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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Forsberg, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, External, LTU Business AB.
    Projekt: Hästkrafter för entreprenörskap2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av företagande, ledarskap och genus i hästbranschen. Projektet pågick 2009-2011 med finansiering från Stiftelsen Lantbruksforskning (2,5 milj kr). I projektet medverkade Lena Abrahamsson, Mats Westerberg och doktorand Lena Forsberg.

  • 2.
    Amundsdotter, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gunnarsson, Ewa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    GAAL: a model for practical equality work in an engineering environment2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, External. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care. Mälardalens högskola.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Entrepreneurship in teacher education: Conceptualisation and tensions2018In: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Education: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn & Eddy Laveren, cheshire: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 123-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship education is an area of growing importance within entrepreneurship research. This book critically discusses innovation and entrepreneurship in new and varied contexts in Europe. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Education explores the need for researching innovation and learning in family firms, micro firms, SMEs and in rural and network contexts. The chapters offer new insights into the antecedents of business performance in SMEs by investigating social capital and marketing capabilities. The book includes a new typology for analysing entrepreneurship education programmes, discusses opportunities for embedding entrepreneurship in teacher education and explores entrepreneurship in the informal learning arenas in universities. This book includes a wide range of studies from different analytical and methodological perspectives and from various regional and industrial contexts. As such, it is a valuable tool for advanced students of European entrepreneurship. Researchers in entrepreneurship will also benefit from the up-to-date research analysis in this book.

  • 4.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Leonardson, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westman, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Developing teachers for the 21st century by focusing on professional competences2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Networking to boost lean six sigma potential2008In: Third international Conference on Sex Sigma / [ed] Jiju Antony; Maneesh Kumar; Chidebere Ogbu, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, 2008, p. 488-500Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of 2008 three SMEs in a small town in Sweden started a network project inspired by the Six Sigma programme, and hired a full-time Black Belt to lead the improvement activities. Three months into the project, we interviewed the top management of the participating companies and the Black Belt, to pinpoint success factors as well as risks of the cooperation project. Results show that statistical methods were unused in favour of methods associated with lean manufacturing such as 5S. Accordingly, the expectations of the CEOs were related to production improvements and flow rather than quality. Both the Black Belt and the CEOs stated that management commitment was vital for the success of the partnership, but also that the visibility of this commitment could be improved. Despite this, all interviewees agreed that the project had gotten a good start and the managers had high expectations for its progress.

  • 6.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Networking to make improvements sustainable: an SME success factor?2009In: Proceedings 7th ANQ Congress Tokyo 2009, 2009, p. 522-531Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I mars 2008 beslutade tre svenska mindre företag att öka takten i sitt förbättringsarbete och anställde gemensamt en förbättringskonsult på heltid. Detta dokument beskriver företagens arbete och presenterar resultat från en undersökning baserad på Ajzen's teori om planerat beteende, riktad till samtliga anställda och genomförd efter nio månader. Resultaten visar att arbetstagarnas avsikt att genomföra förbättringsarbete var korrelerade med tron på den egna förmågan att utföra förbättringsarbete, och med ledningens normer. Således kan nyckeln till ett framgångsrikt förbättringsarbete för dessa företag ses ligga i att ha en engagerad ledning och erbjuda anställda utbildning och handledning.

  • 7.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Testing for motivation to engage in improvements: a conceptual framework and an initial empirical test2014In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, no 11-12, p. 1224-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for testing the motivation to engage in improvement work. The framework is based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), that we suggest can be used to facilitate the implementation of improvement programmes. By using the model and probing intentions, attitudes, norms and perceived ability related to improvement work, we believe hindrances for implementation of improvement programmes will be exposed. When operationalising the framework we developed a survey instrument based on TPB and then made an initial empirical test by distributing it to 124 employees (response rate 67%) of three manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises. Factor analysis and regression were used to analyse the survey and follow-up interviews with employees and managers were used to validate the results. This initial test of the instrument showed that it has sound measurement properties, indicated by clear factor structure and good internal consistency. Interview data also validated that the instrument was able to capture important aspects related to implementation of improvement work. Based on the result, we conclude that TPB may be useful for guiding management actions. However, since our study only draws on a limited empirical sample, future research is needed to test the contextual validity.

  • 8.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Testing for willingness to engage in improvement work2011In: Quality Innovation Knowledge: 10th International Research Conference on Quality, Innovation and Knowledge, Monash University , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Bonnedahl, K.
    et al.
    Gabrielsson, Å.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Entreprenörskap och småföretagande i norra Italien och Slovenien: gamla traditioner och nya möjligheter2007Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Dal, Michael
    et al.
    School of Education, University of Iceland.
    Elo, Janne
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University.
    Leffler, Eva
    Department of Education, Umeå University.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Research on pedagogical entrepreneurship: a literature review based on studies from Finland, Iceland and Sweden.2016In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 159-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for entrepreneurship in the educational system are present not only in the Nordic countries, but also in the majority of other Western countries. Linked to these strategies different research efforts have been made. Although the research efforts have a common origin in supranational policies on entrepreneurship, there has been little research analysing the similarities and differences in how the topic is addressed by researchers in different countries. Being able to relate to both the policy and the available research in a nuanced way is important especially in the context of teacher education. The purpose of this article is to review the most recent research in pedagogical entrepreneurship from three countries: Finland, Iceland and Sweden. The aim is to discover whether the common phenomena of entrepreneurship in an educational context are approached differently in these three countries. The review of 21 articles in all, covering aim, method, concepts, references and results, draws a rather fragmented picture of the research. The main results are that the reviewed research was mostly qualitative and covered the entire spectrum from theoretical research to practice-oriented research. A variety of concepts were used. The analysis of the use of references uncovered a need to be more aware of including research from neighbouring regions. The research field seems to be quite lively and is still developing. However, it would benefit from a better dialogue between researchers in order to strengthen the contribution of Nordic research on pedagogical entrepreneurship.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Effects of cooperative procurement procedures on construction project performance: a conceptual framework2011In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 197-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a testable holistic procurement framework that examines how a broad range of procurement related factors affects project performance criteria. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we put forward propositions suggesting that cooperative procurement procedures (joint specification, selected tendering, soft parameters in bid evaluation, joint subcontractor selection, incentive-based payment, collaborative tools, and contractor self-control) generally have a positive influence on project performance (cost, time, quality, environmental impact, work environment, and innovation). We additionally propose that these relationships are moderated or mediated by the collaborative climate (i.e. the trust and commitment among partners) in the project and moderated by the overall project characteristics (i.e. how challenging the project is in terms of complexity, customization, uncertainty, value/size, and time pressure). Based on our contribution, future research can test the framework empirically to further increase the knowledge about how procurement factors may influence project performance.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Effects of procurement on construction project performance2009In: IAMOT 2009: 18th International Conference on Management of Technology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gender and entrepreneurship in the horse-related industry2013In: Journal of Business Diversity, ISSN 2158-3889, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 75-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the horse-related industry in terms of entrepreneurship and gender. Based on reports of the industry, a mapping of the entire sector (N= 7504) and a questionnaire (N=520) we find that the industry is portrayed as female gendered, but dominated by men. However, we also find evidence that the industry is changing gender, as women dominate among younger entrepreneurs. The strongest motives for the horse-related entrepreneurs (regardless of gender) are realizing a dream and being able to combine interest with work. We also found that entrepreneurs in this industry mainly network inside the industry.

