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  • 1. Arason, Magnús
    et al.
    Collin, Peter
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Strengthening of steel girder bridges using coiled pins2019In: Proceedings from the 2019 IABSE Congress New York City: The Evolving Metropolis, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A requirement for heavier vehicular transport on the Norwegian road network has resulted in a demand forincreased bearing capacity for many of the older bridges in the country. Many of the bridges that have beenfound to have insufficient capacity against present-day demands are steel girder bridges with concrete slabswithout a shear connection between steel and concrete. There is a large number of bridges of this type inNorway and the paper presents strengthening of two of those, in Aust-Agder county in the south of thecountry. These bridges are approximately 30 m long, single span. The bearing capacity has been upgraded byinstalling composite action between the steel girders and the concrete slab using coiled pins, in conjunctionwith thickening of the bottom flange of the steel girders. To obtain composite action, the pins are fitted totightly drilled holes through the top flange of girders up into the concrete slab. Coiled pins have not been usedmuch for bridge applications. In the work presented, the method has been found to have advantages in termsof cost and workability. Furthermore, the method has benefits when viewed from an environmentalstandpoint, since it allows strengthening

  • 2.
    Breisand, Sigmund
    et al.
    Breisand Konsult.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Tidig samverkan gav bättre samverkansbroar2012In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, Vol. 3, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Collin, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Häggström, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    International workshop on strengthening of steel/composite bridges2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European infrastructure is rapidly aging, and steel/composite bridges are noexception to the rule. With thousands of older steel/composite bridges, there is ademand of rational methods to strengthen the older bridges to compensate not onlyfor their age, but also for higher loads and new codes, of which perhaps the newfatigue rules for highway bridges in EC3-2 will be the hardest to meet.Within the frames of the European R&D project Prolife (RFCS-CT-2015-00025) aworkshop was arranged in Stockholm September 28th 2015. Bridge owners,designers and researchers from 12 countries participated, and the similaritiesbetween the countries as well as the variety of technical solutions were highlighted.The contributions are presented in this report and the organizers want to thank allparticipants for making this seminar successful.

  • 4.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Composite Bridges: Innovative ways of achieving composite action2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis is steel-concrete composite bridges and innovative ways of achieving composite action. The typical superstructure consists of three main components: the steel girders, the concrete deck slab and the shear connectors. The latter connects the steel and the concrete parts to each other, which enables a design where the parts are assumed to act as one structural member, the composite beam.

    The research presented in this thesis is primarily focused on different construction- and strengthening-methods, developed to reduce the impact on the road users, mainly by reducing the time spent on the construction site and the need of traffic restrictions.

    The prefabricated steel girders give composite bridges some advantages in the construction stage, in comparison to the more common in-situ cast concrete bridges, since the girders can be launched or lifted into their final positions. Such an installation procedure is often favourable in case of crossings over roads, railways, rivers etc., since it minimizes the impact on the citizens using the infrastructure below the bridges and the need of temporary supports. In order to shorten the time spent on the construction site and to reduce the impact on the road users even more, prefabrication of the concrete deck can also be considered.

    In this thesis, a review of different prefabrication techniques for composite bridges is presented, along with a study of one specific prefabrication concept that reduces the need of in-situ cast deck joints. This concept, with prefabricated concrete deck elements with dry joints, utilizes concrete shear keys to transfer shear forces over the transverse deck joints, while in-situ cast joints are used for the longitudinal connection between the steel girders and the concrete deck slab.

    The structural behaviour of composite bridges with dry deck joints has been investigated by large scale beam tests, along with field measurements on a composite bridge built with this prefabrication concept. The load capacity of the shear keys has also been investigated by laboratory tests. The test results have been compared to numerical analyses and different design models, with the aim of developing design recommendations.

    The results indicate that this type of bridges do not behave as conventional composite bridges with in-situ cast deck slabs. For single span bridges, which only experience positive bending moments, the structural behaviour in the ultimate limit state is close to the structural behaviour of conventional composite bridges. However, the degree of composite action is strongly reduced at lower load levels. This should be taken into account in the design in the fatigue- and the serviceability-limit states. Sections under negative bending moments behave in general as non-composite sections, which was expected due to the dry deck joints.

    Based on the evaluation of the test results and the state -of-the-art review, design recommendations and design criteria are presented, along with production and execution recommendations for this type of prefabricated bridges.

