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  • 1.
    Andrews, David David
    et al.
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tzimas, Evangelos
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Serpa, Joana
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Carlsson, Johan
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Pardo-Garcia, Nico
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Papaioannou, Ioulia
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Background Report on EU-27 District Heating and Cooling Potentials, Barriers, Best Practice and Measures of Promotion2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to provide background information on potentials, barriers, best practices, state of the art and measures of promotion of District Heating and Cooling to aid policy making.

  • 2.
    Berg, Charlotte
    et al.
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mjuklänkning mellan EMEC och TIMES-Sweden: en metod för att förbättra energipolitiska underlag2012Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Forsberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Supporting Cities’ Emission Mitigation Strategies: Modelling Urban Transports in a TIMES Energy System Modelling Framework2017In: Urban Transport XXIII / [ed] S. Ricci;C. A. Brebbia, Southampton: WIT Press, 2017, Vol. 176, p. 15-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector is a significant emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants in urban areas. How the transport sector evolve during the coming decades will have significant impact on the possibilities to meet tough climate and environmental targets. This makes transportation an important part of cities’ Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans. Still, transportation is somewhat overlooked in many city-level analyses. Energy system optimisation models, like the TIMES modelling framework, are useful tools in identifying energy pathways to reach ambitious energy savings and emission mitigation targets. Based on the identification of urban transport-energy system characteristics, the needs of local governments, and insights from traditional transport models, we propose a partly new representation of the transport sector within a TIMES-City modelling framework, adapting it to the urban transport-energy setting to improve model realism and power of insight. TIMES-City supports analysis of intracity and long-distance passenger and freight transportation, including only the city organisation or the entire administrative city area. Detailed techno-economic-environmental representation of all major existing and emerging modes, technologies a nd fuels p rovides basis for consistent long-term analyses.

  • 4.
    Garcia, Nicolas Pardo
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Vatopoulos, Konstaninos
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lopez, Alicia Perez
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Olsen, Lars
    Danish Technological Institute.
    Best available technologies for the heat and cooling market in the European Union2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, over 40% of the total energy consumed in Europe is used for the generation of heat for either domestic or industrial purposes whereas the cooling demand is growing exponentially. The importance of the heat and cooling sector is underlined in the EU energy policy initiatives. This emphasize the role of technologies based on renewable energy sources combined with highefficiency energy technologies, to meet the heat and cooling demand in Europe more sustainably in the future. In this context, the JRC led study, which was undertaken with two partners1, to identify the current best available technologies (BATs) which can contribute to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the CO2 emission in the heat and cooling market in the EU

  • 5.
    Garcia, Nicolas Pardo
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Vatopoulos, Konstaninos
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rivera, Jose Antonio Moya
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Lopez, Alicia Perez
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Heat and cooling demand and market perspective2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to fully understand the national potentials for cogeneration, it is essential to identify the existing and prospective demand of heat and cooling by sector. A study will be performed on a MS level to describe the demand of heat and cooling by different sectors (i.e. industrial, residential), demand types (different temperatures) and supply technologies. This work aims to analyze the current situation and future trends of heat and cooling demand in the EU, as well as, the use and availability of industrial. Within each sector the demand will be presented for different segments. The focus is to map the demand of heat and cooling on temperature intervals possible to be supplied by district heating, district cooling or CHP. In order to capture the characteristics of heat, heat is split into different types; space heating, warm water, cooking, and industrial heat. For cooling, space cooling is the main type applicable to district cooling