  • 14.
    Forsberg, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gender and entrepreneurship in the horse-related industry2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the horse-related industry in terms of entrepreneurship and gender. Based on reports of the industry, a mapping of the entire sector (N= 7504) and a questionnaire (N=520) we find that the industry is portrayed as female gendered, but dominated by men. However, we also find evidence that the industry is changing gender, as women dominate among younger entrepreneurs. The strongest motives for the horse-related entrepreneurs (regardless of gender) are realizing a dream and being able to combine interest with work. We also found that entrepreneurs in this industry mainly network inside the industry.

  • 15.
    Hoppe, Magnus
    et al.
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalens University.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leffler, Eva
    Department of Education, Umeå University.
    Educational approaches to entrepreneurship in higher education: A view from the Swedish horizon2017In: Education + Training, ISSN 0040-0912, E-ISSN 1758-6127, Vol. 59, no 7/8, p. 751-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to present and develop models of educational approaches to entrepreneurship that can provide complementary analytical structures to better study, enact and reflect upon the role of entrepreneurship in higher education.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A general framework for entrepreneurship education is developed by using theory as well as practical experiences from the fields of business, engineering and pedagogy. The paper is mainly conceptual where the unfolding Swedish practice is used as contextual backdrop.

    Findings

    The FOR/IN/THROUGH/ABOUT (FITA) taxonomy is presented and used to develop three models of how to approach entrepreneurship in higher education depending on purpose. As there exists a didactical divide between entrepreneurial education for business and entrepreneurial approach to teaching and learning, educators and researchers ought to let their specific context influence the adoption of the taxonomy as well as the presented models.

    Research limitations/implications

    The differentiations suggested by the presented models can be used to both structure the designs and limit claims of future research. More heuristic research is called for.

    Practical implications

    The use of FITA in the designing of entrepreneurship education offers new opportunities for enhancing complementary student learning in higher education.

    Social implications

    The study suggests that any political or scholarly initiative must acknowledge the diversity of entrepreneurship education and chose different approaches depending on what is to be achieved.

    Originality/value

    The multidisciplinary approach has made it possible to present and create models that denote a common ground for a productive discussion on how to better understand and make use of entrepreneurship in higher education.

  • 16.
    Hoppe, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå university.
    Entreprenörskap och entreprenöriellt lärande2016In: Pedagogik för högskolelärare, Möklinta: Gidlunds bokförlag i Hedemora , 2016, p. 311-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Demographics, injury characteristics and outcome of traumatic brain injuries in northern Sweden2007In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 300-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives - To describe demographics, injury characteristics and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in northern Sweden over 10 years. Material and methods - Data were retrospectively collected on those individuals ( n = 332) in Norrbotten, northern Sweden, with a TBI who had been transferred for neurosurgical care from 1992 to 2001. Results - A majority were older men with a mild TBI and an acute or chronic subdural hematoma following a fall. Younger individuals were fewer but had more often a severe TBI from a traffic accident. Most individuals received post-acute care and brain injury rehabilitation. A majority had a moderate or severe disability, but many were discharged back home with no major changes in their physical or social environment. Conclusions - Our data confirm the relationship between age, cause of injury, injury severity and outcome in relation to TBI and underscore the need for prevention as well as the importance of TBI as a cause of long-term disability

  • 18.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Health related quality of life and life satisfaction 6 to 15 yearsafter traumatic brain injuries in northern Sweden2010In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1075-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction many years after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and assess possible associations with variables related to the time of injury and follow-up and the individuals' self-appraisal of the impact of the TBI. Method: Sixty-seven individuals (18-65 years), on average 10 years post-injury, were interviewed. Data on HRQoL, using the SF-36 questionnaire, were compared with a Swedish age-and sex-matched reference sample, and life satisfaction, using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), were compared with a nationwide Swedish sample of students. The participant's self-appraisal of the TBI was assessed with two supplementary questions. Data were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression analyses.Results: HRQoL as well as life satisfaction were lower compared with the reference samples. From the regression analyses, the individuals' own appraisal of the impact of the TBI and whether they were vocationally productive or not were strongly associated with their current physical health and life satisfaction.Conclusion: These results confirm the importance of TBI as a cause of long-term disability and the impact of the injury on the individuals' self-perceived values of health, quality-of-life and life satisfaction

  • 19.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Malec, J.
    Rehabilitation Hospital of Indiana and Indiana University School of Medicine.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sense of coherence and disability and the relationship with life satisfaction 6 to 15 years after traumatic brain injuries in northern Sweden2011In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to assess sense of coherence (SOC) many years after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the relationship between SOC and self-rated life satisfaction (LS) as well as measures of functioning and disability, sex, age at injury, injury severity and time post-injury. Sixty-six individuals (aged 18-65 years) who were 6-15 years post-injury were interviewed. Data on SOC (SOC-13 item scale), measures of functioning and disability (Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory, MPAI-4), LS (Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWLS), and sex, age at injury, injury severity and time post-injury were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The results showed that SOC in the study group did not differ from the general population and was strongly associated with LS. Regression analyses revealed that emotional factors, social participation, SOC, and time since injury, were more influential than sex, age at injury, and injury severity in explaining LS. It was concluded that SOC in this group of individuals with TBI who were many years post-injury was similar to nondisabled individuals. SOC, together with emotional factors, social participation and injury-related factors, were determinants of LS. These results confirm that LS after TBI is a complex phenomenon dependent on several factors that are important targets for rehabilitation professionals.

