurship research, requires adequate macro-level operationalization. We demonstrate how to employ data envelopment analysis (DEA) to operationalize not only innovative opportunities, but also technological arbitrage opportunities. We provide an illustrative example based on a sample of 66 countries during the period of 1993-2002. We include estimates of innovative and arbitrage opportunities for possible use by other scholars, discuss the promise and limitations of such estimates, demonstrate how both innovative and arbitrage opportunities correlate with the rates of entrepreneurial activity, and suggest several possible directions for future research.

  • 12.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Kent State University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A conceptual framework for misfit technology commercialization2011In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 1060-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging literature on outbound open innovation has highlighted innovation processes, which presuppose active outward technology transfer to increase firm profits. To contribute to this discourse, our paper goes beyond the emphasis on core-related technologies and knowledge that currently dominates the technology management literature and develops the novel concept of misfit technology. This concept captures technologies that are not aligned with a focal firm's current knowledge base and/or business model, but which may still be of great value to the firm if alternative commercialization options are considered. By developing a framework that acknowledges (1) Sources of misfit technology, (2) Environmental uncertainty, (3) Organizational slack, (4) Industry appropriability regime and (5) Technological complexity, we theorize on how different modes of commercialization relate to misfit technology commercialization success. The paper is conceptual and is presented with the purpose to spawn further research on this important topic, but simultaneously touches upon the issues of utmost relevance to R&D management practice

  • 13.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Kent State University, Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Strategic effects of corporate venture capital investments2016In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 5, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the strategic effects of corporate venture capital investments. Specifically, by studying the deals of 163 corporations over a four-year period, it documents the effects of driving, emerging, enabling, and passive investments on the pool of innovative opportunities available to incumbents and the scale efficiency gains they experience as a result of these investments. The study suggests that by making driving and enabling investments, incumbents position themselves in the industry to take advantage of increased pools of innovative opportunities and improve scale efficiency yields. At the same time, emerging and passive investments are detrimental for both of the strategic goals considered in this paper.

  • 14.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Kent State University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Hanken School of Economics.
    Troutt, Marvin
    College of Business Administration, Kent.
    Measuring technological arbitrage opportunities: methodological implications for industry analysis with time series data2017In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1021-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined 26 industries to estimate the amount of technological arbitrage opportunity available to a typical firm. By presenting a novel way of treating time series data that combine the properties of intertemporal and sequential production frontiers, we analyze 10,650 firm-year observations for the years from 1999 to 2003. We report calculations and our empirical estimates of arbitrage opportunities for possible use by other scholars who would like to utilize arbitrage opportunities in their research and discuss implications

  • 15.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Kent State University, Kent State University, Kent, OH.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Technological Expansions, Catching-Up Innovations and Technological Shifts at the Regional Level: Conceptual Considerations and Empirical Illustration2016In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 1433-1448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anokhin S., Wincent J. and Ylinenpää H. Technological expansions, catching-up innovations and technological shifts at the regional level: conceptual considerations and empirical illustration, Regional Studies. Few techniques can capture different types of regional innovations, despite the importance of distinguishing between the innovation types for practitioners and policy-makers. This paper develops and illustrates a methodology based on data envelopment analysis that could be employed to shed light on this critical issue. Different types of regional innovations are analysed based on a longitudinal analysis of all Swedish counties over a five-year period. The approach can be used to analyse and distinguish between expansion-, catching-up- and shift-based types of regional innovation. Regional innovativeness is shown to be related to the regional levels of entrepreneurial activity.

  • 16. Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Wincent, Joakim
    Innovating through corporate venture capital: role of network and industry characteristics2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17. Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Wincent, Joakim
    Risky information exchange: how network position can cause difficulties for corporate innovation2009In: Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enhance innovation effectiveness, many incumbent corporations make equity investments in young technological startups. Four out of five corporate investors syndicate at least some of their investments with other incumbents. While syndication practices may be beneficial to incumbent corporations, in this study we elaborate on the notion of information exchange paradox to demonstrate that syndication may be detrimental to corporate innovation. Using a unique data set of investment decisions of 163 corporations over four years, we show that for some corporations the losses of participating in syndicate networks may outweigh the gains. In particular, we demonstrate that syndication network centrality negatively moderates the ability of a corporation to benefit from its investments. We also show that the effect is particularly strong in highly concentrated industries but is virtually non-existent in industries with low concentration. This supports a contingency view of syndication and implies that benefiting from equity investments in startups is a non-trivial task for managers of incumbent corporations.

