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  • 1.
    Carlson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Stener, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    In-Situ Monitoring of Particle Velocities and Solids Concentration Variations in wet Low-Intensity Magnetic Separators2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2015: Taipei, 21-24 Oct. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7329339Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous work, we have shown how an ultrasound pulse-echo setup can be used to simultaneously measure particle velocity profiles and local solids concentration variations in solid/liquid particle suspensions. In this paper, we demonstrate a real-world case where the system is installed in a wet low-intensity magnetic separator, a process in which magnetic material is separated from gangue. The method was evaluated at LKAB's R&D facilities in Malmberget, Sweden, on one of their pilot scale separators. The results show that it is possible to detect changes in the flow velocity patterns and the local solids concentration, as the operational conditions of the separator are varied.

  • 2.
    Carlson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Stener, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Monitoring local solids fraction variations in multiphase flow using pulse-echo ultrasound2015Ingår i: Physics Procedia, ISSN 1875-3892, E-ISSN 1875-3892, Vol. 70, s. 376-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique for on-line monitoring of variations in solids concentrations in particlesuspensions. The method is based on time-frequency analysis of the backscatter signals, exploring variations in spectral content ofthe backscatter as function of depth in the suspension. Experiments on a settling of magnetite particles in water, at varying solidsconcentrations, show that the settling process can be followed by studying the energy of backscattered ultrasound.

  • 3.
    Malm, Lisa
    et al.
    Boliden Mineral, Department of Process Technology.
    Kindstedt Danielsson, Ann-Sofi
    RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Surface, Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Ymén, Ingvar
    RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Surface, Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Application of Dynamic Vapor Sorption for evaluation of hydrophobicity in industrial-scale froth flotation2018Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 127, s. 305-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The particle surface properties are essential for understanding froth flotation, particularly for the evaluation of various chemical or reagent effects.

    Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS) is used in the pharmaceutical industry for the evaluation of surface properties and has to the knowledge of the authors not been used for applications in mineral processing. This paper describes an evaluation of industrial ore samples using DVS.

    Four samples (feed, CuPb concentrate, Cu concentrate and Pb concentrate) from each of the Cu – Pb flotation processes in the Boliden and Garpenberg concentrators, Sweden, were analyzed by DVS in order to investigate if this technique could be used to estimate differences in their hydrophilicity. The DVS measures the water uptake as a function of the relative humidity (%RH) at constant temperature.

    For both series of four samples, it was found that the DVS-data are in precise agreement with the flotation theory on hydrophobicity (indicated by differences in water uptake). The feed material, without any collectors, adsorbed more water compared to the CuPb bulk concentrate, which in turn adsorbed more water than the Cu concentrate. The lead concentrate on the other hand, which had been depressed by dichromate and should be more hydrophilic, showed a higher adsorbance of water than that of the CuPb concentrate.

    The repeated measurements of three sub samples from one of the ore samples gave a mean value and an estimated standard deviation of 0.13 ± 0.01%. This shows that the method gives highly reproducible results and that the differences between the samples had high significance. This also shows that the DVS method can serve as a useful complement to traditionally used contact angle or capillary absorption-based measurement methods, especially when screening for new flotation reagents on industrial ore samples.

  • 4.
    Malm, Lisa
    et al.
    Boliden Mineral Ab.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Bolin, Nils-Johan
    Boliden Mineral Ab.
    Spatial Variations of Pulp Properties in Flotation: Implications for Optimizing Cell Design and Performance2016Ingår i: Proceedings of International Mineral Processing Congress, Quebec, Canada, ISBN, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Malm, Lisa
    Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden.
    Bolin, Nils-Johan
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Untersuchung des Einflusses der Zellengeometrie auf den Flotationsprozess2017Ingår i: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 162, nr 8, s. 281-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [de]