  • 20.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Lexell, Jan
    Functioning and disability 6-15 years after traumatic brain injuries in northern Sweden2009In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 389-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives - To assess long-term functioning and disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Material and methods - Individuals (n = 88) in Norrbotten, northern Sweden, who had been transferred for neurosurgical care were assessed with internationally established TBI outcome measures 6-15 years post-injury. Results - There was an improvement in overall outcome from discharge from inpatient rehabilitation to follow-up. Many individuals had a high degree of motor and cognitive functioning, which enabled them to live independently in their own home without assistance, but there remained a disability related to community reintegration and social participation. This affected their productivity and to some degree their marital stability. The remaining disability and reduced productivity were related to the age at injury and the injury severity. Conclusions Our data showed that individuals with a TBI can achieve and maintain a high degree of functioning many years after the injury. Increasing age and a greater injury severity contributed to their long-term disability.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Identifying work ability promoting factors for home care aides and assistant nurses2012In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In workplace health promotion, all potential resources needs to be taken into consideration, not only factors relating to the absence of injury and the physical health of the workers, but also psychological aspects. A dynamic balance between the resources of the individual employees and the demands of work is an important prerequisite. In the home care services, there is a noticeable trend towards increased psychosocial strain on employees at work. There are a high frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and a low prevalence of sustainable work ability. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services.This study is based on cross-sectional data collected in a municipality in northern Sweden. Care aides (n = 58) and assistant nurses (n = 79) replied to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 46%). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of several independent variables on self-efficacy (model 1) and work ability (model 2) for care aides and assistant nurses separately.Perceptions of personal safety, self-efficacy and musculoskeletal wellbeing contributed to work ability for assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.36, p < 0.001), while for care aides, the safety climate, seniority and age contributed to work ability (R2adj of 0.29, p = 0.001). Self-efficacy was associated with the safety climate and the physical demands of the job in both professions (R2adj of 0.24, p = 0.003 for care aides), and also by sex and age for the assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.31, p < 0.001).The intermediate factors contributed differently to work ability in the two professions. Self-efficacy, personal safety and musculoskeletal wellbeing were important for the assistant nurses, while the work ability of the care aides was associated with the safety climate, but also with the non-changeable factors age and seniority. All these factors are important to acknowledge in practice and in further research. Proactive workplace interventions need to focus on potentially modifiable factors such as self-efficacy, safety climate, physical job demands and musculoskeletal wellbeing.

  • 22.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Perceptions of health and risk management among home care workers in Sweden2013In: Physical Therapy Reviews, ISSN 1083-3196, E-ISSN 1743-288X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 336-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Municipal home care workers provide high-quality services to an increasing proportion of elderly people living in private homes. The work environments and working conditions of these workers vary to a great extent, implying rapid prioritymaking among both employers and employees to ensure that the work can be performed in a safe way. Objectives: This study aims to examine home care workers perceptions of health, risks, working conditions and risk management within their organisation. Method: The study was based on cross-sectional data collected from home care service staff' in a municipality in the north of Sweden. Nursing assistants and care aides(n=133) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and between-group differences were analysed. Results: Home care work was perceived to require high levels of professional skill and ingenuity, a good psychosocial work situation, but required a high physical workload. The general health, the capacity and self-efficacy of the staff in relation to work were good. Difficulties in performing risk assessments and to follow safety regulations due to lack of time, equipment and information were identified.Conclusion: There is a need to increase participation in risk assessments among the staff, improve management support, structures and cooperation with other divisions of the social services and the medical care organisations.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Promoting a safety climate and safety activities for health and work ability in home care services workers2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The present study aims to describe home care service workers' perceptions of safety climate and safety activities at work as well as working conditions, self-efficacy, and health and work ability. Relevance: High frequencies of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries and low prevalence of sustainable work ability in home care services workers are of great concern. They are to provide high quality services to an increasingly proportion of elderly people living in private homes. In order to promote health and safety for the home care workers, increased focus should be on organisational, psychosocial and physical factors contributing to a healthy working environment. Participants: 158 nursing assistants and nursing aides divided in 18 work units participated in this study. They all met the criterion of having worked in the same home care services unit in the last 6 months. Their mean age was 46 years, the majority were women, and the distribution of nursing aides and nursing assistants was about 40/60%. Methods: This study is based on cross-sectional data gathered in February 2009 in home care services in a municipality in the North of Sweden. All the home-care work units shared the experiences of using a model for participatory risk management in home care services. Data were obtained through a comprehensive self-administered questionnaire, covering working conditions, safety climate, safety activities, self-efficacy, health and work ability. Analysis: Descriptive statistics as well as data on between-group differences are analysed. Results: In general, the results showed fairly good levels of safety climate but only moderate levels of safety activities and of perceived safety grade at work. These variables differed significantly between work units. Environmental barriers, such as lack of time and equipment, were given as reasons for not complying with safety rules or participating in proactive risk assessment. Besides a high frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms and high physical exposure at work, the home care workers in general reported being in good health and with good work ability. They also expressed high decision making latitude, skill discretion, social support and self-efficacy. Conclusions: To promote health and safety for the home care workers, interventions could build on the high levels of safety climate and proactive activities in single work units, proposing good solutions and safe behaviour. Focus need to be placed on improved safety climate, communication and coordination with all professionals forming the home care services setting. Also, on individuals' and work units' awareness of safe behaviour and on alternatives of actions in critical risk situations at work. This may act preventive on musculoskeletal well-being and a good working environment. Implications: There need to be an increase in means given to physical therapists in occupational health services, to work with these issues. The ergonomic skills and the safety climate of the front-line home care services workers need to be addressed, as well as the organisational prerequisites for workplace safety and health.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Teamwork and Safety Climate in home care: a mixed method study2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 2495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapidly changing homecare service sector implies difficulties to control safety and health risks for staff and to guarantee standardised deliveries of services to recipients. This study aimed to describe staff perceptions of safety climate and practices in homecare service teams, and suggestions for improvements. A second aim was to identify if and how the appraisals of safety climate were related to individual perceptions of safety, mental strain and adverse events/injury. A convergent parallel mixed methods design was used. Nursing assistants and care aides (133 in total, representing 11 work teams) in the north of Sweden replied to a survey and participated in focus group interviews. Results were analysed with ANOVA (inter-team differences) and by qualitative content analysis. Significant diversity was identified between the teams in five of seven dimensions of safety climate. Important areas for improvement were: a need to define and agree on criteria for a safe working environment; leadership prioritising safety at work; and management able to provide trust, support and time. A prerequisite for these agreements was improved authority and communication between all parties involved. The safety climate dimensions were related to personal perceptions of safety and mental strain and, partly, to adverse events/injuries.