  • 18.
    Arbuthnott, A.
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Eriksson, J.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Reduced opportunities for regional renewal: The role of rigid threat responses2011In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 23, no 7-8, p. 603-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article illustrates how opportunities for regional renewal in a peripheral region may be reduced by rigid threat responses undertaken by established firms operating within traditional regional industry. In an inductive case study of new biorefinery industry initiatives in a region where traditional pulp-and-paper and forestry industry was in decline, we used primary and secondary data to outline how a set of new industry players who created innovative ways of using existing regional infrastructures and resources sparked rigid threat responses among established firms from the struggling traditional industry. Established industry firms framed new industry initiatives as threats, and responded by (1) reducing new industry actors' possibilities for new business development, (2) engaging in entrenched resistance, (3) creating collaborative illusions and (4) undermining the fundamentals of the new industry. Consequently, this study contributes to existing literature by proposing the potential of applying the threat-rigidity thesis on a regional level. This is achieved by illustrating that conflicting behaviours between new and established regional industry actors constrain opportunities for regional renewal in a peripheral region. As such, relevant directions for future research and policy implications are outlined

  • 19.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    When a new industry meets traditional and declining ones: an integrative approach towards dialectics and social movement theory in a model of regional industry emergence processes2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 290-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes an integrative approach towards dialectics and social movement theories in a model of regional industry emergence processes. Based on an inductive qualitative investigation we describe how a new industry emerges in a declining and peripheral region dominated by struggling and traditional local industry. The emanating model of regional industry emergence is based on four main processes; framing processes, movement mobilisation processes, inter-industry relational processes and dialectical processes, which together shape the emerging regional industry. This exemplifies how new regional industry mobilisation efforts provide an ‘anti-thesis' to traditional industry, and how established industry actors respond with contestation to protect their business concepts. Furthermore we illustrate how new industry actors reframe their concepts to complement dominating traditional industry and to overcome tensions and conflicts. Following dialectic interaction between new and traditional industry we noticed signs of acceptance and synthesis between the newly formed and old industry actors; ultimately resulting in a revitalisation of the region's traditional industry. As such, the paper makes a point of accounting for agency and productive conflict when understanding regional industry renewal and emergence.

  • 20. Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    A study of establishment processes and entrepreneurial industry emergence in a Swedish region facing difficulties2008In: International Council for Small Business World Conference: June 22-25 2008, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, ICSB , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores establishment processes of a new industry located in a peripheral region of Sweden that is based upon old traditional industries in decline. Based on a qualitative study, we identify how actors within the new industry interact and intervene with the existing infrastructures and institutions that support the old local industry while trying tobuild new infrastructures. We identify key restricting and supporting mechanisms for the establishment processes, with implications for policy and regional and entrepreneurship research.

  • 21.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Co-opetition dynamics: an outline for further inquiry2010In: Competitiveness Review: an international business journal, ISSN 1059-5422, E-ISSN 2051-3143, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 194-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conceptually develop the understanding of co-opetition dynamics and to enhance the conceptual clarity of co-opetition by developing a definition based on previous research efforts. Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper integrates various approaches to the concept co-opetition into a definition that holds for co-opetitive interactions across multiple levels. Different co-opetitive interactions and the resulting dynamics are discussed by drawing upon competition and cooperation theories. The paper concludes with an agenda for further research on co-opetition dynamics. Findings - The paper outlines how different types of co-opetitive interactions result in archetypical situations where the dynamics of co-opetition are present as well as where the dynamics of co-opetition are missing due to a lack of balance between cooperation and competition. It notes four co-opetitive forces: over-embedding, distancing, confronting, and colluding. These four forces drive development towards situations without dynamics. Originality/value - This paper provides a conceptual understanding of co-opetition dynamics and will reveal that in order to adequately account for co-opetition dynamics, a definition of co-opetition must analytically separate the cooperative and the competitive interaction inherent in co-opetition.