    Der Trend in der Entwicklung der Flotationstechnologie geht weiterhin in Richtung sehr großer Zellen. Ein Scale-up von Flotationszellen wird zumeist unter Beibehaltung ähnlicher geometrischer Proportionen vorgenommen, d. h. das Verhältnis von Durchmesser zu Höhe wird bei Vergrößerung des Volumens häufig konstant gehalten. Zudem werden bei dem Entwurf von Flotationsanlagen zumeist mehrere Zellen mit identischer Geometrie innerhalb einer Flotationsbank verwendet. Die Verwendung weniger Standardgrößen in einer Flotationsanlage vereinfacht einerseits Entwurf, Herstellung und Wartung der Flotationsapparate. Andererseits werden hierdurch Leistungsfähigkeit und Selektivität des Flotationsprozesses nicht notwendigerweise sichergestellt. Der Geometrieparameter, der bei gegebenem Zellenvolumen die Leistungsfähigkeit bestimmt, ist die Zellenhöhe. Sie hat Einfluss auf den hydrostatischen Druck und die Hydrodynamik der Trübe, die Wegstrecke, die Partikel-Blase-Agglomerate zurücklegen müssen, sowie die Homogenität der Durchmischung. Auch die Dicke der Schaumschicht hängt vom Durchmesser-Höhe-Verhältnis ab. Ziel der Forschungsarbeiten ist es, ein besseres Verständnis der Materialverteilung und der Suspensionseigenschaften innerhalb einer Flotationszelle zu erlangen und anhand dieser Informationen aufzuklären, wie Veränderungen der Zellengeometrie die Trennleistung beeinflussen können. Zu diesem Zweck wurden erste systematische Messungen und Analysen der räumlichen Verteilung der verschiedenen Phasen innerhalb einer 160 m3 Flotationszelle im Rahmen der industriellen Anreicherung eines armen Kupfererzes durchgeführt. Die Konzepte für die Probenahme an verschiedenen vertikalen und seitlichen Positionen der Flotationszelle werden vorgestellt. Die Ergebnisse der experimentellen Arbeiten geben einen Einblick in die räumliche Verteilung der Trübe innerhalb der Flotationszelle. Auf der Grundlage der gemessenen Phasenverteilung und Konzentrationen sowie der Partikeleigenschaften an verschiedenen Positionen innerhalb der Zelle werden Implikationen für einen optimierten Entwurf von Flotationszelle und -anlage diskutiert.

  • 6. Sand, Anders
    Computational Modelling of Particle Dynamics in Coating Colours2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7. Sand, Anders
    Microscopic Simulation of Pigment Coating Consolidation2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Nordic Master's Programme on Raw Materials2013Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Nordic Mining School - A Cross-Border Education Initiative2013Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 10. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Kniivilä, Jani
    Åbo Akademi.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Microstructure Development in Consolidating Pigment Coatings Studied by Numerical Simulation2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Kniivilä, Jani
    Åbo Akademi.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Structure formation mechanisms in consolidating pigment coatings: Simulation and visualisation2011Ingår i: Chemical Engineering and Processing, ISSN 0255-2701, E-ISSN 1873-3204, Vol. 50, nr 5-6, s. 574-582Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Kol, Erdogan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Broadbent, Chris
    Wardell Armstrong International.
    Social Acceptance of Mining in the Nordic and European Context: Experiences from FAME and Other EU Projects2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Social acceptance has emerged as a topic of outmost importance for the mining and metals industry. Recently, Luleå University of Technology has been involved in a number of EU-projects aimed at addressing issues related to social acceptance, wider society awareness building and education, as well as exploring the relation between policymaking and mining industry innovations towards more sustainable production. In this respect, the FAME project (funded by the EU through Horizon 2020) has a strong focus on developing processes and technologies towards minimal impact on environment, while at the same time considering health and safety aspects and being socio-politically acceptable.   

    This presentation reflects on social acceptance issues, with particular focus on the Nordic and European context. The relevance of good working conditions, community involvement and trust-building as well as consideration for the environment are mentioned as key factors for a successful mining project. The mining industry is constantly working on process and raw material efficiency, water and energy savings, safer and better residue handling as well as remediation and protective actions at end of life. This work needs, however, to be complemented with public information and knowledge sharing both on local and on wider society level.

    It is concluded that continuous efforts are needed for promoting social acceptance of the mining industry. On the local level, it is the responsibility of industry to build trust with the surrounding community. On wider society level a combination of stakeholder dialogue meetings and education initiatives are needed in order to generate understanding of the role of the mining and metals industry in society, possibilities and constraints of the circular economy, and other issues related to raw materials. In this respect, multiplier organisations such as NGOs, industry branch organisations and academia play a key role for successful outreach.