  • 6.
    Glynn, James
    et al.
    Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork.
    Fortes, Patricia
    CENSE, Faculdade Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Labriet, Maryse
    Eneris Environment Energy Consultants, Madrid.
    Vielle, Marc
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Kypreos, Socrates
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen.
    Lehtilä, Anti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Mischke, Peggy
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby.
    Dai, Hancheng
    National Institute of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba.
    Gargiulo, Maurizio
    Energy Engineering Economic Environment Systems Modelling and Analysis (E4SMA s.r.l.), Turin.
    Helgesen, Per Ivar
    Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.
    Kober, Tom
    Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Policy Studies Department, Petten/Amsterdam.
    Summerton, Phil
    Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge.
    Merven, Bruno
    Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town.
    Selosse, Sandrine
    Centre De Mathématicues Appliquèes, MINES ParisTech.
    Karlsson, Kenneth
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby.
    Strachan, Niel
    Energy Institute, University College London.
    Gallachóir, Brian Ó
    Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork.
    Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System: Global Perspectives2015In: Informing Energy and Climate Policies Using Energy Systems Models: Insights from Scenario Analysis Increasing the Evidence Base, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 333-358Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a climate constrained future, hybrid energy-economy model coupling gives additional insight into interregional competition, trade, industrial delocalisation and overall macroeconomic consequences of decarbonising the energy system. Decarbonising the energy system is critical in mitigating climate change. This chapter summarises modelling methodologies developed in the ETSAP community to assess economic impacts of decarbonising energy systems at a global level. The next chapter of this book focuses on a national perspective. The range of economic impacts is regionally dependent upon the stage of economic development, the level of industrialisation, energy intensity of exports, and competition effects due to rates of relative decarbonisation. Developed nation’s decarbonisation targets are estimated to result in a manageable GDP loss in the region of 2 % by 2050. Energy intensive export driven developing countries such as China and India, and fossil fuel exporting nations can expect significantly higher GDP loss of up to 5 % GDP per year by mid-century.

  • 7.
    Glynn, James
    et al.
    Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork.
    Fortes, Patricia
    CENSE, Faculdade Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Labriet, Maryse
    Eneris Environment Energy Consultants, Madrid.
    Vielle, Marc
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Kypreos, Socrates
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen.
    Lehtilä, Anti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Mischke, Peggy
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby.
    Dai, Hancheng
    National Institute of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba.
    Gargiulo, Maurizio
    Energy Engineering Economic Environment Systems Modelling and Analysis (E4SMA s.r.l.), Turin.
    Helgesen, Per Ivar
    Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.
    Kober, Tom
    Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Policy Studies Department, Petten/Amsterdam.
    Summerton, Phil
    Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge.
    Merven, Bruno
    Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town.
    Selosse, Sandrine
    Centre De Mathématicues Appliquèes, MINES ParisTech.
    Karlsson, Kenneth
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby.
    Strachan, Niel
    Energy Institute, University College London.
    Gallachóir, Brian Ó
    Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork.
    Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System: National Perspectives2015In: Informing Energy and Climate Policies Using Energy Systems Models: Insights from Scenario Analysis Increasing the Evidence Base, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 359-387Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a climate constrained future, hybrid energy-economy model coupling gives additional insight into interregional competition, trade, industrial delocalisation and overall macroeconomic consequences of decarbonising the energy system. Decarbonising the energy system is critical in mitigating climate change. This chapter summarises modelling methodologies developed in the ETSAP community to assess economic impacts of decarbonising energy systems at a national level. The preceding chapter focuses on a global perspective. The modelling studies outlined here show that burden sharing rules and national revenue recycling schemes for carbon tax are critical for the long-term viability of economic growth and equitable engagement on combating climate change. Traditional computable general equilibrium models and energy systems models solved in isolation can misrepresent the long run carbon cost and underestimate the demand response caused by technological paradigm shifts in a decarbonised energy system. The approaches outlined within have guided the first evidence based decarbonisation legislation and continue to provide additional insights as increased sectoral disaggregation in hybrid modelling approaches is achieved

  • 8.
    Krook Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biomassa, systemmodeller och målkonflikter2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability and competition for woody biomass has been analysed with a district heating perspective with an aim to contribute to a broader system understanding of the interaction between the district heating system, the forest biomass system and the biofuel system. The starting point has been two energy system models that in different ways capture the competition for biomass in Sweden. The focus has been on (1) identifying possible conflicting targets between increased electricity generation from district heating, increased biofuel production and reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and (2) identifying how the models can communicate and be further developed in order to improve the representation of biomass in the national energy system analysis.