  • 22.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition: new ideas for a new paradigm2010In: Coopetition Strategy: Winning Strategies for the 21st Century, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated , 2010, p. 19-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23. Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Johansson-Lindfors, Maj-Britt
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lonely rangers together: the development of trust among entrepreneurs in learning networks2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Entrepreneurs learning together: the importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunities2011In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunies. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

  • 25.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Trust and self-efficacy in formal learning networks: the effects on entrepreneurs' capacity to act upon business opportunities2012In: International Journal of Innovation and Learning, ISSN 1471-8197, E-ISSN 1741-8089, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 197-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In efforts to promote better realisation of business opportunities, government support of formal policy led learning networks among entrepreneurs has been a popular approach worldwide. This article uses survey data from 109 entrepreneurs who took part in formal learning networks to examine how trust in network partners influences the capacity to act upon business opportunities for entrepreneurs. Further, we examine how this influence is moderated by the entrepreneurs' own self-efficacy. Our results support a positive relationship between developing trust in other networking entrepreneurs and the capacity to act upon business opportunities. Self-efficacy was found to moderate this relationship. For entrepreneurs with low self-efficacy, results support an inverted U-shaped relationship, with the greatest outcomes reached with an intermediate level of trust. For entrepreneurs with high self-efficacy, a positive linear relationship is supported. We discuss implications for further research on trust and realisation of opportunities, and for learning network policy.

  • 26.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Brand equity in the professional service context: Analyzing the impact of employee role behavior and customer–employee rapport2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1093-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines whether factors related to customers' perception of employees' behavior in terms of customer perceived role ambiguity, role overload and customer–employee rapport influence the development of brand equity in the professional service context. 632 customers of one of the Big Four auditing companies participated in the study. The results of structural equation modeling show negative effects of role ambiguity and role overload on brand associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty, which constitute brand equity. The findings indicate a positive effect of customer–employee rapport on the enhancement of B2B brand equity. However, the negative influences of role ambiguity and role overload on customer–employee rapport transfer detrimental indirect effects on brand equity. The study contributes to an understanding of how the real interaction between service providers and customers can influence brand equity in the professional service setting.

  • 27.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Dynamics of B2B brand equity formation: an empirical comparison between uni- and multi-service buyers2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå university.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Dynamics of B2B brand equity: the role of interdependencies in buyer-seller relationships2010In: The Six Senses - The Essentials of Marketing: 39th EMAC Conference, 1-4 June 2010, Copenhagen, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of buyer-seller interdependencies on the formation of brand equity in the B2B context. The study demonstrates that a higher level of dependency, experienced by the multi-services buyers compared to the uniservice buyers, affects overall brand equity developed towards the seller. By considering the hierarchy of effects between the brand equity dimensions, the study shows that the factors capturing the interdependencies have a significant impact on brand loyalty of the multiservice buyers. The study contributes to branding research by evaluating the impact of buyer-seller dependency on B2B brand equity.

  • 29. Bonnedahl, K.
    et al.
    Gabrielsson, Å.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Entreprenörskap och småföretagande i norra Italien och Slovenien: gamla traditioner och nya möjligheter2007Report (Other academic)
  • 30. Cardon, M.
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Singh, J.
    Drnovsek, M.
    Entrepreneurial passion: a theoretical framework for the study of emotion in entrepreneurship2004In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2004: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Shaker A. Zahra, Babson College Center , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal TopicPassion has long been recognized as a central component of entrepreneurial motivation and success. Yet surprising little systematic theoretical or empirical work exists concerning the notion of passion and its influence on entrepreneurial activities. Passion has been viewed as both cognitive and emotional, as both a trait and a state, and many scholars do not distinguish between passion as an emotion and the consequences of such passion, such as working longer hours. Thus there is great lack of clarity in defining exactly what passion is, what it feels like, and its role in entrepreneurship.We build a conceptual model of emotion in entrepreneurship, drawing from a strong foundation in the psychological and sociological literatures. In this model, we separate the experience of emotion from the outcomes of such emotional experiences, and distinguish between the distal outcome of entrepreneurial effectiveness, which involves attainment of venture and individual goals, and the drivers of such effectiveness, including problem-solving, persistence, and absorption, which are behaviors that directly result from emotional experiences. Third, we distinguish between situation-specific and more enduring emotional experiences, and suggest that both sets of emotions impact entrepreneurial outcomes. For both episodic and enduring emotions, individuals have certain stable emotional tendencies (core affect), ventures have the ability to engender specific emotions due to their specific nature (affective qualities), and both of these combine to create the subconscious (attributed affect) and conscious (emotional meta-experience) emotional experiences. Since the current emotional state may differ from the more enduring state, this potential discrepancy between them is modeled. If such a discrepancy exists, the tension between the episodic emotional experience and the enduring one must be managed by the entrepreneur, through the process of emotional regulation.Results and ImplicationsBy developing the theoretical foundation for emotional influence in this domain, we enrich theory on entrepreneurial passion and provide concrete guidelines to spur entrepreneurial effectiveness. In particular we suggest how incorporating entrepreneurial emotion in models of entrepreneurship will shed light on how to better prepare nascent and early-stage entrepreneurs for the challenges that lie ahead of them, and how to enhance their own persistence and effectiveness.