  • 13. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Nopola, Tuija
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    A particle motion model for the study of consolidation phenomena2009Ingår i: Computers and Chemical Engineering, ISSN 0098-1354, E-ISSN 1873-4375, Vol. 33, nr 7, s. 1227-1239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Dynamic vapor sorption: A novel method for measuring the hydrophobicity in industrial-scale froth flotation2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Education Related to Mineral Raw Materials in the European Union: D3.1 Preliminary report on available study programmes and existing skill shortages2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Multiple criteria approach to model calibration in DEM simulation of compaction processes2013Ingår i: SME Annual Meeting Preprints, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-dimensional computational model based on the discrete element method (DEM) is utilized for modeling of stamp-charged coke making. In this process, a large volume of coal is compacted to one single coal cake before entering the coke oven. Cake densification and mechanical strength development are key factors for the subsequent production of a high-quality coke. An approach is introduced for model calibration utilizing multiple control parameters obtained from a laboratory-scale stamping device. Experimental data on stamper rebound amplitude, attenuation and peak force are compared with simulation output in a pairwise manner by constructing a criteria space, which allows identification of model settings best satisfying the control parameters. The calibration procedure carried out by multiple criteria comparison aided model parameter selection for reproducing stamper behavior in response to the properties of the cake subjected to compaction. This modeling and calibration procedure offers possibilities for numerically studying the densification and mechanical strength development of coal cakes. However, the approach is also more widely applicable to other compaction processes.

  • 17.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Particle methods in engineering applications2011Ingår i: Conference in Minerals Engineering 2011, Luleå, 2011, s. 183-197Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle dynamics simulation has been established as an accepted and integral part of research and development in various fields of engineering. Simulation offers benefits in predicting particle system behaviour, geometry optimisation in equipment design and in deepening the understanding of particle-level phenomena. In this paper, methods for studying particle-based problems are reviewed and linked to applications relevant to the minerals industry. The current state of models is discussed and guidelines are given regarding current problems and future potential of particle simulation in mineral processing.

  • 18.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Kuyumcu, Halit Z.
    TU Berlin.
    DEM modelling and simulation of coal compaction by stamping2012Ingår i: Conference in Minerals Engineering Luleå 7-8 February 2012 / [ed] Jan Rosenkranz; Tommy Karlkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Within stamp-charged coke making a large volume of coal is compacted to one single coal cake before entering the coke oven chamber. This is done by means of several falling stampers in a stamping machine having a mould nearly of the oven’s dimensions. Producing a high quality coke also from inferior coals requires a cake density of approximately 80% of the coal density. Besides that the industrial stamp-charging process demands a minimum mechanical strength of the coal cake to move it from the stamping mould into the oven chamber without failure. Densification and the build up of cake strength were investigated earlier in stamping tests using a micro-stamping device [1-2]. The quantities derived from these tests (as e.g. cake density or porosity) represent average values for the entire cake. Statements describing the local compaction state at different heights are difficult to achieve without destructing the cake.In order to gain better insight into the densification process and the inner structure of the coal cake a computational model based on the discrete element method, DEM, has been set up using 2 and 3-dimensional simulation software. The stamper’s position and velocity as well as the force acting on the stamper were monitored and the model’s response was compared against measurement data from laboratory stamping tests.It was possible to reproduce the force and displacement pattern of the stamper in response to the visco-elastic properties of the cake using standard DEM bonding and contact models. Furthermore, the rearrangement of particles in response to the compaction by the stamper was tracked by calculating their displacement at the point the stamper hit the coal surface. The latter can also be used as indicators of particle deformation or breakage. By defining control points at different heights the particle displacement, stress and strain rates, porosity could be studied at different heights.