  • 9.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bilaga 12: Klimatmålsanalys med TIMES-Sweden: Övergripande klimatmål 2045 i kombination med sektormål 20302016In: En klimat- och luftvårdsstrategi för Sverige: delbetänkande / av Miljömålsberedningen, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2016, p. 429-454Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Modelling ambitious climate targets and long-term strategies for Sweden – Describing the main the challenges: Presentation at The 5th Asian Energy Modelling Workshop Achieving a Sustainable 2050: Insights from Energy System Modelling2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to share insights from modeling net zero CO2-emission pathways for Sweden from an energy system analysis approach, both with respect to results (how to get to net zero) and to modeling needs (what to include and how to link models). Sweden is a European country rich in biomass and energy intensive industries, thus rich in energy resources but also with challenging freight transports and industries to decarbonize. The model results shows that an increased use of biomass residues and waste heat significantly increase the possibility to meet the targets. TIMES-Sweden, an energy system optimization model of the comprehensive Swedish energy system, was used to explore different low carbon and net zero emission pathways until 2030 and 2045. In order to do so, the model has (and currently is) being updated to include fossil free alternatives to all energy conversion and production processes within the model. When doing so we take a process-oriented approach, thus describe important energy intensive industries (e.g. pulp & paper, iron & steel and cement) in detail. The model is driven by the demand of energy intensive products and services (e.g. heating of single-houses, production of ton steel and person-km in cars). The demand projections were determined by soft-linking TIMES-Sweden with a national CGE model, in which we relied on multiple direction-specific connection points.

  • 11.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    National Energy System Modelling for Supporting Energy and Climate Policy Decision-making: The Case of Sweden2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy system models can contribute in evaluating impacts of energy and climate policies. The process of working with energy system models assists the understanding of the quantita¬tive relationships between different parts of the energy system and between different time periods, under various assumptions. With the aim of improving the ability of national energy system models to provide robust and transparent input to the decision-making process, a three-step energy modelling process is introduced based on the literature on system analysis and energy modelling. This process is then used to address five different research questions, which are based on (but not identical to) six embedded papers. In the first step (step 1) the ‘real’ system is simplified and conceptualised into a model, where the main components and parameters of a problem are represented. In order to attain robust results, it is important to focus not only on what needs to be included in the model, but also on what can be left out. In order not to add noise to the analysis, there is a trade-off between what is desired and what can be included in terms of data. In the second step (step 2), all assumptions are sorted within a mathematical model and the algorithms solved. The structure of the model is found crucial for the possibility to trace the results back to the assumptions (transparency). In the last step (step 3), the model results are interpreted together with aspects not captured in the model (e.g. non-economic preferences, institutional barriers), and discussed in relation to the direct assumptions provided to the model (step 1) and to the implicit assumptions due to the choice of model (step 2). All three steps are essential in order to achieve robust and transparent policy analyses, and all three steps contribute to the learning about the ‘real’ system.The embedded papers (Paper I-VI) deal with issues of particular relevance for long-term analysis of the Swedish energy system. The results of Paper I illustrate the importance of capturing the seasonal and daily variations when representing cross-border trade of electricity in national models; a too simplified representation will make the model overestimate the need for installed power capacity in Sweden. Paper II presents a methodology for estimating the ‘useful demand’ for heating and cooling based on national statistics, which is useful as most energy system models are driven by ‘useful demand’, while national statistics are based on the measurable ‘final energy consumption’. Paper III compares the technical potential of com-bined heat and power (CHP) from different approaches and calculates the economic potential of CHP using a European energy system model (EU-TIMES). The comparison the technical potential of the different approaches reveals differences in definitions of the potential as well as in the system boundary. The resulting economic potential of CHP in year 2030 is shown to be significantly higher compared to today’s level, even though conservative assumptions regarding district heating were used. Paper IV assesses the impacts of district heating on the future Swedish energy system, first by a quantitative analysis using TIMES-Sweden and then by discussing aspects that cannot be captured by the model. Paper V compares different climate target scenarios and examines the impacts on the resulting total system cost with and without the addition of ancillary benefits of reductions in domestic air-pollution. The results reflect the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad imply a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gains from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants. Paper VI presents and discusses an iteration procedure for soft-linking a national energy system model (TIMES-Sweden) with a national CGE model (EMEC). Some aspects of the way in which we perform the soft-linking are not standard in the literature (e.g., the use of direction-specific connection points). By applying the iteration process, the resulting carbon emissions were found to be lower than when the models are used separately.