  • 31.
    Cardon, Melissa S.
    et al.
    Pace University, Lubin School of Business.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Singh, Jagdip
    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland.
    Drnovsek, Mateja
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics.
    The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion2009In: Academy of Management Review, ISSN 0363-7425, E-ISSN 1930-3807, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 511-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial passion plays an important role in entrepreneurship, but theoretical understanding of what it is and what it does is lacking. We build on fragmented and disparate extant work to conceptualize the nature of entrepreneurial passion associated with salient entrepreneurial role identities. We also theorize the mechanisms of the experience of entrepreneurial passion that provide coherence to goal-directed cognitions and behaviors during the pursuit of entrepreneurial effectiveness.

  • 32. Cardon, Melissa
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Singh, Jagdip
    Drnovsek, Mateja
    University of Ljubljana.
    Entrepreneurial passion: the nature and influence of emotions in entrepreneurship2005In: The Academy of Management, Honolulu, USA, August 5-10, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents a study on entrepreneurial passion. Definition of passion; Explanation on the temporal nature of entrepreneurial emotions; Framework for studying emotions in entrepreneurship.

  • 33.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Addressing dual embeddedness: The roles of absorptive capacity and appropriabilitymechanisms in subsidiary performance2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity

  • 34.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Friedrichs, Yvonne von
    Mid Sweden University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Beyond the numbers: qualitative growth in women’s businesses2012In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 289-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the growth of women’s businesses from a qualitative perspective. The paper identifies strategic building blocks for defining a set of different growth platforms. Moreover, we investigate growth ambitions for women inside each identified "type" of growth platform and identify critical motivation variables that can influence the decision to move from growing one business platform to growing another platform.Design/methodology/approach - The results are based on 191 women entrepreneurs. Data was analyzed by coding narrative statements from the survey into overarching themes for business platforms, descriptive frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis techniques.Findings - We discerned five different growth platforms and noticed intrinsic or extrinsic growth ambitions for platform growth. The extrinsic platforms are the most common, but all platforms can be characterized by equally high growth aspirations. Each of the identified platforms is associated with distinct and unique blocks that the women entrepreneurs try to put together and resolve in order to grow their companies. Women entrepreneurs move between the different platforms when the building blocks of previous platforms have been established and secured. Variables such as profits and ownership may explain such transfers of growth ambitionsResearch limitations/implications - While acknowledging the qualitative growth of business platforms, we take an approach that goes against the traditional view of quantitative growth. Originality/value - This study is a response to the lack of research on qualitative growth and women’s entrepreneurship and suggests that the manifested qualitative growth can be in order to secure blocks on different business platforms.

  • 35.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Friedrichs, Yvonne von
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Hur ser kvinnor på tillväxt?: Visst de brinner, men inte bara för siffror2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Friedrichs, Yvonne von
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leaving the numbers behind: Qualitative growth, business platforms and motivation of women entrepreneurs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a response to the lack of research on qualitative growth and women’s entrepreneurship. Using a sample of 191 women entrepreneurs, this study suggests that qualitative growth is manifested in a striving to grow, to secure building blocks on different business platforms, may unfold to accomplish growth in different forms: survival, stability, work creation, appreciation and personal development. Although the extrinsic platforms of survival and stability are the most common growth platforms among women entrepreneurs, all forms can be characterized by equally high growth aspirations. Each of the platforms is associated with distinct and unique building blocks that women entrepreneurs try to put together and solve in order to grow their companies. Women entrepreneurs also move between the different platforms, from the growth of extrinsic platforms to intrinsic platforms, when the building blocks of those platforms have been established and secured. Variables such as profits and ownership may explain such a transfer of growth ambitions.