  • 25.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sweden in the forefront for a green society: a review on policy activities for greenhouse gas emission reduction2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews and analyzes how Sweden became a leader concerning low carbon emissions, by using economical incentives, investments in new technologies and work to form international collaborations. The lessons from the Swedish case may be used by other countries and regions to be better able to achieve results from policy initiatives.

  • 26.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Mikaelsson, Katarina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Moving From Idea to Action: Promoting Physical Activity by Empowering Adolescents2014In: Health Promotion Practice, ISSN 1524-8399, E-ISSN 1552-6372, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 812-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits for children and youth. The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of conducting an empowerment-inspired intervention and examine the impact of the intervention in promoting moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents. Method. A nonrandomized trial with a concurrent control group was carried out. Physical activity data were collected before and after the intervention with daily questions by short message service. Self-efficacy, social support, and attitude were also measured before and after the intervention since they were possible mediators. Results. The intervention was created by the students, the researchers, and the teachers using an empowerment-based approach. Students in the intervention group (n = 21) increased their MVPA on average by 4.9 (SD = 28.9) minutes per day, and students in the control group (n = 25) reduced their MVPA on average by 25.4 (SD = 23.0) minutes per day (p = .000). Conclusions. The intervention might have contributed to a promotion of physical activity among students in the intervention group. The most valuable contribution this study provides is the knowledge that it is possible to develop and conduct an empowerment-inspired intervention to promote adolescent physical activity.

  • 27.
    Morant, Amparo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Knowledge management in a railway network: The case of signalling systems2014In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Railway Technology: research, development and maintenance ; 8 - 11 April 2014, Ajaccio, Corsica, France / [ed] J. Pombo, Kippen: Civil-Comp Press , 2014, article id 274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway network is a complex system with several technologies and a multitude of stakeholders working together to solve problems created by the increasing demands on capacity, speed and mobility for the transportation of goods and passengers. However, the presence of many different stakeholders complicates knowledge management and transfer. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential for improving inter-organisational knowledge management in the maintenance of railway signalling systems and make concrete suggestions for improvements. Even if information logistics processes can disseminate explicit knowledge on the maintenance of railway signalling systems, they cannot handle the tacit knowledge transfer that often is crucial. The study finds considerable potential for improving the knowledge management process. It suggests possible measures and makes suggestions for future studies.

  • 28.
    Mäkimurto-Koivumaa, Soili
    et al.
    Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Science.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ofstad, Dag
    University of Nordland.
    Väänänen, Mirja
    Oulu University.
    A framework for a northern Scandinavian center of competence in entrepreneurial learning: opportunities and challenges2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Business ethics and systems thinking1997In: Systems Practice, ISSN 0894-9859, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 491-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the development of research in business ethics and recent directions taken by scholars in the field. We also analyze ethical considerations in systems theory and speculate on the possibilities of examining business ethics from a systemic perspective.

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Häckner, Einar
    Mittuniversitetet.
    The duality of strategic managerial work in SMEs: a structuration perspective2012In: The Work of Managers: Towards a Practice Theory of Management, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 264-280Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Nilsson, Kent
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ascribed functions of the balanced scorecard: a study of politicians, managers and accountants in Swedish local governments2009In: Performance Measurement Association Conference: Performance Measurement: Theory and Practice, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a novel approach to investigate functions ascribed to the Balanced Scorecard in local governments. First, we develop a measurement scale of balanced scorecard functions based on a literature review. Then, by combining qualitative interviews and quantitative data (based on 101 respondents) from four local governments in Sweden, we examine the measurement scale and put it to use. The results show that politicians, managers and accountants in local government recognize multiple functions, instrumental as well as symbolic. Based on the results, we generate propositions to be tested in future research.

  • 32.
    Palmér, Sandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet (student).
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Branding in a university: creating value or problems2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Business related aspects of branding have long been a subject both in businesses and amongst researchers. In Europe the Bologna process has pushed universities to become unique and to attract staff and students in a more deregulated market. To handle this, several universities have started to work with branding. The phenomenon of branding in a university setting has not previously been extensively researched and we need more studies on what branding may result in. Is it a risky and expensive venture or is it a road to success? This article studies the relationship between how an agreement of brand identity and brand image affects outcomes (commitment, retention, satisfaction and performance) for students and staff. The study was conducted at a university in northern Sweden which has worked intensely with its brand for the past few years. The results, using multiple hierarchical regression, indicate that branding has been successful to a certain extent. Identification with the universities communicated identity is linked to lower propensity to leave and higher commitment as well as higher job satisfaction. This also means that non-identification is linked to the opposite. Thus, this study shows that branding in a university setting works as a magnet and attracts those who concur with the brand and repels those who disagree with the brand. This underlines that the content of the identity is crucial. The people whom are in agreement with this identity must be individuals that the university wants to attract and retain. If this is not the case, branding is counter-productive.