  • 12.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ancillary benefits of climate policy in a small open economy: the case of Sweden2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 4985-4998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is increasingly recognised that GHG reduction policies can have important ancillary benefits in the form of positive local and regional environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic ancillary pollution benefits of climate policy in Sweden, and investigate how these are affected by different climate policy designs. The latter differ primarily in terms of how the country chooses to meet a specific target and where the necessary emission reductions take place. The analysis relies on simulations within the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden, and focuses on four non-GHG pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides (NOX), Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), inhalable particles (PM2.5), and Sulphur dioxide (SO2). The simulations permit detailed assessments of the respective technology and fuel choices that underlie any net changes in the estimated ancillary effects. The results indicate that the ancillary benefits constitute a far from insignificant share of total system costs, and this share appears to be highest in the scenarios that entail the largest emission reductions domestically. This result reflects the fact that carbon dioxide emission reductions abroad also implies a lost opportunity of achieving substantial domestic welfare gain from the reductions of regional and local environmental pollutants

  • 13.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Soft-Linking: The Case of EMEC and TIMES-Sweden2013Report (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    2030 Climate Targets in Sweden: An Integrated BU and TD Approach2015In: Our Common Future under Climate Change: International Scientific Conference - Abstract book, 2015, article id P-3322-08Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berg, Charlotte
    National Institute of Economic Research (NIER), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in top-down and bottom-up soft linking: Lessons from linking a Swedish energy system model with a CGE model2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 141, p. 803-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and discusses a soft-linking procedure between a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and an energy system model with the aim to improve national energy policy decision-making. Significant positive and negative experiences are communicated. Specifically, the process of soft-linking the EMEC and TIMES-Sweden models is presented, and unlike previous work we rely on the use of multiple direction-specific connection points. Moreover, the proposed soft-linking methodology is applied in the context of a climate policy scenario for Sweden. The results display a partly new description of the Swedish economy, which when soft-linking, generates lower CO2-emissions in the reference scenario due to a decline in industrial energy demand. These findings point at the importance of linking bottom-up and top-down models when assessing national energy and climate policies.

  • 16.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berg, Charlotte
    National Institute of Economic Research.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in top-down and bottom-up soft lnking: the case of EMEC and TIMES-Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Net-Zero CO2-Emission Pathways for Sweden by Cost-Efficient Use of Forestry Residues2018In: Limiting Global Warming to Well Below 2 °C: Energy System Modelling and Policy Development / [ed] George Giannakidis, Kenneth Karlsson, Maryse Labriet, Brian Ó Gallachóir, Springer, 2018, p. 123-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has committed to reducing its domestic greenhouse gases by 85% by 2045, compared with 1990 levels. Due to the challenge of reducing other greenhouse gases, this commitment is regarded as a net zero CO2 emission target. Biomass is today an important part of the Swedish energy supply and has the potential to increase even further, mainly through utilization of forest residues. To explore different net zero emission pathways with an emphasis on where domestic biomass resources could be used most cost-efficiently, we employed the energy system optimisation model TIMES-Sweden. The results of our study show that biomass is used throughout the energy system. Stringent climate targets and district heating encourage the use of waste heat from biofuel production that results in a more resource efficient use of biomass. Finally, the findings also show that a significant reduction of CO2 emission is difficult to achieve for freight transportation and energy-intensive industry without an increased use of forestry residues.

