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  • 1.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gustafsson, Per
    SWECO Energuide AB.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    LKAB.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability and measurement accuracy of a condition monitoring system in an extreme climate: a case study of automatic laser scanning of wheel profiles2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 695-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) is a 473 km long track section located in northern Sweden and has been in operation since 1903. This track section stretches through two countries, namely Sweden and Norway, and the main part of the track runs on the Swedish side, where the owner is the Swedish Government and the infrastructure manager is Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration). The ore trains are owned and managed by the freight operator and mining company LKAB. Due to the high axle load exerted by transportation of the iron ore, 30 tonnes, and the high demand for a constant flow of ore and pellets, the track and wagons must be monitored and maintained on a regular basis. The condition of the wagon wheel is one of the most important aspects in this connection, and here the wheel profile plays an important role. For this reason an automatic laser-based wheel profile monitoring system (WPMS) has been installed on this line using a system lifecycle approach that is based on the reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) approach for railways. The system was prepared and installed and is being operated in a collaborative project between the freight operator and infrastructure manager. The measurements are used to diagnose the condition of the wheels, and to further optimize their maintenance. This paper presents a study of the concepts and ideas of the WPMS, and the selection, installation and validation of the equipment using a system lifecycle approach that is based on RAMS for railways. Results from the profile measurements and validation are shown. The system’s reliability during performance in extreme climate conditions, with severe cold and large quantities of snow, is presented. Then the benefits, perceived challenges and acquired knowledge of the system are discussed, and an improved V-model for the lifecycle approach is presented.

  • 2.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A study of railway wheel profile parameters used as indicators of an increased risk of wheel defects2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity demands on the railways will increase in the future, as well as the demands for a robust and available system. The availability of the railway system is dependent on the condition of the infrastructure and the rolling stock. To inspect the rolling stock and to prevent damage to the track due to faulty wheels, infrastructure managers normally install wayside monitoring systems along the track. Such systems indicate, for example, wheels that fall outside the defined safety limits and have to be removed from service to prevent further damage to the track. Due to the nature of many wayside monitoring systems, which only monitor vehicles at definite points along the track, damage may be induced on the track prior to fault detection at the location of the system. Such damage can entail capacity-consuming speed reductions and manual track inspections before the track can be opened for traffic again. The number of wheel defects must therefore be kept to a minimum. In this paper wheel profile parameters measured by a wayside wheel profile measurement system, installed along the Swedish Iron Ore Line, are examined and related to warning and alarm indications from a wheel defect detector installed on the same line. The study shows that an increased wheel wear, detectable by changes in the wheel profile parameters could be used to reduce the risk of capacity-consuming wheel defect failure events and its reactive measures.

  • 3.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Condition monitoring of rolling stock wheels: approach towards maintenance decision making2014In: 27th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering (COMADEM 2014): 16 - 18 September 2014, Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre, Australia, COMADEM International, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the more or less fixed inherent capacity of a railway system, capacity consuming events like failures within a railway network should be kept to a minimum. This could be achieved by the use of existing and new condition monitoring systems which can detect, report and predict failure events in an early stage. Demands for higher service quality, higher capacity, network availability and track quality together with less human intervention on tracks, drive the development of railway condition monitoring systems.Failure driven capacity consumption due to worn or defected rolling stock wheels have a big impact on the capacity and the infrastructure condition. Wheel defects such as out-of-round wheels, generates high forces, and could result in large capacity consumption especially for areas with cold climate conditions. Bad wheels cause even higher track wear that reduce the life length of the track. Wheels with fatigue defects could also influence the track safety issues. This paper presents how different wheel defects can be monitored; together with a review of the most common wayside condition monitoring systems on the Swedish railway network. The study also describes how the decision making process could take advantage of the condition monitoring data in order to increase the achieved network capacity.

  • 4.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    LKAB.
    Gustafsson, Per
    SWECO.
    Automatic laser scanning of wheel profiles: condition monitoring to achieve greater capacity for existing infrastructure in an extreme climate2013In: Automatic laser scanning of wheel profiles: condition monitoring to achieve greater capacity for existing infrastructure in an extreme climate, India: Indian Railways, the host of 10th IHHA Conferance , 2013, p. 445-451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) is a 473 km long track section located in northern Sweden and has been in operation since 1903. It is mainly used to transport iron ore and pellets from the mines in Kiruna and Malmberget to Narvik Harbour (Norway) in the northwest and Luleå Harbour (Sweden) in the southeast. The track section on the Swedish side is owned by the Swedish Government and managed by Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration), while the ore wagons are owned and managed by the freight operator (LKAB). Due to the high axle load exerted by the iron ore transports, 30 tonnes, and the high demand for a constant ore/pellets flow, the track and wagons must be monitored and maintained on a regular basis. The condition of the wagon wheel profile is one of the most important aspects in this procedure. For this reason an automatic laser-based wheel profile monitoring system has been installed on this line. This system can automatically measure and monitor the wagon wheel profiles at speeds up to 130 km/h. The system was installed and is being operated in a collaboration project between the freight operator and infrastructure manager. The information generated is collected by the e-maintenance personnel at Luleå Railway Research Center (JVTC). The measurements will be used to diagnose the condition of the wheel and rail, and to optimize their maintenance further. This paper presents a study of the selection and the installation of the equipment. Some results from the measurements are shown. The system’s availability during performance in extreme climate conditions, with severe cold and large quantities of snow, is presented. Then the benefits and perceived challenges of the system are discussed. Some potential improvements in rail and wheel maintenance, to achieve more capacity, are analysed.