  • 19.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Kuyumcu, Halit Z.
    Technical University Berlin.
    Modeling of coal compaction within stamp-charged cokemaking by means of computational physics2012Ingår i: XXVI International Mineral Processing Congress: IMPC 2012, New Delhi, India, September 24-28, 2012 : conference proceedings, New Dehli: The Indian Institute of Metals , 2012, Vol. 1, s. 4696-4706Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within stamp-charged coke making, a large volume of coal is compacted to one single coal cake before entering the coke oven chamber. This is done by means of several falling stampers in a stamping machine having a mold nearly of the oven’s dimensions. Producing a high quality coke from inferior coals requires a cake density of approximately 80% of the coal density. Besides this, the industrial stamp-charging process demands a minimum mechanical strength of the coal cake to move it from the stamping mold into the oven chamber without failure. Densification and the build up of cake strength were investigated earlier in stamping tests using a micro-stamping device. The quantities derived from these tests (as e.g. cake density or porosity) represent average values for the entire cake. Statements describing the local compaction state at different heights are difficult to achieve without destructing the cake. In order to gain better insight into the densification process and the inner structure of the coal cake, a computational model based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) was set up using 2 and also 3-dimensional simulation software. The stamper’s position and velocity as well as the force acting on the stamper were monitored and the model’s response was compared against measurement data from laboratory stamping tests. It was possible to reproduce the force and displacement pattern of the stamper in response to the viscoelastic properties of the cake using standard DEM bonding and contact models. Furthermore, the rearrangement of particles in response to the compaction by the stamper was tracked by calculating their displacement at the point the stamper hit the coal surface. The latter can also be used as an indicator of particle deformation or breakage. By defining control points at different heights the particle displacement, stress and strain rates, porosity could be studied at different heights.

  • 20.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Kuyumcu, Halit Z.
    Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing, TU Berlin.
    Modelling and simulation of stamp-charged coke making by 2-D discrete element method2013Ingår i: Advanced Powder Technology, ISSN 0921-8831, E-ISSN 1568-5527, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 1039-1047Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coking of coal blends using high-volatile coals with poor caking properties can be achieved by densifying the coal prior to carbonisation. In stamp-charged coke making, the coal charge is compacted to one large cake before entering the coke oven. A coal cake density of approximately 80% of the coal solid density is needed to produce a high-quality coke. Also, sufficient mechanical strength is required when transferring the cake from the stamping machine to the oven. To gain insight into the densification process and cake structure a 2-dimensional computational model based on the discrete element method (DEM) was set up.The model was validated against force and displacement patterns from laboratory stamping tests. Stamper movement in response to cake properties could be reproduced. The approach also enables tracking of cake porosity, particle rearrangement, stress and strain rates, etc. This offers additional possibilities for studying the densification process and understanding mechanical strength development.

  • 21.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Lund, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Sandström, Åke
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Education Related to Mineral Raw Materials in the European Union: D3.3 Final Report on Skill Shortages and Means of Addressing Them2015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University.
    A modified Stokesian dynamics method for mineral suspensions2011Ingår i: Particle-based Methods – Fundamentals and Applications / [ed] Eduardo Oñate; D.R.J. Owen, Barcelona: International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), 2011, s. 697-709Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A 3-dimensional modified Stokesian dynamics-based technique for simulating mineral particle suspensions is presented. Stokesian dynamics is a mesh free particle approach, which resembles the discrete element method. It includes hydrodynamic interactions and other interparticle forces. Expressions for the hydrodynamic interactions were modified based on results from finite element (FE) calculation. The modifications allow for broader particle size distributions than captured by traditional analytical expressions describing hydrodynamic interactions. In addition, models are presented for colloidal interactions, steric repulsion caused by polymer adsorbed onto mineral particles and the Brownian motion. These models expand the applicability down to μm and nm size particles. Comparison between governing forces can be made by generation of dimensionless expressions such as the particle Reynolds and Peclét numbers. Numerical simulations performed using this technique enable the study of microscopic scale mechanisms and the characterisation of particle systems. This allows for appreciation of microstructure development in time and the prediction of macroscopic level properties of particle suspensions and consolidating systems. This paper reports on both model development and results utilising the above-described approach. In conclusion, the method is put into context by discussion of the applicability of the method in various wet-state mineral processing applications.

  • 23.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Stener, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Carlson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    A Stokesian Dynamics Approach for Simulation of Magnetic Particle Suspensions2015Ingår i: Proceedings of Computational Modelling 2015: Minerals Engineering International, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Stener, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Carlson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    A Stokesian Dynamics Approach for Simulation of Magnetic Particle Suspensions2016Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 90, nr SI , s. 70-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic behaviour of μm-scale ferromagnetic particles in suspension is of interest for various mineral beneficiation processes. It is, however, difficult to experimentally study such processes at the particle-level. In these instances it can be advantageous to resort to suitable particle simulation methods.Stokesian dynamics is a mesh-free numerical technique developed for suspensions of nm to mm size particles. The method inherently considers hydrodynamic interactions, but additional interaction models can be included depending on the system under investigation. We here present a Stokesian dynamics (SD) implementation, which allows for simulation of the motion of suspended magnetic particles in presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic interaction model includes particle-field interactions as well as pairwise interactions between magnetised particles.Simulations are compared with experiments using a laboratory-scale flow cell. The method is shown to be realistic for studying ferromagnetic suspensions in mineral processing applications, and can be useful in understanding and predicting the efficiency of mineral separation processes.