    Strengthening of existing bridges is another activity that often leads to traffic restrictions, which causes costs and troubles for the road users and the society. One method for strengthening non-composite steel-concrete bridges is post-installation of shear connectors, to create composite action. The composite cross-section has a larger stiffness and bending capacity, implying that a larger traffic load often can be allowed. It must however also be assured that other structural parts do not limit the load capacity of the structure.

    There are several different types of shear connectors that can be used for post-installation, and some are more suitable than others. This thesis presents a state-of-the-art review on post-installed shear connectors in general and Coiled Spring Pins in particular. The latter is an interference fit connector that can be installed from below the bridge, with no or minor impact on the traffic on the bridge.

    The behaviour of Coiled Spring Pins, used as shear connectors in composite bridges, has been investigated by experimental methods. Push-out tests have been used to study the static strength and the fatigue lifetime, while field monitoring of a real bridge structure has been used to study the behaviour on a structural level. The tests results have been evaluated and design criteria and design recommendations have been suggested.

    The static tests and the following analysis show that Coiled Spring Pins are a very ductile type of shear connector, with a slightly different load-deformation behaviour than headed shear studs. The static strength of the shear connection shows a quite small spread even when different parameters are varied quite a lot. The performed fatigue tests in dicate a fatigue strength that are somewhat lower than headed studs, in terms of detail category, while previous test series by other researchers indicate a higher fatigue strength than headed studs. It can be noted that there is a large scatter between the results from different test series, performed by different researchers. The reasons to this scatter are discussed in the thesis and a conservative fatigue design criterion is presented.

    The results from the field monitoring indicate that a bridge strengthened with Coiled Spring Pins behaves as a composite structure and that the Coiled Spring Pins reduce the slip significantly. The analysis of the test results shows that a design assuming full composite action, with rigid shear connection, describes the measured behaviour in a good way.

    Based on the state-of-the-art review and the different tests performed, design recommendations and criteria are presented, along with production and execution recommendations for post-installation of Coiled Spring Pins.

  • 5.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Prefabricated composite bridges: a study of dry deck joints2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with prefabricated composite bridges in general, and prefabricated concrete deck elements with dry joints in particular.As outlined in Paper I and Chapter 2 prefabrication has several advantages over in situ construction, and has hence been discussed for decades in the construction business. Further, the house building sector has taken large steps towards a more industrialized approach, in which prefabrication, lean thinking and Building Information Modelling (BIM) are all important components. Numerous studies have also examined the applicability of such an approach in the bridge sector, and several types of prefabrication techniques have been tested. Nevertheless, in many countries the bridge sector seems to lag far behind in the general shift towards more industrialized construction processes. One of the reasons for the relatively slow progress may be the fact that bridges are often unique objects with unique specifications and constraints. This hinders the standardisation that is often regarded as a key to industrialised construction.Chapter 2-3 and Paper I, presents evidence from a literature review together with information gathered from a Workshop, attended by bridge designers and researcher in Europe and the US, that prefabricated deck elements are still quite rarely used in bridge construction. Deck elements with dry transverse joints are even rarer. Few examples have been reported. In addition, the degree of prefabrication and the rate of progress towards more industrialised construction processes seem to vary substantially from one country to another.However, as described in Chapter 3 and Paper II, a prefabricated concrete deck element system with dry joints has been developed in Sweden for constructing composite bridges. The transverse joints are completely dry, and all forces are transferred by contact pressure between concrete surfaces. This implies that no tensional forces can be transferred over the transverse joints. Shear forces are transferred by overlapping concrete shear keys, designed as a series of male-female connections. The research presented in this thesis is focused on the structural behaviour of this deck element system. In order to investigate this, laboratory tests have been performed as well as field monitoring.Results of large-scale laboratory tests, presented in Chapter 4 and Paper V, show that a bridge of this type is less stiff than a similar bridge with an insitu cast deck slab. The concrete elements’ contributions to stiffness are negligible in sections with hogging moments, but make some contribution to global stiffness in sections with sagging moments. At moderate load levels, the interacting concrete area is much smaller than in a similar in-situ cast section. This is believed to be due to the combined effects of small gaps in the joints and continuous in-situ cast concrete in the injection channels.After the channels have been injected, existing gaps will be more or less permanent, since the in-situ cast concrete must be compressed up to a certain limit before the rest of the joint will be closed. Destructive testing showed that the differences in stiffness and stresses between a deck of this type and an in-situ cast bridge deck are much smaller in the ultimate limit state. In this case it could even be reasonable to design a cross-section according to Eurocodes, neglecting effects of the joints.As shown in Chapter 5 and Paper III, the overlapping shear keys are a critical detailing in this deck system. Therefore, they were tested in the laboratory to determine how they fail and evaluate their load capacity. The tests revealed two failure modes. The first is a rather ductile failure, activating the shear reinforcement. This was the expected failure mode for shear keys of this design. The second failure mode observed was a quite brittle failure in the concrete covering layer. It has only been observed in small-scale tests, and might be related to the test set-up. Nevertheless, overlapping of the rebars in the male-female shear key connection is strongly recommended to assure the robustness of shear transfer if failure occurs in the concrete covering layer.To complement the laboratory tests, a single span bridge was monitored in the field (Chapter 6 and Paper IV). The bridge was built in 2000, using the prefabricated deck system that this thesis is focusing on, and was tested in both 2001 and 2011. The tests, and subsequent Finite Element analyses, showed that under moderate loading the interacting concrete area is smaller than for a similar in-situ cast bridge. No significant long-term effects were observed, except that under eccentric loading the distribution of the deflection between the girders decreased slightly during the 10 years between tests. This indicates that the joint gaps may have narrowed and at least partly closed during this time.Chapter 7 summarises the research and presents recommendations for dealing with general issues related to the design and construction of a bridge of this type. The design methods are generally the same as for a conventional composite bridge with an in-situ cast deck slab. However, the Eurocodes require some modification for the design of prefabricated deck elements with dry joints, particularly regarding global analysis and the resistance of cross-sections. Finally, conclusions, a general discussion and suggestions for further research are presented in Chapter 8.