  • 5.
    Galar, Diego
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Horenbeek, Adriaan Van
    Centre for Industrial management, KU Leuven.
    Printelon, Liliane M.
    Centre for Industrial management, KU Leuven.
    Integration of disparate data sources to perform maintenance prognosis and optimal decision making2012In: Insight (Northampton), ISSN 1354-2575, E-ISSN 1754-4904, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 440-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prognosis can be defined as the course of predicting a failure of equipment or a component in advance, whereas prognostication refers to the act of prediction. The three main branches of condition-based maintenance are diagnosis, prognosis and treatment-prognosis; however, prognosis is admittedly the most difficult. Also, this area has been the least described in literature and the knowledge about it in a maintenance management context is still poorly systematised. To this day, formal professional attention to prognosis, in the field of maintenance management and engineering in the everyday care of machinery, is often relegated to a secondary status, although the availability of prognostic information can considerably improve (for example reduce costs and maximise uptime) the performance of machinery and maintenance processes. Ideally, assessment of a prognosis of remaining useful life should be deliberate and explicit. In order to support the maintenance crew in the achievement of this objective, an increasing amount of prognostic information is available. Over the last decade, system integration has grown in popularity as it allows organisations to streamline business processes. It is necessary to integrate management data from computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) with condition monitoring (CM) systems and finally supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and other control systems, widely used in production but seldom with a usage in asset diagnosis and prognosis. The most obvious obstacle in the integration of these data is the disparate nature of the data types involved; moreover, several attempts to remedy this problem have fizzled out. Although there have been many recent efforts to collect and maintain large repositories of these types of data, there have been relatively few studies to identify the ways these datasets could be related and linked for prognosis and maintenance decision making. After identifying what and how to predict incipient failures and developing a corresponding prognosis, maintenance engineers must consider how to communicate the prediction. In this activity, once again, technicians' psychosocial attributes and values may influence how they discuss prognoses with asset managers. Regardless of whether prognostic assessments are subjective or objective, however, technicians should consider two major points. Firstly, the maintenance crew should clarify in their own minds the link, if any, between their prognostic assessment and their consequent decision making. Secondly, they should consider the ways that they and their assets might benefit from explicitly discussing how the prognostic assessment is linked with diagnostics and preventive maintenance recommendations. These and other steps that maintenance engineers should take in incorporating prognostic information into their decision making are discussed in this paper. The objective is to give an overview of how the integration of disparate data sources, commonly available in industry, can be achieved for maintenance prognosis and optimal decision making.

  • 6.
    Lindsund, Isabelle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Potential reliability improvements for SSAB railway transport2012Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Condition monitoring of railway vehicles: a study on wheel condition for heavy haul rolling stock2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A railway is an energy efficient mode of transport as it uses the low resistance contact between wheel and rail. This contact is not frictionless and causes wear on both surfaces. The wheel-rail guidance is made possible by the shapes of wheel and rail profiles. To increase revenue for train operators and decrease cost for railway infrastructure owners, there is a need to monitor the conditions of the assets. A major cost-driver for operators is the production loss due to wheels, especially from maintenance costs when changing and re-profiling wheels.The research in this study has been performed on the Iron Ore Line (malmbanan) in northern Sweden and Norway. Large parts of this railway line are situated north of the Arctic Circle with temperature variations from -40◦C to +25◦C and a yearly average around freezing. Running trains in this environment strains all components. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how condition-based maintenance should be implemented for railway wagons. Research methods include a literature review, interviews, and data collection and analysis. Manual wheel profile measurements have been combined with maintenance data, weather data and wheel-rail force measurements to make comparisons between seasons and wagons.The analysis shows that there are different lateral force signatures at the wheel-rail interface dependent on the wheel’s position within the bogie. It also shows the need to change both wheel sets of the bogie simultaneously. Finally, it proves there is greater wheel wear at low temperatures.