  • 33.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Network Capability, Innovativeness, and Performance: A Multidimensional Extension for Entrepreneurship2017In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 94-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and start-up firms in the high-tech industry usually engage in networking to overcome resource, knowledge, and competence constraints in creative, innovation-based competition. Quite often, however, network relationships fail due to lack of network capability (NC), defined as the ability to manage and gain benefits from external relationships. In the present study, we propose and examine an updated five-dimension NC construct and test its effect on innovativeness and performance. Two independent high-tech samples of small firms and start-ups support measurement properties of the proposed NC construct and suggest that the often-overlooked dimension in NC research of network relationship building is important to include in a complete NC construct. Doing so can help explain organizational innovativeness and effects on the customer, sales, and innovation performance more effectively. As a result, we find support for the proposed NC scale and the importance of network capabilities for small companies and start-ups to remain competitive.

  • 34.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    ICT related small firms with different collaborative network structures: different species or variations on a theme2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to differentiate small firms based on their network structure and observe differences in terms of absolute levels and relationship between ICT capability, networking capability and entrepreneurial orientation. The study's main contribution is towards the "inter-organizational networking research" and entrepreneurship literature. The analysis is based on 291 ICT related Swedish small firms. The results show that small ICT related small firms can be divided into four different clusters, namely; (1) low collaboration with low networking capability, (2) low collaboration with high networking capability, (3) high collaboration with low networking capability, and (4) high collaboration with high networking capability. Small firms with low collaboration and low networking capability were less entrepreneurial compared to the other three groups of firms. However, since networking capability and ICT capability were linked to entrepreneurial orientation it is possible for these firms to improve their situation by developing these two capabilities.

  • 35.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    ICT use for innovation in Swedish industrial service SMEs2007In: The first Nordic innovation research conference - Finnkampen / [ed] Harri Haapasalo; Päivi Iskanius, Oulu: University of Oulu, 2007, p. 167-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the era of technology, SMEs are operating in a dynamic and turbulent business environment. In this era, innovation is the main driver for competitiveness, and use of ICT is the basic requirement to conduct business. Therefore, better understanding of the relationship between use of ICT and innovation has emerged as an important research topic. In this qualitative study, we therefore investigate how SMEs from the industrial service sector can use ICT for innovation. The results suggest that ICT is used in very different ways. While some uses clearly are linked to increased innovation, other uses do not affect innovation much. The link between ICT and innovation seem to vary between firms. While some firms see ICT as a major tool for innovation, others see it just as a (poor) tool for communication.

  • 36.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    ICT-related small firms with different collaborative network structures: different species or variations on a theme?2009In: Entrepreneurship and Growth in Local, Regional and National Economics: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to differentiate small firms based on their network structure and observe differences in terms of absolute levels and relationship between ICT capability, networking capability and entrepreneurial orientation. The study's main contribution is towards the "inter-organizational networking research" and entrepreneurship literature. The analysis is based on 291 ICT related Swedish small firms. The results show that small ICT related small firms can be divided into four different clusters, namely; (1) low collaboration with low networking capability, (2) low collaboration with high networking capability, (3) high collaboration with low networking capability, and (4) high collaboration with high networking capability. Small firms with low collaboration and low networking capability were less entrepreneurial compared to the other three groups of firms. However, since networking capability and ICT capability were linked to entrepreneurial orientation it is possible for these firms to improve their situation by developing these two capabilities.

  • 37.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Linking firm capabilities to entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: evidence from small Swedish technological firms2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous small technological firms are today operating in an uncertain and challenging environment. It can be argued that in such environment, the firm's capability to better utilizing their limited resources can be a source of better performance. This study focuses on two such firm capabilities, namely dynamic capability (DC) and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) capability. However, as Wang and Ahmed (2007) suggest, this link might not be direct but instead mediated through the firm's strategy. We will therefore also include entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as a possible mediator in our study.DC is seen as firm's ability to achieve competitive advantage especially in a turbulent environment (Teece et al., 1997). The research on DC has indicated a number of challenges. First, it has been difficult for scholars to clearly conceptualize DC and relate it to competitive advantage (Eisenhardt & Martin, 2000) and secondly, the research on DC has resulted in inconsistent and unrelated results (Zahra et al., 2006). During the literature review of DC, we identified three sub-parts of DC, namely absorptive capability, adaptive capability, and networking capability. Firms with higher degrees of absorptive capability are better able to identify and utilize external knowledge for commercial purpose (Cohen & Levinthal, 1990), firms with adaptive capability are able to quickly "identify and capitalize on emerging market opportunity" (Oktemgil & Greenley, 1996) and finally, firms with high degrees of networking capability are able to utilize inter-organizational relationships for own competitiveness. Using sub-facets (or specific constructs) to capture dynamic capabilities is consistent with prior research. For example, a recent study by Ahmed & Wang (2007), reviewed DC and suggested that it consists two or our three concepts as part of dynamic capability similar as those defined above. For technological firms ICT capability also seems indispensable and it may also produce competitive advantage (Venkatraman, 1994; Johannessen, 1999). We define ICT capability as a firm's ability to use a wide array of technology ranging from e-mails to local area networks for business purposes (Matlay & Addis, 2003). As both these concepts are a possible source for a firm's competitive advantage, we expect them to influence firm performance. However, as stated above, the influence from capabilities on performance may not be direct, but rather work through the firm's strategy and therefore EO can be a crucial link between capabilities and performance. EO is considered the small firm's strategic orientation and the relations between EO and performance is well established in the literature (Wiklund, 1999). So, if capabilities have a positive influence on EO, it could lead to better performance. The overall purpose for this paper is thus to investigate the effects dynamic capabilities and ICT capabilities have on EO and firm performance.Method:This study is mainly exploratory and to reach our purpose, we conducted a survey on 1471 small technological firms in Sweden. Technological firms are the frontrunners for global economy, and are likely to need the capabilities we discuss above. The firms we targeted were to have less then 50 employees (i.e. be small firms according to EU definition), have more then 1 million SEK in sales (to ensure an active firm) and doing business with IT related products or services. The questionnaire was sent out in Swedish during summer 2007 and resulted in 277 usable replies (20% response rate). Our key measurements were based on well established scales in literature and the questionnaire was pre-tested using small firm managers in similar industries as the targeted. Firm performance is multi-dimensional and includes three aspects (customer, sales and innovation). We control for environment factors (dynamism, hostility and heterogeneity.) and firms size (number of employees). During exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we did not observe any unexpected cross-loading or irregularity and the alpha value were satisfactory (between 0.67 - 0.88). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis.Results and Implications:Preliminary results from the SEM analysis show interesting results. If we look at ICT capability first, we find a strong link to dynamic capability for both the collaboration and communication facet. This supports thoughts of scholars that use of ICT influences firm capabilities (DC) by enhancing the firm's communication and information flow (Venkatraman, 1994). ICT capability is also weakly linked to EO (communication facet), but not at all to firm performance. Thus, ICT capability is not directly linked to better performance, but it enhances other capabilities (DC) which can be used for better performance (Porter, 2001; Mata et al., 1995). However, when looking at dynamic capabilities there are strong significant results both to EO and directly to firm performance. When looking closer at the results it becomes clear that all three aspects of DC show strong significance. Absorptive and adaptive capability is linked to EO and adaptive and networking capability is linked directly to firm performance (which also is the case for EO). Based on this, it seems dynamic capabilities is key to achieve completive advantage both in terms of EO and firm performance. Building and maintaining these capabilities should therefore be a priority for small firms, especially in a technological context, where constant change is likely to be a factor.Finally, since we tested the link between EO and performance with rather strong rival constructs (i.e. DC), we add strong further evidence for the EO - performance link (Wiklund, 1999).