  • 6.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Ramböll, Luleå, Sweden.
    Post-Installed Shear Connectors: Monitoring a Bridge Strengthened with Coiled Spring Pins2019In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic density and vehicle weight have been increasing over time, which implies that many existing road bridges were not designed for the high service loads and increased number of load cycles that they are subjected to today. One way to increase the traffic load capacity of non-composite steel–concrete bridges is to post-install shear connectors. This paper presents a study of a steel–concrete bridge that has been strengthened with post-installed coiled spring pins, a type of connector which can be installed from below while the bridge is still in service. The strengthening method and design procedure are presented, along with the results from field monitoring performed to evaluate the behaviour of the strengthened structure. The results from the strengthened and non-strengthened sections show that the coiled spring pins counteract the slip and increases the degree of composite action. Finite-element models of the field tests were created in order to compare the results using different design assumptions and establish a suitable level of detail for modelling the shear connectors.

  • 7.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Ramboll, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hicks, Stephen J.
    Heavy Engineering Research Association, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Post-installed shear connectors: Fatigue push-out tests of coiled spring pins2019In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 153, p. 298-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of heavy vehicles and their weight have been increasing over time, implying that many bridges are experiencing traffic loads with higher magnitude and frequency than they were originally designed for. In some cases, it will be necessary to either replace or strengthen the structures to keep the bridges in service. For existing non-composite steel girder bridges, post-installation of shear connectors can often be used to increase the traffic load capacity significantly. One type of shear connector that is suitable for post-installation, even though not commonly used, is the Coiled Spring Pin. These interference fit connectors can be installed from below the bridge deck during traffic, in order to minimize the impact on road users. This paper describes an experimental study on the fatigue strength of Coiled Spring Pins and a compilation of previously performed fatigue tests on this type of connector. The new test series, with nine specimens, are evaluated statistically and a fatigue strength design equation is proposed. The results show that there are large variations between different test series, while tests within the same series show good agreement. The reasons for this are discussed in the paper along with recommendations for future testing.

  • 8.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå, Sweden.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Ramboll, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hicks, Stephen J.
    Heavy Engineering Research Association, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Post-installed Shear Connectors: Push-out Tests of Coiled Spring Pins vs. Headed Studs2019In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 161, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steadily increasing traffic volumes and traffic loads lead to a continuously growing demand for bridge rehabilitation, strengthening and replacement projects. For existing steel girder bridges with non-composite concrete decks, the traffic load capacity can often be increased significantly if composite action can be created afterwards. Different kinds of shear connectors are more or less suitable for post-installation. Coiled spring pins are one type of interference fit connector that can be installed from below the bridge deck during traffic, in order to minimize the impact on road users. This paper describes an experimental study on the static capacity and stiffness of coiled spring pins used as shear connectors at steel-concrete interfaces. Six push-out test series are presented, with a total of 28 tests, together with an alternative type of test set-up. The results show that the failure of the coiled spring pins is very ductile and that the load capacity is predictable and sufficient for a cost-effective application. The tests also indicate a significantly lower stiffness of the connectors in comparison to welded headed studs of similar dimensions, which might be of great importance if an existing shear connection is strengthened.