  • 18.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Fjärrvärmen och de långsiktiga klimatmålen: En analys av olika styrmedel och styrmedelskombinationer2013Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Martinsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Reseach Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lindblom, Jakob
    IVL Swedish Environmental Reseach Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wråke, Markus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Reseach Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Modelling the Swedish residential and service sectors in TIMES: a feasibility study2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a specification for how the Swedish residential and service sector (R&S sector) could be modeled using the TIMES modeling platform. The focus is on long-term scenario analysis, which serves two intended purposes. In explorative scenarios, it seeks to answer the question “What could happen?” By contrast, normative scenarios are more practical, asking “How can a given objective be reached?” Ultimately, the objective is to identify the least-cost ways of achieving policy objectives. In light of how energy demand is evolving, model requirements for analysis of urban energy systems and decentralized energy generation are also discussed, but more briefly. In conclusion, it is possible to improve the way the R&S sector is represented and modeled in integrated energy systems models such as TIMES Sweden. There is a suite of data sources still untapped, and the body of knowledge and experience from this type of energy analysis has improved the understanding of how such modeling can best be done. This report presents a proposal that could significantly improve the ability analyze the R&S sector itself, and interaction between the built environment and other sectors. Ultimately, that would result in a better understanding of the energy system and in more robust advice to policy makers.

  • 20.
    Pardo, Nicholas
    et al.
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten.
    Vatopoulos, Konstantinos
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Perez, Alicia
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten.
    Methodology to estimate the energy flows of the European Union heating and cooling market2013In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 52, p. 339-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 40% of the total energy consumed in Europe is used for the generation of heat for either domestic or industrial purposes. Meanwhile, the demand for cooling is steadily increasing in all European Member State. In this context, it is essential to identify the heating and cooling demand in the economic sectors. The objective of this study is to propose a methodology to estimate the European heating and cooling demand by country, fuel, economical subsector and activity based on official statistics and reports from resource origin to the customer. The results show that most useful heat energy comes from the direct burn of a fuel principally natural gas. The contribution of the electricity is relatively moderate for the residential and service sectors but low for industrial sector. Most part of the cooling demand is generated by electrical cooling machines (air conditioning and chillers) which extract free environmental energy allowing compensate part of the losses from the electricity production. District heating has a moderate contribution and district cooling can be considered negligible.

  • 21.
    Pardo-García, Nicolás
    et al.
    Center for Energy, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Giefinggasse 4, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
    Simoes, Sofia G.
    CENSE – Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Dias, Luis
    CENSE – Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, NOVA School of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Sandgren, Annamaria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Valhallavägen 81, 114 27 Stockholm.
    Suna, Demet
    Center for Energy, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Giefinggasse 4, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sustainable and Resource Efficient Cities platform: SureCity holistic simulation and optimization for smart cities2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 215, p. 701-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, professional analytical tools and platforms are increasingly more used to analyse and support decision-making regarding urban energy systems. Most of existing urban energy platforms are focused on short-term analysis (present or 2020) and cover specific sectors and/or aspects, without considering the holistic optimisation of the whole energy system. Moreover, usually these platforms can only be operated by users with high technical skills. This article presents the design and development of the innovative SureCity Platform which aims to overcome existing gaps to support cities to achieve their mid-to-long term sustainability targets. The main novelties the SureCity platform are: (i) it is a transparent and user-friendly software which can also be used by non-technical staff, such as politicians; (ii) it allows assessment of urban policies and measures through holistic optimisation of the whole energy system towards low carbon energy systems including air quality, land-use and water use at city level. Furthermore, since it is based on a generic comprehensive model, the SureCity platform can be adjusted and applied to a large number of cities. Because it is generalised, it has been developed using a participatory approach with different city stakeholders, and since it is designed to be used by users with different levels of expertise, it can also improve communication among city actors and benchmarking with other cities.