  • 38.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Open innovation practices in SMEs: extent and effects2009In: Proceedings of the 10th CINet Conference: enhancing the innovation environment : 6-8 September, 2009, Brisbane, Australia, Adelaide: Continuous Innovation Network (CINet) , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Effects of open innovation activities on SMEs innovative performance: an empirical study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies suggest that open innovation (OI) practices positively influences innovation efforts of large and small firms. However, few studies have investigated implication of adapting OI in the SMEs context. In this study, we address the research gap by investigating the effects of four in-bound OI practices on innovative performance based on data from 252 technology-based SMEs. Our results reveal that different OI are beneficial for different innovation performances. For instance, technology sourcing is linked to radical innovation, while technology scouting is linked to incremental innovation. Based on our study, it seems worthwhile to further study OI issues in SMEs.

  • 40.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Inbound open innovation activities in high-tech SMEs: the impact on innovation performance2012In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 283-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies suggest that open innovation activities positively influence innovation outcomes in large firms. However, few studies have investigated the implications of SMEs’ adoption of open innovation. We address this research gap by investigating the effects of four inbound open innovation activities on innovation performance of SMEs. In doing so, we draw on data from 252 high-tech SMEs. Our results reveal that different open innovation activities are beneficial for different innovation outcomes. For instance, technology sourcing is linked to radical innovation performance, whereas technology scouting is linked to incremental innovation performance. These findings hold several important theoretical and practical implications.