  • 25.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Stener, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Carlson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Simulation of Magnetic Particle Suspensions Using the Stokesian Dynamics Technique2015Ingår i: Proceedings of Conference in Minerals Engineering 2015, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Microscopic Modelling of Coating Layer Consolidation Part 12005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Microscopic Modelling of Coating Layer Consolidation Part 22007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Coating Layer Consolidation and the Influence of Drying Strategy - A Numerical Study2008Ingår i: Progress in Paper Physics Seminar: proceedings : June 2-5, 2008 ,Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Espoo, Finland / [ed] Kaisa Kotomaki, Espoo: Helsinki University of Technology , 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Colloidal Interactions and Particle Clustering in Consolidating Pigment Coating Layers2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Influence of colloidal interactions on pigment coating layer structure formation2009Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 332, s. 394-401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 31. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Influence of Drying Strategy on Coating Layer Structure Formation2008Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 46-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Investigation of Filter Cake Stability using Numerical Simulation Technique2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Investigation of Filter Cake Stability using Numerical Simulation Technique2008Ingår i: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 4-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Small Particle Migration Mechanisms in Consolidating Pigment Coating Layers2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 35. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    Small Particle Mobility in Consolidating Coating Layers2008Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 52-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36. Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi.
    Hjelt, Tuomo
    KCL.
    The Application of Modified Stokesian Dynamics to 3D Particle Motion Simulations of Pigment Coating Colours2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Carlson, Johan E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Direct measurement of internal material flow in a bench scale wet Low-Intensity Magnetic Separator2016Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 91, s. 55-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work an ultrasound-based measurement method is used formonitoring suspension velocity and build-up of magnetic material inside awet Low-Intensity Magnetic Separator, a process used e.g. inbeneficiation of magnetite ores. Today the only available option is tomonitor material transport between unit operations; i.e. flow rate,solids concentration, and particle size distribution of suspension flowin pipes are measured online using standard equipment.An Acoustic Backscatter System is fitted to the tank of a separator, andused to monitor the internal flow. A method called Ultrasonic VelocityProfiling is used to capture internal velocity profiles. Simultaneously,the backscatter signal intensity is used to get indications about localsolids concentration of the flow, and build-up of magnetic material. Themethods are evaluated in realistic conditions, where the effect ofvarying factors relevant to machine performance is investigated. Theincluded factors are; the slurry feed rate, the slurry solidsconcentration, the magnet assembly angle, and the drum rotational speed.The presented method gives useful information about the internal materialflow inside the separator. The velocity measurements capture the,sometimes complex, internal flow patterns, for example the presence andvelocity of a recirculating flow in the dewatering zone. Additionally,keeping a balanced material loading in the concentrate dewatering zone isimportant to separator performance. Using the signal backscatterintensity it is possible to qualitatively monitor this material loading.Generally these direct measurements can aid in improvements to machinedesign, process optimization, and process control.

  • 38.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Carlson, Johan E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Direct measurement of internal material flow in bench scale wet Low-Intensity Magnetic Separator2015Ingår i: Proceedings of Physical Separation '15, Minerals Engineering International , 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Carlson, Johan E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Evaluation of the applicability of ultrasonic velocity profiling in conditions related to wet low intensity magnetic separation2013Ingår i: Proceedings of Physical Separation '13, Minerals Engineering International , 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Carlson, Johan E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Evaluation of the applicability of ultrasonic velocity profiling in conditions related to wet low intensity magnetic separation2014Ingår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 62, s. 2-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal material transport and selection processes of the wet low-intensity magnetic separators (LIMS) are poorly understood; this calls for improved measurement techniques. In this work an ultrasonic velocity profiling (UVP) technique for measuring how material flow velocity varies with penetration depth is presented. A measurement depth of just a couple of centimetres would greatly improve the understanding of the separation process in a LIMS.When applied to flows of mineral suspensions with high volumetric solids concentration, similar to those in the separators, UVP is unique in combining:•Non-intrusive measurements.•Operates using just one sensor element (transducer).•Relatively good spatial resolution.•Penetrates opaque suspensions.•Fast sampling rate.Here, flows are studied in a rectangular duct (50 × 75 mm). Using magnetite suspensions, measurement through the whole depth of 50 mm is made with good accuracy. Velocity profiles are presented for solids concentrations of 5% and 9% solids by volume (20% and 36% by weight). Even at 9 vol% solids it is possible to reach a penetration depth of more than 25 mm.