  • 37.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Mid Sweden University.
    Friedrichs, Yvonne von
    Mittuniversitetet, Mid Sweden University, Mid University, Östersund.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Risk perception matters: why women’s passion may not lead to a business start-up2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 87-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThis paper identifies whether nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men and determines how higher risk perceptions might limit start-up decisions by mediating the potential influence of passion and self-efficacy on the start-up decision.Design/methodology/approachThis study surveyed 103 participants in Sweden—both women and men—who in the period 2008 through 2011 intended to start a business. We conducted ANOVA tests and binominal logistic regression models to test our hypothesized framework. FindingsWe found that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risk than nascent male entrepreneurs; that risks perceptions influence start-up decisions; and that risk preferences partial out the otherwise identified influence of passion on start-up decisions.Practical implicationsWe reveal a consequence of gender socialization and how it impacts the start-up decisions of nascent women entrepreneurs. Support systems should consider developing activities that change the public’s perception of who is an entrepreneur and seek ways to balance risk perceptions between men and women.Originality/valueWe argue here that risk perceptions play a prominent role in start-up decisions. Specifically, we consider that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than do men, and that their view of risk partials out any potential influence of their perceived passion and self-efficacy on their start-up decision.

  • 38.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Mid Sweden University.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The idea is not enough: The role of self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between pull entrepreneurship and founder passion – a research note2016In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 974-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research note demonstrates that self-efficacy is important for understanding why an attractive idea may lead an entrepreneur to develop passion. Drawing upon a survey of 103 respondents, we find that self-efficacy mediates the influence of pull entrepreneurship on founder passion suggesting that being pulled toward opportunities to start a business is not directly required for entrepreneurial passion to develop. Instead, pull entrepreneurship increases self-efficacy and assists the individual to develop the skills typical of an entrepreneur. This instills individual self-efficacy beliefs, which in turn are prerequisites for passion to grow. As such, this research uncovers a skill-based explanation of how founder passion develops.

  • 39.
    Dana, Léo - Paul
    et al.
    Montpellier Business School.
    Dabić, Marina
    University of Zagreb & Nottingham Trent University.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Food Organization Matters: Paradoxes, problems and potentialities with Rangifer tarandus, traditional food for Inuit and Sámi2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aboriginal Inuit of the Arctic Canada and indigenous Sámi of Fennoscandia hold onto cultural values such as sourcing traditional food from their land; these peoples still live – at least partially – in a subsistence economy. Both were traditionally nomadic, and nowadays, Inuit travel to hunt, while Sámi reindeer herders still follow their herds during periods required. Given their lifestyle, nomadic patters, work values, ethics, natural adaptation, and the central tenet of their food production and eating habits, both of these societies constitute an interesting case about self-employment, subsistence, food production and organization – including food-sharing by which income is voluntarily distributed according to custom, to the needy. However, much remains to be known about how they adapt to problems and engage in these matters. Whereas quantitative methods best answer why questions, we opt for a qualitative approach that is better suited to how questions. In a qualitative study, we observe the preservation of and respect for traditional knowledge and competencies. Community entrepreneurs organize their society with a high level of respect, networking, and reducing economic risk. We also identify tension between mainstream and traditional culture in the framing process, and how different types of frames were used to develop consensus around their core cultural food. We show and identify a process model of how the Inuit and Sámi communities engaged in frames and framing to develop consensus through self-respect of traditional knowledge, but to adjust and influence challenges to their historical culture.  

  • 40. Drnovsek, M.
    et al.
    Singh, J.
    Cardon, M.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Self-efficacy in entrepreneurship: a critical review and reconceptualization2004In: Academy of Management 2004 Meeting, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Drnovsek, Mateja
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Who, what and when to cope with role stress?: coping strategies used by entrepreneurs in new ventures2008In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2007: Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Andrew Zacharakis, Babson College Center , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a self regulation perspective to argue that entrepreneurial effectiveness is driven by the coping strategies entrepreneurs use to meet expectations of stakeholders involved in the opportunity exploitation processes. As stakeholders advance their expectations and thus impact the roles of entrepreneurs in the process, role related conflicts, ambiguities and overloads, easily emerge. To resolve such conflicts entrepreneurs engage in coping strategies. We posit that four coping strategies are relevant for entrepreneurial effectiveness: structural role redefinition, personal role redefinition, reactive role behavior, and passive role behavior.