  • 41.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Network capability revisited: empirical evidence from a new scale on two samples of small firms2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Small firms are widely recognized as being in need of managing social and professional networks with other actors and are therefore no longer considered as individual and self-fulfilling units that do not require other actors to be competitive. Rather the individual firm can be seen as an “organizer” that interacts with other actors in order to be able to carry out a strategy and build competitive advantage that is far beyond the limitations of the single firm. Studies have also reported that all collaborating partners can focus on their core activities and by interlinking these, competitive advantage can be achieved (Dyer and Singh, 1998; Ebben and Johnson, 2006; Hong and Antoncic, 2003). As such, authors like Anand and Khanna (2000) and Kale et al. (2002) concludes that having a capability to know about and tap into other firm’s resources seems to be a valuable asset in the harsh competitive landscape of today’s business environment. Unfortunately, although prior research much emphasizes the value of such a network capability, there are not many scales or approaches integrating such scales in models of small firm entrepreneurial orientation and performance, with the exception of Hagedoorn et al. (2006) and Walter et al. (2006). As a response, our study develops and tests an operationalization of network capability, and examines the significance of this concept in order to understand small firm performance and entrepreneurial orientation. Based on scholars such as Walter et al. (2006, p.542) we define network capability as the firm’s “ability to develop and utilize inter-organizational relationships to gain access to various resources held by other actors”. Network capability includes the following components: a) the firm’s ability to coordinate collaborative activities , b) the firm’s relational skills , c) partner knowledge, i.e. possessing organized and structured information about their partner organizations, and, d) the firm’s internal communication. However, in our effort to refine the concept we also add a dynamic aspect, that is, a capability in locating and building up new relations. For small firms in today’s dynamic business environment, such a capability may be very valuable for both pursuing entrepreneurship and ultimately performing well (Kim and Aldrich, 2005). Consequently, we also see the relevance of e) skills in locating and building up new relations with future partners, as a potential part of network capability. Aware of problems using laundry lists of items in questionnaires, we test a measurement of these five dimensions of network capability with very limited set of items (three) in each dimension. As such, our research can also be considered as an assessment of a short scale of network capability. Besides evaluating measurement properties of a short scale of network capability we also investigate whether network capability has any effect on small firm behaviors and outcomes in terms of entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. While developing this line of argumentation, we posit that entrepreneurial orientation could potentially be an important construct to consider, when understanding the network capability-performance linkage. Thus, this paper attempts to contribute towards the literature of “inter-organization network research” (Anand and Khanna, 2000; Kale et al., 2002; Oliver, 2001; Powell et al., 1996) and towards the entrepreneurship literature (Covin and Slevin, 1991; Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Wiklund, 1999). Thus, based on the above background we propose three hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Network capability consists of five prominent and distinct dimensions: coordination, relational skills, partner knowledge, internal communication, and building new relationships.Hypothesis 2: Network capability is positively related to entrepreneurial orientation.Hypothesis 3: Once the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance is controlled for, network capability is still positively related to firm performance.Research MethodWe used two independent samples of small firms (i.e. firms having less than 50 employees) in Sweden to be able to reach our aim. The samples are selected based on their relevance for the study at hand. The first survey sample involved ICT-related firms. The sample is from single industry and we have under-sampled the smallest firms (i.e. less than five employees. The other survey is a random sample of firms that started their business 2003, representing firms that are fairly young and in their start-up phase. We believe that both these conditions (turbulence and start-up) constitute cases where networking is important and are worthy candidates in a study of networking capability. Both surveys were done in summer 2007. Altogether 462 answers were obtained, where 291 came from the ICT sample and 171 came from the start-up sample. This corresponds to response rates of 21 % and 12 % respectively. A non-response analysis shows little difference between respondents and non-respondents for both samples.The operationalization of networking capability is much based on refinements of the research of Walter et al. (2006). Three items from their study that measure each of the four dimensions (coordination activities, relationship skills, partner knowledge and internal communication) were selected as inputs for the scale. The wording was changed in some items based on feed-back from several pre-tests. We have also added a building component and measure it by three items. As with those noted above, also this measure was pre-tested and refined by being put to test to both scholars and practitioners before sending the surveys. Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is measured based on the scale developed by Lumpkin and Dess (2001), where we consider the “classics” innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking. Consistent with prior small firm research, we used a perceived measurement of firm performance, where the respondents rate their performance in relation to their competitors (Walter et al., 2006 and Lichtenthaler, 2009). According to Chandler and Hanks (1993), asking firms to evaluate their performance in comparison with that of their competitors leads to a higher level of reliability and validity. Firm performance is captured by two items reflecting the firm’s sales performance. We used firm size, environmental dynamism and hostility, and actual networking (number of current partners) as controls. The statistical analysis is based upon factor analysis (exploratory and confirmatory) and hierarchical regression analysis.Result and Discussion The result from on the network capability scale showed acceptable reliability and discriminant validity. In both samples, all factors had good Cronbach’s alpha (Hair et al., 2006) between 0.72 and 0.90 and correlations between the five factors varying between 0.2 and 0.4, which indicates that these five aspects form an overall scale for network capability. In support of accuracy, a confirmatory factor analysis also report acceptable model fit measures. In evaluating the structural model we followed recommendations to interpret multiple model fit indexes (Bollen, 1990). For the start-up sample, we notice that model chi-square is significant, but that traditional goodness-of-fit indices are in line with recommended levels (2 = 150.62, df = 80, p < .001, NFI = .91, CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = .073). The corresponding numbers for the ICT sample is similar (2 = 169.10, df = 80, p < .001, NFI = .92, CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = .062). Overall, this provides support for Hypothesis 1 and our condensed scale operationalization suggesting that network capability consists of five prominent and distinct dimensions: coordination, relational skills, partner knowledge, internal communication, and building new relationships.When performing regressions to estimate influences on firm performance and entrepreneurial orientation as dependent variables, we get interesting results. For the start-up sample, two aspects of network capability is significant to explain entrepreneurial orientation, namely capabilities in building (0.27, p<0.01) and partner knowledge (0.15, p<0.10). Our control, the actual networking is also significantly affecting EO. The explanatory power is rather high with an R square adjusted at 0.363. For firm performance, the block of network capability do not increase explanation over and above what the controls and EO do. The link from EO on performance is in line with earlier research (Limpkin and Dess, 1996; Wiklund, 1999). For the ICT sample, there are three dimensions of network capability that show significant results in relation to EO. Both the internal communication (0.19, p<0.01) and the building (0.20, p<0.01) dimension have strong positive coefficients, while the coordination dimension has a marginally significant negative coefficient (-0.13, p<0.10). Among controls, firm size, hostility and networking have positive effects on EO. The level of R square adjusted (0.171), indicates a satisfactory explanatory power for the full model. For firm performance, two dimensions are significant. These are internal communication (0.21, p<0.01) and coordination (0.15, p<0.05). The effect from EO on firm performance is still strong, but the inclusion of the network capability block makes it somewhat more modest. Among controls, networking is a strong positive influence while a perceived dynamic environment influences the performance negatively at a lower significance level. Like the EO model, the overall explanatory level is satisfactory with an R square adjusted at 0.189. Overall, the above tests clearly support Hypothesis 2 suggesting that network capability is positively related to entrepreneurial orientation. Several network capability dimensions are related to EO. Hypothesis 3, positing that once the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance is controlled for, network capability still is positively related to firm performance received mixed support. While no dimension proved significant for performance in the start-up sample, two network capability dimensions proved to be useful for improving firm performance in the ICT sample.To conclude, our results suggest that we have constructed a short but yet adequate scale for measuring network capability and that network capability seems to be important to understand mainly entrepreneurial behavior but also small firm performance in at least some contexts. Aspects of network capability explain significant parts of entrepreneurial orientation and moreover help to explain firm performance over and beyond what entrepreneurial orientation does. It is especially interesting to note that the most influential aspect of network capability when it comes to explain entrepreneurial orientation is the aspect we developed for this study. The capability to find and build a new relation thus seems vital to use in future studies on a firm’s network capability and its associations to entrepreneurship and performance. We encourage others to study network capability in other contexts and also contribute to the development of a robust scale for network capability. The current one definitely seems useful, but it needs to be further scrutinized to establish it’s convergent and discriminant validity before it can be used more broadly in entrepreneurship research.

  • 42.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    How do small firms use ICT for business purposes?: a study of Swedish technology-based firms2009In: International Journal of Electronic Business, ISSN 1470-6067, E-ISSN 1741-5063, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 536-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the extent to which Information and Communication Technology (ICT) capability is possessed and utilised by technology-based small firms and investigates the contingent effect of firm size and age on ICT capability. The empirical base is a survey with data from 291 technology-based small Swedish firms. The result suggests that technology-based small firms are high users of ICT in several areas. Regarding contingency effects, firm size was related to significant differences in the utilisation of ICT. Although the smallest firms as a whole use ICT less, a substantial part of them are high users.