  • 9.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Ramböll, Luleå.
    Möller, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SSESAB, Luleå/Helsingborg.
    Testing of coiled spring pins as shear connectors2017In: IABSE Symposium, Vancouver, 2017: Engineering the Future, Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering , 2017, p. 1209-1216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A few decades ago, steel-concrete composite bridges were quite rare structures, whereas steel girder bridges with non-composite concrete decks were rather common. For the latter type of structure, composite action can be obtained long after the bridges were constructed by post installation of shear connectors. Most installation procedures involve reconstruction of pavement and concrete deck, which will result in traffic disturbance. There are however some types of shear connectors that can be installed from underneath, connecting the top flanges to the concrete deck, without affecting the upper surface. This means that the bridge can be strengthened during traffic. One type of such a shear connector is the coiled spring pin, which is an interference fit connector. This paper presents the results from push-out tests conducted in order to find the static capacity and the load-slip behaviour of coiled spring pins used as shear connectors.

  • 10.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Möller, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    The behaviour of a prefabricated composite bridge with dry deck joints2013In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the monitoring of a one-span composite bridge in northern Sweden. The bridge was built in 2000, with prefabricated deck elements connected to steel girders, and the back walls as well as the piers were also prefabricated. The monitoring was required to clarify the doubts regarding whether a bridge with dry deck joints can be expected to perform as a conventional composite bridge, with in situ cast deck and sections with sagging moments. To get a better understanding of the long-term structural behaviour, the bridge was monitored both during 2001 and 2011, instrumented with equipment measuring the deflections and strains in the steel cross section. The bridge was loaded with a truck in midspan having a total weight of 25 t. When the truck was centred between the girders, the results showed a symmetric behaviour, with respect to deflections and stresses. For the case with the truck stationed right above one of the steel girders, anti-symmetric behaviour was observed and studied by means of finite element calculations, taking into account the stiffness of the composite section as well as the end screens and the earth pressure below them.

  • 11.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A study of concrete shear keys in prefabricated bridges with dry deck joints2011In: Nordic Concrete Research: Proceedings of the XXI Nordic Concrete Symposium, Hämeenlinna, Finland 2011, Oslo: The Nordic Concrete Federation , 2011, p. 495-499Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Concrete shear keys in prefabricated bridges with dry deck joints2011In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 2011, no 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prefabricated concrete deck with dry joints between deck elements has been developed to make prefabricated bridges even more competitive. This type of bridge deck has been used on single span bridges in Sweden, and is now under development for multi span bridges. This paper describes how the deck system works. Results from laboratory tests of shear keys between deck elements are also presented together with an analysis comparing the predicted capacity with the measured failure load.

  • 13.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Large-scale tests on a composite bridge with prefabricated concrete deck and dry deck joints2013In: Stahlbau, ISSN 0038-9145, E-ISSN 1437-1049, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 122-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the large-scale tests on a composite bridge with prefabricated deck elements and dry joints between the elements. The work is part of the European R&D project ELEM (RFCS-CT-2008-00039). This type of bridge has been used for three single-span bridges in Sweden and has contributed to minimizing construction time as well as disturbance to traffi c. The behaviour at midspan and the behaviour over an internal support of a continuous bridge were studied in the tests, and the results analysed by FEM and discussed. Conclusions regarding the design of this type of bridge are drawn, with respect to the global analysis as well as cross-section capacity.