  • 22.
    Pädam, Sirje
    et al.
    WSP.
    Larsson, Ola
    WSP.
    Wigren, Anders
    WSP.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av fjärrvärme: Fjärrvärmens samhällsekonomiska nytta i energisystemet idag och i framtiden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet har varit att analysera och kvantifiera effekter av att producera och använda fjärrrvärme för att ge en uppfattning om fjärrvärmens bidrag till samhället, bl.a. i termer av resursanvändning och sysselsättning. Fjärrvärmen utgör idag en viktig länk mellan flera näringsgrenar, vilket gör att det krävs ett helhetsperspektiv. I de diskussioner som förs kring framtidens energisystem hänvisas ofta till samhällsekonomi för att analysera och utforma relevanta styrmedel, något som för närvarande är aktuellt vad gäller bl.a. energieffektivisering. I projektet används resultat från energisystemmodellkörningar och även från regionalekonomiska modellberäkningar som ligger till grund för samhällsekonommiska resonemang om effekterna av ett energisystem utan fjärrvärme. Resultaten visar att fjärrvärmen har en betydande roll i dagens och i framtidens energisystem i Sverige. I frånvaro av fjärrvärme ökar den årliga elanvändningen med cirka 5 TWh. Den ökade elanvändningen skulle tillföras från vindkraft, eftersom elcertifikatssystemet gör vindkraft till det mest lönsamma alternativet. Vindkraften ersätter då all biobränslebaserad kraftvärmeproduktion, då kraftvärmen mister sina intäkter från värmeproduktionen. Totalt sett visar resultaten på mellan 6 och 9 TWh mer vindkraft i frånvaro av fjärrvärme, beroende på vilket år som betraktas.

  • 23.
    Reckien, Diana
    et al.
    Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dawson, Richard
    School of Engineering, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Newcastle University.
    How are cities planning to respond to climate change?: Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-282018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 191, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This target has wide-ranging implications for Europe and its cities, which are the source of substantial proportions of greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports the state of planning for climate change by collecting and analysing local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28. A typology and analysis framework was developed that classifies local climate plans in terms of their spatial (alignment with local, national and international policy) and sectoral integration (alignment into existing local policy documents). We document local climate plans that we call type A1: non-compulsory by national law and not developed as part of international climate networks; A2: compulsory by national law and not developed as part of international networks; A3: plans developed as part of international networks. This most comprehensive analysis to date reveals that there is large diversity in the availability of local climate plans with most being available in Central and Northern European cities. Approximately 66% of EU cities have an A1, A2, or A3 mitigation plan, 26% an adaptation plan, 17% joint adaptation and mitigation plans, and about 30% lack any form of local climate plan (i.e. what we classify as A1, A2, A3 plans). Mitigation plans are more numerous than adaptation plans, but mitigation does not always precede adaptation. Our analysis reveals that city size, national legislation, and international networks can influence the development of local climate plans. We found that size does matter as about 70% of the cities above 1 million inhabitants have a comprehensive and stand-alone mitigation and/or an adaptation plan (A1 or A2). Countries with national climate legislation (A2), such as Denmark, France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, are found to have nearly twice as many urban mitigation plans, and five times more likely to produce urban adaptation plans, than countries without such legislation. A1 and A2 mitigation plans are particularly numerous in Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Finland; while A1 and A2 adaptation plans are prevalent in Denmark, Finland, UK and France. The integration of adaptation and mitigation is country-specific and can mainly be observed in countries where local climate plans are compulsory, especially in France and the UK. Finally, local climate plans of international climate networks (A3) are mostly found in the many countries where autonomous, i.e. A1 plans are less common. The findings reported here are of international importance as they will inform and support decision-making and thinking of stakeholders with similar experiences or developments at all levels and sectors in other regions around the world.