  • 8.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Condition-based maintenance for effective and efficient rolling stock capacity assurance: A study on heavy haul transport in Sweden2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All businesses need equipment to deliver services or manufacture goods. Over time, this equipment will degrade, but with proper maintenance, the degradation can be controlled, and failed equipment can be restored to operational status. Run-to-failure maintenance is performed when equipment or systems break down. In preventive maintenance, equipment is maintained as a precautionary measure to prevent failure. Finally, condition-based maintenance recommends maintenance actions based on the condition of the asset.The railway is a superior mode of transport if capacity, speed and environment are the main criteria; it also plays a crucial role in heavily crowded regions. The condition of the wheels and the rails affects rail- way safety, and infrastructure regulators and managers are always trying to reduce potential risk areas. The wheel-rail interface triggers most of the cost for maintenance.The railway wagons in this research use a time-based maintenance strategy, a strategy which does not fully consider the actual health of the asset. However, by using condition data from observations, along with diagnostics and prognostics, an effective condition-based maintenance strategy can be planned effectively way and executed efficiently.The results of this research suggest the efficacy of using automatic condition monitoring systems to increase the amount of available data for analysis and maintenance support planning, rather than depending on a system where operators or maintenance personnel do the measurements. The results also indicate that continuous monitoring of lateral forces will decrease the risk of derailment.Condition monitoring data can support maintenance preparation, assessment, and improvements and help to form a continuous improvement loop. This, plus a condition-based maintenance strategy, will lead to capacity assurance.

  • 9.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson, Dan
    Condition monitoring of train wheel wear and track forces: a case study2010In: Proceedings of the 1st international workshop and congress on eMaintenance, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010, p. 241-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major failure modes in the railway industry is wheel wear. Wheel wear affects the dynamic characteristics of vehicles and the dynamic force impact on the rail, and can in worst cases scenario cause derailment. The wheel conditions also influences the wear and required maintenance on the rail. In this paper the correlation of wear rate and dynamic force between wheel and rail is studied to specify the most costeffective wheel maintenance interval. Two cars, total of sixteen wheels, were selected. In order to calculate the wear trend, measurements have been performed, by MiniProfTM, for a period of 12 months with the cars in traffic. During the same time period, the trend of track forces from the two cars has been obtained from the research station, outside Luleå, Sweden. Using the trends from wheel wear and track force in combination to form maintenance planning for wheels are discussed.

  • 10.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Asplund, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB, Luleå.
    Condition monitoring at the wheel/rail interface for decision-making support2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 705-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many railway assets, such as wheels, suffer from increasing deterioration during operation. Good condition monitoring based on good decision-making techniques can lead to accurate assessment of the current health of the wheels. This, in turn, will improve safety, facilitate maintenance planning and scheduling, and reduce maintenance costs and down-time. In this paper, wheel/rail forces are selected as a parameter (feature) for the condition monitoring of wheel health. Once wheels are properly thresholded, determining their condition can help operators to define maintenance limits for their rolling stock. In addition, if rail forces are used as condition indicators of wheel wear, it is possible to use measurement stations that cost less than ordinary profile stations. These stations are located on ordinary tracks and can provide the condition of wheelsets without causing shutdowns or slowdowns of the railway system and without interfering with railway traffic. The paper uses the iron-ore transport line in northern Sweden as a test scenario to validate the use of wheel/rail forces as indicators of wagon and wheel health. The iron-ore transport line has several monitoring systems, but in this paper only two of these systems will be used. Wheel/rail force measurements are performed on curves to see how the vehicle negotiates the curve, and wheel profile measurements are done on tangent track not far away. The vehicles investigated are iron-ore wagons with an axle load of 30 tonnes and a loaded top speed of 60 km/h. The measurements are non-intrusive, since trains are moving and assets are not damaged during the testing process

  • 11.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    LKAB.
    Asplund, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB.
    Wheel/rail condition monitoring to support rolling stock maintenance actions2013In: Proceedings of 10th International Heavy Haul Association Conference, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel/rail guidance is made possible by the shapes of wheel and rail profiles. For train operators to increase revenue and decrease cost for railway infrastructure owners they must monitor the conditions of the assets.The Iron Ore Line in northern Sweden has two different monitoring systems installed to monitor con- ditions of all passing vehicles. The wheel/rail force measurement are made in a curve to see the how the vehicle negotiate the curve, and the wheel profile measurements are done on tangent track not far away. The vehicles investigated are iron ore wagons from LKAB mining company with an axle load of 30 tonnes and a loaded top speed of 60 km/h.This study uses the condition from either wheel wear or wheel/rail forces as decision-making support for maintenance actions. A correlation between forces and wheel wear will make it possible to use this kind of force measurement stations at more places than just profile stations. This correlation will help to obtain maintenance limits for the operators to use on their rolling stock.