  • 14.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Prefabricated composite bridges2009In: Sustainable Infrastructure: environment friendly, safe and resource efficient ; proceedings of IABSE symposium, Bangkok, Thailand, Sept. 9 - 11, 2009 / [ed] Mahāvidyālăy Culālaṅkărṇ, Zürich: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2009, p. 282-283Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Trafikverket, Luleå.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Ramböll, Luleå.
    Petersson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Andersson, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Monitoring of a bridge strengthened with post-installed coiled spring pins2017In: IABSE Symposium, Vancouver, 2017: Engineering the Future, Zürich, Switzerland: IABSE - International Association for Bridges and Structural Engineering , 2017, p. 1201-1208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many existing bridges were not originally designed for the traffic loads and the number of load cycles which they now experience. In order to increase the load capacity of non-composite steel-concrete bridges, post installed shear connectors can be used. This paper describes a field monitoring of a steel-concrete bridge which have been strengthened with post-installed coiled spring pins as shear connectors. During the monitoring, the bridge was loaded with a 31 tonnes truck placed in specific positions while strains were measured in the steel main girders, together with the horizontal slip at the steel-concrete interface. The results indicate that the coiled spring pins prevent the slip and that they can be used for strengthening purpose. It is also observed that the friction in the steel-concrete interface can contribute quite a lot to the composite action, even though that effect cannot be accounted for in the design.

  • 16.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Petursson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johansson, Bernt
    Simulation of low-cycle fatigue in integral abutment piles2007In: Improving Infrastructure Worldwide: IABSE symposium, Weimar 2007, [September 19 - 21, 2007] ; report / [ed] Ulrike Kuhlmann, Zürich: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integral abutment bridges are bridges without any expansion joints, and their largest benefits are the lower construction- and maintenance costs. In order to build longer integral bridges it might be necessary to allow plastic hinges to be developed in the piles. Lateral thermal movements are the major reason to plastic deformations, and since temperature variations are cyclic it has to be proved that low-cycle fatigue will not occur. A simulation of the pile strain spectra should be able to take into account the strains caused by temperature variations and traffic loads. Such a model has been created from real temperature data and traffic loads measured by Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion technology. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to simulate daily and annual temperature changes as well as the varying traffic loads. Piles strains have been calculated, and their fatigue effect has been evaluated.

  • 17. Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Stoltz, A.
    Innovative prefabricated composite bridges2009In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 69-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitiveness of composite bridges depends on different circumstances such as site conditions, local costs of material and staff, and the experience of the contractor. Two major advantages of composite bridges compared to concrete bridges are the ability of the steel girders to carry the weight of the formwork and the fresh concrete, and the shorter construction time which not only saves money for the contractor but even more for the road users. A further step is to prefabricate not only the steel girders, but also the concrete deck. In this paper, a new concept for composite bridges is described, with dry joints between the prefabricated concrete elements. The principal of the technique is presented, as well as some laboratory test simulating the load situation at an internal support in a multi-span bridge. Also, some experiences from an already built single span composite bridge with dry joints are presented.

  • 18.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Jackson, Paul
    Ramböll (formerly Gifford), Southampton.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Post-installed shear connectors: coiled spring pins2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 1227-1234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many existing bridges were not originally designed for the traffic loads and the number of load cycles which they now experience. In order to increase the load capacity of steel-concrete bridges, post installed shear connectors can be used. This paper presents a state-of the art study of postinstalled shear connectors in general and coiled spring connectors in particular

  • 19.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Jackson, Paul
    Ramboll, Ringwood Rd., Woodlands, Netley Marsh, Southampton, UK.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Ramboll, Ringwood Rd., Woodlands, Netley Marsh, Southampton, UK.
    White, Harry
    New York State Dept. of Transportation, Albany, NY.
    Strengthening Bridges with Postinstalled Coiled Spring Pin Shear Connectors: State-of-the-Art Review2019In: Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ISSN 1084-0680, E-ISSN 1943-5576, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 03118001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many existing bridge structures experience much more significant loads and load cycles than were anticipated when the bridges were originally designed. An effective way to increase the load capacity and fatigue resistance of steel girder with non-composite concrete deck bridge structures is to retrofit the structure with shear connectors to create a composite girder-deck structure. This paper presents a state-of the art study of post-installed shear connectors in general and coiled spring connectors in particular. The strengthening method is described together with experiences from real bridge strengthening projects, along with a study of load capacity and structural behavior.