  • 42.
    Drnovšek, Mateja
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Cardon, Melissa S.
    Pace University, Pleasantville, New York.
    Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and business start-up: developing a multi-dimensional definition2010In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 329-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to: critically review and identify gaps in current literature on entrepreneurial self-efficacy, provide a definition of entrepreneurial self-efficacy that addresses some of those gaps, and explore the role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy during the phases of a business start-up process. The research seeks to define entrepreneurial self-efficacy using three sources of dimensionality. The first includes the particular aspect of entrepreneurship to which self-efficacy is applied, whether to business start-up or business growth activities. The second sources of dimensionality refers to the content of self-efficacy beliefs (task or outcome goal beliefs), and the third source to the valence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy beliefs (positive or negative control beliefs). Design/methodology/approach: The authors build from the origins and mechanisms of the self-efficacy construct in social cognitive theory and a synthesis of that work with prior use of self-efficacy in entrepreneurship to propose a definition of entrepreneurial self-efficacy that is context specific and empirically testable. Findings: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy is best seen as a multidimensional construct made up of goal and control beliefs, and propositions for how these two different dimensions will play a role during phases in the process of starting-up a new business are developed. Research limitations/implications: A well-defined entrepreneurial self-efficacy construct has significant pedagogical payoffs given that entrepreneurship education should also focus on social-cognitive, psycho-cognitive and ethical perspectives of entrepreneurship. Originality/value: The proposed multidimensional nature of self-efficacy is original and unique in its contribution, and provides a conceptual foundation to understand how capabilities along different dimensions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy are created and nurtured. This knowledge is useful for potential entrepreneurs as well as those who support them in the process.

  • 43.
    Drnovšek, Mateja
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    The effectiveness of coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and their impact on personal well-being and venture performance2010In: Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci : ÄRasopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu, ISSN 1331-8004, E-ISSN 1846-7520, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 193-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes effectiveness of coping strategies that entrepreneurs use to daily manage work related stress. Coping is the process of expending efforts to solve personal and interpersonal problems and reducing stress induced by unpleasant and stressful situations. Two broad strategies of coping are identified; problem-based coping refers to a cognitively-based response behavior that includes efforts to alleviate stressful circumstances while emotion-based coping involves behavioral responses to regulate the affective consequences of stressful events. The purpose of this research is to analyze relationships among the coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and a set of antecedents influencing the selection of coping strategies. The methodology used is based on structural equation modeling and empirical data of 469 entrepreneurs from two European countries. Our results show that problembased coping facilitates well-being and venture performance. In addition, our findings also support interaction effects of founder centrality and contextual conditions of venturing on the extent entrepreneurs engage in coping. We believe that our insights can help in training entrepreneurs in the development of effective coping strategies that are context dependent. In specific, our results suggest entrepreneurs to engage in problem-focused strategies when they want to effectively address the economic aspects of their lives whereas when they engage in emotionbased strategies they seem to increase the self-knowledge they need to start subsequent ventures and facilitate learning from failure. Future studies on coping strategies could study the interplay of coping strategies used to resolve challenging social situations that various stakeholders of practicing entrepreneurs impose.

  • 44.
    Einola, Suvi
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, Department of Management,.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of Vaasa, Department of Management.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of Vaasa, Department of Management.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Hanken School of Economics.
    Retrospective relational sensemaking in R&D offshoring2017In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 63, p. 205-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the increasing relational challenges in international R&D collaboration, the present study develops a framework for understanding retrospective relational sensemaking in R&D offshore relationships. Using a comparative case study methodology, this study analyzes relational data from 56 interviews regarding four R&D offshore relationships between two large Swedish multinational companies and four R&D offshore partners. This study contributes to existing sensemaking theory by constructing a framework for retrospective relational sensemaking, including triggers and the phases of enactment, selection, and retention, to improve relational learning in R&D offshore relationships.