  • 12.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lin, Jing
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Maintenance performance Improvement for rolling stock wheels2013In: PHM2013: 2013 Prognostic and System Health Management: Milan 8-11 September 2013 / [ed] Enrico Zio; Piero Baraldi, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. , 2013, p. 727-732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The service life of a railway wagon wheel can be significantly reduced through failure or damage, leading to excessive costs and accelerated deterioration. In order to monitor the performance of wheels on heavy haul wagons, this paper proposes implementing the Plan, Do, Study, and Act (PDSA) maintenance performance improvement process. As a case study, it looks at wheels on the heavy haul wagons of a Swedish company, considering all factors that may influence the need for maintenance. After investigating the PDSA process, it proposes the use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for both risk and economic reasons. The paper concludes that the PDSA process and KPIs are useful tools to improve the maintenance performance of railway wheels

  • 13.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lindsund, Isabelle
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A case study on railway wheel maintenance management with several layers of contractors2013In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 5-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lindsund, Isabelle
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Holistic maintenance information with multi-layers of contractors2012In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop & Congress on eMaintenance: Dec 12-14 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenace: trends in technologies and methodologies, challenges, possibilities and applications / [ed] Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Uday Kumar, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 161-166Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Condition monitoring of wheel wear on iron ore wagons2012In: International Journal of COMADEM, ISSN 1363-7681, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping wheel profiles in an acceptable condition is a major concern for both railway operators and infrastructure owners. The condition of the wheels influences both their wear and the required rail maintenance. Wheel wear affects the dynamic characteristics of vehicles and the dynamic force impact on the rail and, in a worst case scenario, can cause derailment. This paper studies the correlation of wear rate and wheel force to temperature and seasonal differences, monitoring eight identical wheel axles of different ages for a full life cycle. The study notes differences in wheel wear and wheel/rail forces while operating with a 30 ton axle load and in temperatures ranging from -30°C to +30°C. It measures speed, vertical and lateral forces for every train passage and calculates the lateral-to-vertical force ratio at a research station near Luleå, Sweden. The study concludes that wheel wear is significantly greater at lower temperatures. The magnitude and variation of lateral forces are strongly dependent on the bogie position, with the highest peak value recorded for the leading low rail. The L/V ratio is strongly seasonally dependent with large differences within a month due to changes in friction.

  • 16.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Condition monitoring of rolling stock using wheel/rail forces2012In: The Ninth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 560-568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway vehicles are efficient because of the low resistance in the contact zonebetween wheel and rail. In order to remain efficient both train operators and infrastructureowners need to keep rails, wheels and vehicles in acceptable condition. Wheelwear affects the dynamic characteristics of vehicles and the dynamic force impact onthe rail.The shape of the wheel profile affects the performance of railway vehicles in differentways. Wheel condition has historically been managed by identifying and removingwheels from service when they exceed an impact threshold. Condition monitoring ofrailway vehicles is mainly performed using wheel impact load detectors and truck performancedetectors. These systems use either forces or stress on the rail to interpretthe condition.This paper will show measurements taken at the research station outside Luleå innorthern Sweden. The station measures the wheel/rail forces, both lateral and vertical,at the point of contact in a curve with 484 m radius at speeds up to 100 km/h. Dataare analyzed to show differences for various wheel positions and to determine therobustness of the system.

  • 17.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rolling stock condition monitoring using wheel/rail forces2012In: Insight (Northampton), ISSN 1354-2575, E-ISSN 1754-4904, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 451-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway vehicles are efficient because of the low resistance in the contact zone between wheel and rail. In order to remain efficient, train operators and infrastructure owners need to keep rails, wheels and vehicles in an acceptable condition. Wheel wear affects the dynamic characteristics of vehicles and the dynamic force impact on the rail. The shape of the wheel profile affects the performance of railway vehicles in different ways. Wheel condition has historically been managed by identifying and removing wheels from service when they exceed an impact threshold. Condition monitoring of railway vehicles is mainly performed using wheel impact load detectors and truck performance detectors. These systems use either forces or stress on the rail to interpret the condition. This paper will show measurements taken at the research station outside Luleå in northern Sweden. The station measures the wheel/rail forces, both lateral and vertical, at the point of contact in a curve with a 484 m radius at speeds of up to 100 km/h. Data are analysed to show differences for various wheel positions and to determine the robustness of the system.

  • 18.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Från mätdata till underhållsbeslut: hjulslitage och spårkrafter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver resultaten från projektet ”Från mätdata till underhållsbeslut” där avdelningen för drift och underhållsteknik/JVTC vid Luleå tekniska universitet på uppdrag av MTAB följt hjulslitaget på två malmvagnar under ett års tid. Under perioden har vagnarnas rälkrafter registrerats vid JVTC:s forskningsstation i Sävast.

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