  • 43.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Importance of ICT for technology-based small firm's networking2008In: Collaboration and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, IOS Press, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ICT is widely understood as important for enabling a more effective communication, collaboration and internal operational efficiency in today's businesses. For small firms with limited in-house resources, and especially for technology-based small firms, ICT is expected to play a vital role. The empirical evidence supporting such an understanding are however rare. This paper elaborates on the extent to which ICT capability is employed by technology-based small firms and investigates the influence of ICT capability on network configuration and networking capability. The results provide some new evidence on how ICT may enable more effective networking in this specific category of small firms, and indicates e.g. that technology-based small firms are high users of ICT for gaining flexibility in working hours, accessing vital information, maintaining collaboration with existing business partners, enable a better handling communication within the firm and providing superior customer service. ICT capability was also found to influence small firms networking configuration. Particularly, there is a clear link between higher ICT use for collaboration and more extensive partnership networking, and a higher ICT use for communication and more extensive customer networking. Furthermore, we also found support for a strong relation between ICT capability and networking capability.

  • 44. Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Roininen, Sari
    Exploring the effects of network configurations on entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: an empirical study of new ventures and small firms2010In: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2000-7396, E-ISSN 2000-7396, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies have suggested that networks are important for new ventures and small firms as a provider of access to entrepreneurial opportunities and as a tool to increase firm performance. Although the strategic value of networks on a general level is undisputed, one major shortcoming of prior studies has been to evaluate the effects of specific network configurations. Moreover, small firms have all too often been treated as a homogeneous group, expected to reveal similar needs and patterns of behavior. The purpose of this explorative study was therefore to examine the effects of different network configurations on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and performance for two categories of small firms - new ventures and established small firms. The results were achieved by using empirical data from two independent samples of new ventures (n=171) and small firms (n=291) and show that network relationships have quite different effects in the two samples. While networking is overall positively linked to EO and performance for small firms, no positive effect from networking is evidenced for new ventures' EO and performance. For both samples, we found a strong link between EO and performance. This paper concludes with a discussion on the results and suggestions for future research.

  • 45.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Westerberg, Mats
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Network relationships for entrepreneurial orientation and growth: an empirical study of new ventures and small firms2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Network structure and networking capability among new ventures: tools for competitive advantage or a waste of resources?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Network relationships are significant for new firms' competitive advantages and success since new and entrepreneurial opportunities are favored by diversity (Burt, 2004; Ireland et al., 2002; Cooper, 2002; Granovetter, 1973). However, to gain access to various resources held by other actors the firms would have to have an ability to develop and utilize inter-organizational relationships (Walter et al., 2006), called network capability (NC). Additionally, new ventures would increase their performance by using an entrepreneurial strategy (cf. Wiklund & Shepherd, 2003; Lumpkin & Dess, 2001). Firms using an entrepreneurial orientation (EO) have an ability to find or discover new opportunities creating different and competitive advantages (Wiklund & Shepherd, 2005). This is particularly true among start-ups having external ties providing scarce and valuable resources (Lee et al., 2001). However, we believe these associations are moderated by the venture's complexity. The more complex the venture is internally (i.e. having low level of routines and analyzability) and externally (i.e. having immature markets) the stronger the relationship between NC, networks and EO, and performance will be. This study will hence combine these three dimensions to investigate how start-ups can obtain competitive advantages improving their performance by the use of an entrepreneurial strategy and participation in networks, a combination that has not previously been studied.MethodWe test the framework on 171 new Swedish ventures. The research instrument consisted of a mailed questionnaire to the owner and/or manager having taking part in the start-up of the company examining firm level factors affecting the start-ups' competitive performance. For the analysis structural equation modeling is used.Results and implicationThe results show a positive link between a new venture's NC and its EO, as well as between its network structure and EO, and EO in turn is the only dimension linked to increased firm performance. We did not find any moderating effects of venture complexity, but a strong direct effect on EO. Consequently, regardless of complexity, new ventures benefit from their networks and the ability to utilize external contacts in order to act entrepreneurially and in turn create competitive advantages.

  • 47.
    Roininen, Sari
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    The relation between network competence, network structure, strategy and new venture performance2007In: The first Nordic innovation research conference - Finnkampen / [ed] Harri Haapasalo; Päivi Iskanius, Oulu: University of Oulu, 2007, p. 187-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a model to explain new venture performance using network theory. The model suggests that a new venture's performance - both directly and indirectly through strategy - can be explained by its network competence and network structure. Further, venture complexity is hypothesized to moderate the relationship where those ventures having higher task complexity will benefit more from their network competence and structure. In the paper, we also briefly outline how this model can be put to test.

  • 48.
    Tidåsen, Christine
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics at Linnaeus University.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Palmér, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Department of Mathematics Education.
    Leonardson, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Department of Mathematics Education.
    Lindh, Ida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Björling, MaxMikael Wilde
    School of Business and Economics at Linnaeus University.
    Kivimäki, Kaarin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Studying Entrepreneurial Learning in a Primary School Setting in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Vikström, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Success with succession: an empirical study of small Swedish family firms2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50. Vikström, Anna
    et al.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Success with succession: an empirical study of small Swedish family firms2010In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 223-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful succession in small family firms may be a key to sustainability for the individual firm but also to regional growth. This paper examines how leadership succession factors associated to attitudes, norms and perceived havioural control of leading actors in a small family firm can be related to how well the succession process works and to the firm's post-transition performance. We structure factors pointed out in earlier studies according to Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TpB) where we put forward hypotheses for the three areas. The results based on a survey of 55 small family firms that have experienced a leadership succession show that TpB works well for understanding a successful succession process, but is dismal for understanding post-transition performance. The strongest results are found for aspects linked to perceived behavioural control and attitudes.

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