  • 45.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Critical success factors in early new product development: a review and a conceptual model2018In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 411-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on the front end in the New Product Development (NPD) literature is fragmented with respect to the identification and analysis of the factors that are critical to successful product development. The article has a two-fold purpose. First, it describes, analyses, and synthesizes those factors through a literature review of the research on the front end in NPD. Second, it conceptualizes a framework that features two types of success factors: foundational success factors (common to all the firm’s projects) and project-specific success factors (appropriate for the firm’s individual projects). The article makes recommendations for the management of this important phase of product development, discusses limitations of relevant previous research, and offers suggestions for future research. The article makes a theoretical contribution with its analysis and synthesis of the reasons for success in front-end activities and a practical contribution with its conceptual framework that can be used as an analytical tool by firms and their product managers.

  • 46.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Floren, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Beyond managing uncertainty: insights from studying equivocality in the fuzzy front end of product and process innovation projects2011In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown uncertainty reduction to be critical in the fuzzy front end of the innovation process, but little attention has been given to the equally important concept of equivocality, although it is a defining characteristic of many front-end projects. To address this research gap, this paper report the results from a longitudinal, multiple case study of four large companies oriented to both product and process innovation. First, our results show that both uncertainty and equivocality is more effectively reduced in successful front-end projects than in unsuccessful ones. Second, the negative consequences of equivocality appear more critical to front-end performance than the consequences following uncertainty. Third, our results show that uncertainty and equivocality are reduced sequentially in successful projects and simultaneously in unsuccessful projects. Finally, uncertainty and equivocality takes longer time to reduce in process innovation projects than in product innovation projects, which is a consequence of the systemic nature of process innovation. Altogether, these findings provide strong implications for managing front-end projects more proficiently.

  • 47.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Florén, Henrik
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Patterns of uncertainty and equivocality during predevelopment: findings from process-based firms2009In: IAMOT 2009: 18th International Conference on Management of Technology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature suggests that innovation managers should prioritize uncertainty reduction in early phases of innovation projects. When uncertainty is high, the general prediction is negative consequences in the form of time-delays, waste of resources, unclear team vision and, ultimately, concept failure. There are strong reasons to believe, however, that simultaneous management of equivocality is equally important, but this concept has largely been neglected in previous research. By means of a case-study relying upon exploratory interviews addressing unique observations of 58 innovation projects, we notice that the perhaps most significant challenge for being successful or not is not the initial levels of uncertainty. Rather, it is managerial attempts to actively fight for reducing uncertainty but also addressing the equivocality dimension in the pre-development stages of the innovation process. We observe reduced patterns of uncertainty and equivocality in successful product innovation and process innovation projects in pre-development stages. This was not the case for unsuccessful projects. Similarly, we find significantly lower levels of equivocality for successful projects, which is a contribution to prior research suggesting that uncertainty is the major concern during predevelopment. Moreover, our results show that perceived patterns of uncertainty and equivocality differ between product innovation and process innovation projects in different sub-phases of pre-development. Key results are summarized as propositions which not only provide guidance for future research, but also provide direct managerial implications on how to address uncertainty and equivocality in different sub-phases of predevelopment.

  • 48.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Framtidens Produktframtagning i Svenska Företag: Trender, Implikationer och Reflektioner2014Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Framtidens produktframtagningsprocess i svenska företag: Vilka trender påverkar mest och hur behöver företagen förändra sina utvecklingsprocesser?2013In: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2001-208X, no 3, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Gama, Fábio
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Luleå University of Technology.
    Parida, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Untangling capabilities for managing the front end of innovationIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the vital and often underemphasized front end of innovation. It aims to explore how firms utilize organizational capabilities to manage multiple sources of fuzziness (uncertainty, equivocality, and complexity). In so doing, we use the capability- and knowledge-based view to examine the use of firms’ capabilities to navigate the front end process from vague ideas towards corroborated product definition. In our qualitative case of seven manufacturing firms, we explore practices, methods, and routines for managing the front end. We explain that new product ideas can be classified according to different degrees of fuzziness, which implies that not all product ideas can or should be treated in the same way. In fact, certain capabilities are more important for managing the development of ideas at low (i.e. process management and idea refinement) and high (problem formulation and problem solution) levels of fuzziness. Ultimately, we suggest a theoretical framework that elucidates how firms use two distinct paths (i.e. tolerance-based or reduction-based) to transform early new product ideas into corroborated product definitions. In doing so, our results guide project members in matching the magnitude of knowledge problems with organizational capabilities and thereby increase front-end performance.

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