  • 20.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    White, Harry
    New York State Department of Transportation, Albany, NY.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Prefabricated bridge construction across Europe and America2012In: Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ISSN 1084-0680, E-ISSN 1943-5576, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the most efficient and economical way to build a new or replacement bridge is not as straightforward a process as it once was. The total cost of a bridge project is not limited to the amount spent on concrete, steel, and labor. Construction activities disrupt the typical flow of traffic around the project and results in additional costs to the public in the form of longer wait times, additional mileage traveled to get around the work zone, or business lost attributable to customers avoiding the construction. The risk of injury to workers because of traffic interactions or construction activities increase with each hour spent at the construction site. Finding a way to shorten the time spent on the jobsite is beneficial to the contractor, the owner, and the traveling public. Prefabricating certain bridge elements reduces the time spent at the construction site and reduces the effects on the road users and the surrounding community. For example, steel beams with composite concrete decks reduce the construction time over cast-in-place concrete superstructures. In some instances, entire structures have been fabricated off-site under strict environmental and quality controls and then shipped to the site and erected in a matter of days instead of months. The total cost of using prefabricated bridge elements (PBE) depends greatly on the scale of the prefabrication. The more that prefabrication is used, the lower the costs. Even under limited use, however, prefabrication is usually comparable to traditional construction techniques. However, when durability and user costs are taken into account, the overall cost may be significantly less than traditional pieceby-piece construction. To improve the competitiveness of prefabricated composite bridges, a European research and development project, ELEM RFSR-CT-2008-00039, was started in 2008. The overall objective of the project is to make prefabricated bridges more competitive through development of new cost-effective, time-efficient, and sustainable bridge structures. The project has started with a knowledge extension, in the form of the workshop on “Composite Bridges with Prefabricated Deck Elements.” This workshop was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in March 2009 to share the knowledge and experience gained by agencies around the globe. During the workshop, experiences from Europe and the United States were presented in an effort to promote the use of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) and prefabricated bridge elements.

  • 21.
    Lundmark, Tore
    et al.
    Ramböll, Luleå.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Dahlman, Lars
    Trafikverket, Eskilstuna.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Upgrading of an old railway bridge: the Old Årsta Bridge2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 624-631Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The old Årsta Bridge, a double track railway bridge with a main span carried by a truss arch, was opened in 1929. Due to high fatigue loading and the low ductility of the rail girders and the cross girders, it was decided to replace the bridge deck in year 2015. This paper describes the project from the design stage to the reopening of the upgraded bridge.

  • 22.
    Pipinato, Alessio
    et al.
    AP& P srl, Rovigo, Italy.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Prolonging the Lifetime of Old Steel and Steel–Concrete Bridges: Assessment Procedures and Retrofitting Interventions2019In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 29, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural analysis of existing bridges is not widely covered by the various codes and standards, resulting in the insecure and, in some cases, critical condition of this type of structure. Regarding national regulation, few states include compulsory codes that define the methods and procedures of inspection, assessment, maintenance and retrofitting of bridges. Although an accurate retrofitting procedure can prolong the life of an existing bridge, the more accurate management of national infrastructure assets can result in financial savings in the long term. This article deals with: (a) the assessment step-level procedure, (b) suggestions for bridge load tests and bridge categories, (c) bridge material analysis, (d) structural testing analysis, and (e) the main retrofitting interventions to prolong the life of existing steel and steel composite bridges. Furthermore, a representative case study is analysed and discussed, including examples of the retrofitting solutions implemented to prolong the service life of the bridge.

  • 23.
    Tholstrup, M.
    et al.
    MT Höjgaard a/s.
    Nielsen, J.P.
    MT Höjgaard a/s.
    Nilsson, M.
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Railway bridge over Södertälje Canal, Sweden2011In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability, ISSN 1478-4637, E-ISSN 1751-7664, Vol. 164, no 3, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new railway bridge project over Södertälje Canal comprises the replacement of the 80 year old bridge, which has reached the end of its useful life. The new bridge consists of a main lifting span section spanning 57 m over the canal and two 70 m approach spans, one on each side of the main bridge. In total, the bridge is 229.5 m long. The main lifting section is a steel truss bridge structure and is capable of opening when large ships pass under. Normal elevation free height is 26.7 m and the top elevation is approximately 40.5 m. The approach spans are composite bridges with a main steel box girder and an in situ cast concrete top plate

  • 24.
    Thulstrup, Michael B.
    et al.
    MT Höjgaard a/s.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hällmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nielsen, Jens P.
    Promecon a/s.
    Design, fabrication and construction of railway bridge over Södertälje canal2009In: Nordic Steel Construction Conference: Proceedings : September 2.-4., 2009, Malmö, Sweden, Stockholm: Stålbyggnadsinstitutet , 2009, p. 128-137Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Collin, Peter (Editor)
    Hällmark, Robert (Editor)
    Nilsson, Martin (Editor)
    International workshop on prefabricated composite bridges2009Report (Other academic)
1 - 25 of 25
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