  • 41.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Carlson, Johan E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Robust estimation of particle velocity profiles in high concentration magnetite suspensions2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2013 International Congress on Ultrasonics / [ed] Gan Woon Siong; Lim Siak Piang; Khoo Boo Cheong, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mining industry magnetite particles are transported in aqueous suspension through different stages of the process. In some stages it is of interest to monitor both the concentration and particle velocity profiles over a cross-section of the flow. In this paper an ultrasonic flow meter method based on cross-correlation of backscattered sound is presented. High solid particle content (e.g. 20-40 wt%) makes this challenging and therefore the emphasis lies on developing robust signal processing techniques for particle velocity estimation. The developed method is evaluated in laboratory experiments on flows in a rectangular duct. Transducers with centre frequency 1, 2, 4 and 5 MHz are evaluated in flows with a solid content of 20% by weight (4.7 vol% solids). Using the 2 MHz transducer a penetration depth of 50 mm is reached.

  • 42.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Carlson, Johan E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Ultrasonic velocity profiling of flows related to wet low intensity magnetic separation2013Ingår i: Conference in Minerals Engineering: Luleå 5-6 February 2013 / [ed] Jan Rosenkranz; Tommy Karlkvist, Luleå, 2013, s. 157-168Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal workings of wet Low Intensity Magnetic Separators (LIMS) are poorly understood. In this work an Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique for measuring material flow speed at varying depth. A measurement depth of just a couple of centimetres will greatly improve our understanding of the separation process.When applied to flows of high density mineral suspensions, similar to those in wet LIMS, UVP is unique in combining:• Non-intrusive measurements.• A single transceiver element is sufficient.• Relatively good spatial resolution.• Penetrates opaque suspensions.• Fast sampling rate.Here, flows are studied in a simple rectangular geometry (50x75 mm), using dilute magnetite suspensions; measurement through the whole depth of 50 mm is made with good accuracy. Velocity profiles are presented for different sensors at solids concentrations of 5 vol% solids.

  • 43.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Carlson, Johan E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Towards the measurement of local particle mass fractions in magnetite suspensions2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2014: Chicago, Ill, 3-6 September 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 939-942Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mining industry, magnetite particles are transported in suspensions with water through different stages of the process. In some of these stages, it is of interest to monitor both the concentration and particle velocity over a cross-section of the flow. High particle concentration makes development of flow measurement techniques challenging. An additional challenge is that the flow is often accessible from one side only, which further limits the selection of applicable techniques. Previous work by the authors focused on using pulse-echo ultrasound for flow velocity profile estimation. In this paper the same setup is used to simultaneously study local variations in solids concentration. Ultrasound pulses are transmitted into the suspension, and the resulting backscatter is recorded. The statistics of the backscatter depend on solids concentration, particle size distribution, particle density, etc. We demonstrate how a short-time (windowed) Power Spectral Density (PSD) estimate can be used to obtain qualitative information about local solids concentration variations. For demonstration, a magnetite suspension carrying up to 7.5 vol% particles (29 wt%, mean particle size 34 μm) is pumped through a closed rectangular channel. When the pump is stopped, pulse-echo ultrasound (with a center frequency of 2.25 or 3.5 MHz) is used to monitor the sedimentation process. Nine snapshots of the process are included. These show a time lapse of the sedimentation, with 5 s between each image. It is clear that the short-time PSD is a good indicator of local mass fraction variations.