  • 24.
    Reckien, Diana
    et al.
    Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Heidrich, Oliver
    School of Engineering, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Dedicated versus mainstreaming approaches in local climate plans in Europe2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 112, p. 948-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are gaining prominence committing to respond to the threat of climate change, e.g., by developing local climate plans or strategies. However, little is known regarding the approaches and processes of plan development and implementation, or the success and effectiveness of proposed measures. Mainstreaming is regarded as one approach associated with (implementation) success, but the extent of integration of local climate policies and plans in ongoing sectoral and/or development planning is unclear. This paper analyses 885 cities across the 28 European countries to create a first reference baseline on the degree of climate mainstreaming in local climate plans. This will help to compare the benefits of mainstreaming versus dedicated climate plans, looking at policy effectiveness and ultimately delivery of much needed climate change efforts at the city level. All core cities of the European Urban Audit sample were analyzed, and their local climate plans classified as dedicated or mainstreamed in other local policy initiatives. It was found that the degree of mainstreaming is low for mitigation (9% of reviewed cities; 12% of the identified plans) and somewhat higher for adaptation (10% of cities; 29% of plans). In particular horizontal mainstreaming is a major effort for local authorities; an effort that does not necessarily pay off in terms of success of action implementation. This study concludes that climate change issues in local municipalities are best tackled by either, developing a dedicated local climate plan in parallel to a mainstreamed plan or by subsequently developing first the dedicated and later a mainstreaming plan (joint or subsequent “dual track approach”). Cities that currently provide dedicated local climate plans (66% of cities for mitigation; 26% of cities for adaptation) may follow-up with a mainstreaming approach. This promises effective implementation of tangible climate actions as well as subsequent diffusion of climate issues into other local sector policies. The development of only broad sustainability or resilience strategies is seen as critical.

  • 25.
    Sandberg, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A bottom-up study of biomass and electricity use in a fossil free Swedish industry2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 167, p. 1019-1030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While previous research has focused on single industrial sectors or specific technologies, this study aims to explore the impacts of various industrial technology options on the use of biomass and electricity in a future fossil free Swedish industry. By building a small optimization model, that decomposes each industrial sector into site categories by type and technology to capture critical synergies among industrial processes. The results show important synergies between electrification, biomass and CCS/U (sequestration of CO2 is required to reach net-zero emissions). Reaching an absolute minimum of biomass use within the industry has a very high cost of electricity due to the extensive use of power-to-gas technologies, and minimising electricity has a high cost of biomass due to extensive use of CHP technologies. Meanwhile, integrated bio-refinery processes are the preferable option when minimising the net input of energy. There is, thus, no singular best technology, instead the system adapts to the given circumstances showing the importance of a detailed bottom-up modelling approach and that the decarbonisation of the industry should not be treated as a site-specific problem, but rather as a system-wide problem to allow for optimal utilisation of process synergies.

  • 26.
    Stankeviciute, Loreta
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre, The Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, European Commission, Petten, The Netherlands.
    Assessing the development of combined heat and power generation in the EU2014In: International Journal of Energy Sector Management, ISSN 1750-6220, E-ISSN 1750-6239, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 76-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to quantify the potentials for the development of combined heat and power (CHP) in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – To this end, it uses the TIMES-EU energy-economic model and assesses the impact of key policy options and targets in the area of CO2 emissions reduction, renewable energies and energy efficiency improvements. The results are also compared with the cogeneration potentials as reported by the Member States in their national reports. Findings – The paper shows that CHP output could be more than doubled and that important CHP penetration potential exists in expanding the European district heating systems. This result is even more pronounced with the far-reaching CO2 emissions reduction necessary in order to meet a long-term 2 degree target. Nevertheless, the paper also shows that strong CO2 emission reductions in the energy sector might limit the CHP potential due to increased competition for biomass with the transport sector. Originality/value – Given the proven socio-economic benefits of using CHP, the paper identifies the areas for future research in order to better exploit the potential of this technology such as the combination of CHP and district cooling or country- and industry-specific options to generate process heat.

  • 27.
    Wårell, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Resource efficiency in a district heating context2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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