  • 44.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Carlson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Internal flow measurements in pilot scale wet low-intensity magnetic separation2016Ingår i: International Journal of Mineral Processing, ISSN 0301-7516, E-ISSN 1879-3525, Vol. 155, s. 55-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mining industry, ferromagnetic particles (e.g. magnetite) are concentrated using wet low-intensity magnetic separation (LIMS). The performance is to a large extent controlled by the internal flow conditions in the separator. In previous work, it was shown how an ultrasound pulse-echo setup can be used to simultaneously measure particle velocity profiles and local solids concentration variations in laboratory conditions. In this paper, a real-world case is demonstrated where the system is installed on one of the wet LIMS at the LKAB R&D facilities in Malmberget, Sweden. For the pilot scale experiments a setup with two ultrasound transducers, mounted at the bottom of the separator tank, is used. The design of experiments method is used to study the effects of the feed solids concentration, drum rotational speed, position of the concentrate weir, and the magnet assembly angle on the measured flow patterns. The results show that it is possible to detect changes in the flow velocity patterns and the local solids concentration, as the operational conditions of the separator are varied. Of the factors studied, the drum rotational speed has the strongest influence on the overall flow velocity in the dewatering zone. Also, the presence of a recirculating flow transporting gangue particles away from the concentrate is confirmed. The factor with the strongest influence on this recirculating flow is also the drum rotational speed, together with the magnet assembly angle. Using this method it is possible to make high quality measurements of internal flow velocity profiles. It is also possible to monitor material build-up on the separator drum, and e.g. detect overload of magnetic material. The insights gained, and the methods developed, have generated new possibilities to control, optimise, and develop the wet LIMS process.

  • 45.
    Stener, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Carlson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Monitoring Mineral Slurry Flow using Pulse-Echo Ultrasound2016Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 50, s. 135-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrasound based flow measurement methods have a large potential for the mining industry and its processing plants. Ultrasound travel through dense suspensions and is not affected by the magnetic fields sometimes present in this type of equipment.A cross-correlation based method is used for localized particle velocity measurements in one and two dimensions. Simultaneously, using the same data, information about local particle concentration is extracted from the power spectral density of the backscattered signal. Experiments are carried out both in simplified geometry and in full scale equipment in an iron ore pilot benefication plant.In the simple geometry it is possible to assess the precision of the methods by comparing the measurements to theory and numerical simulations. The results from the pilot plant experiments show that these methods can be applied to real world processes

  • 46.
    Vrkljan, Darko
    et al.
    Department of Mining and Metallurgy, University of Zagreb.
    Grbes, Anamarija
    Department of Mining and Metallurgy, University of Zagreb.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sand, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Mineralteknik och metallurgi.
    Berger, Gerald
    Wirtschaftsuniversität, Wien.
    Innovative processing: Final report including guidelines and recommendations for future policy development for innovation in mineral and metallurgical processing2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesThe aim of WP4 “Innovative Processing” is to elaborate how innovations in mineral and metallurgical processing are generated or taken up in different EU Member States and on EU‐level and how this is either facilitated or inhibited by policies and legislation on national or European level. The purpose oft he deliverable 4.3 is to complement the findings of D4.1 and D4.2 by carrying out additional interviews with representatives from different stakeholder groups (academia, industry, NGO’s and policymakers). The topics and questions of the questionnaire addressed the respondents’ perception of national and EU‐ and EU MS level mineral policies, gaps and needs with respect to innovation in mineral‐ and metallurgical processing. Questions for the questionnaire focus on previously identified innovations in mineral processing, metallurgical processing and metal recycling. Based on the input both from previous deliverables and from findings through the additional interviews and innovation cases, an analysis of needs and gaps as well as a SWOT analysis has been conducted. Recommendations for future development of mineral and metallurgical processing sector were evaluated.

    Main FindingsConclusions and recommendations for future policy development for innovation in mineral and metallurgical processing were developed based on a survey and a SWOT analysis.

    • Most of the mineral policies are addressing the entire mineral value chain. Several statutory provisions are related to mineral and metallurgical processing. National mineral policies are not very much addressing the mineral and metallurgical processing, while recycling is dislocated from mining/mineral legislation.
    • The sentiment amongst policy makers towards the raw materials industry has improved on EU level through a number of strategic policy initiatives (e.g. the Strategic Implementation Plan for Raw materials, the revised EU Industrial Policy Strategy, the Raw Materials Initiative).
    • The use of raw materials from secondary sources has been identified as being an integral part of the life cycle of materials.
    • Innovations in mineral and metallurgical processing are not supported at strategic and economic/investment level. The policy is neutral or inhibiting through long and uncertain permitting procedure, or is indifferent to innovation as to mineral and metallurgical processing.
    • The European knowledge and skills base in mineral and metallurgical processing has diminished during the past 20 years.
1 - 46 av 46
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