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  • 1. Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Bergman, Greger
    Estimation of material parameters at elevated temperatures by inverse modelling of a Gleeble experiment2000In: IUTAM Symposium on Field Analysis for Determination of Material Parameters - Experimental and Numerical Aspects: proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Abisko National Park, Kiruna, Sweden, July 31 - August 4, 2000 / [ed] P. Ståhle, Dordrecht: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Frachon, A.
    et al.
    Imbault, D.
    Doremus, P.
    Federzoni, L.
    Brunet, R.
    Reyre, M.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Sensitivity of numerical simulation to input data2000In: Proceedings of PM2000 Powder metallurgy world congress and exhibition: November 12 - 16, 2000, Kyoto International Conference Hall, Japan / [ed] Koji Kosuge; Hiroshi Nagai, Tokyo: Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy , 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Häggblad, Hans-åke
    et al.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Bengtsson, S.
    Design and evaluation of die pressing experiments for inverse modelling2000In: Proceedings of 2000 Powder Metallurgy World Congress : November 12 - 16, 2000, Kyoto International Conference Hall, Japan: organized by Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy, Japan Powder Metallurgy Association. / [ed] Koji Kosuge; Hiroshi Nagai, Tokyo: Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy , 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Kajberg, Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Viscoplastic parameter estimation by high strain-rate experiments and inverse modelling: speckle measurements and high-speed photography2007In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 145-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology based on inverse modelling for estimating viscoplastic material parameters at high strain-rate conditions is presented. The methodology is demonstrated for a mild steel exposed for compression loading in a split Hopkinson pressure bar arrangement. By using dog-bone shaped specimens nonhomogeneous states of deformation are obtained throughout the entire deformation process. The resulting nonhomogeneous deformation of the specimens is evaluated using digital speckle photography (DSP) to give in-plane point-wise displacement and strain fields. The photographs are captured with a high-speed camera of image converter type, which acquire time resolved images during the impact loading. The experiments are simulated using finite element analysis (FEA), where the material model suggested by Johnson-Cook for high-strain rate conditions are utilised. Experimental and FE-calculated field information are compared in order to estimate the viscoplastic parameter in the Johnson-Cook material model. The estimation is performed by minimising least-square functions that contain the differences in displacements and strains, respectively. The quality of the estimated parameters is studied from statistical point of view.

  • 5.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Wikman, Bengt
    A friction model for iron powder pressing based on a tribological approach1996In: Advances in powder metallurgy & particulate materials - 1996: proceedings of the 1996 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials ..., June 16 - 21, Washington, DC / [ed] Terry M. Cadle, Princeton, NJ: Metal powder industries federation , 1996, Vol. 7, p. 329-340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global behaviour of the cold pressing process of iron powder is dependent on the material response in the powder as well as the friction between the powder and the tool walls. Both the behaviour with respect to the material response and the friction effects are dependent on the lubricant used in the powder mixture. Normally, solid phase lubricants are mixed into the iron powder. It is assumed that the local heat generated in the microscopic contact areas between the powder and the tool walls is partly responsible for the functionality of the lubricant. The microscopic interaction between powder, lubricant and tool wall at the point of contact is described by relations between the friction coefficient and a combination of state variables, e.g. relative velocity, pressure and powder density. The relations are established by use of tribological classifications of the lubricant as well as the mixture of lubricant and iron powder. Finite element simulations of pressing experiments are used for studying the influence of the frictional relations on the global pressing behaviour.

  • 6.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Wikman, Bengt
    Material model parameter estimation by inverse analysis of a closed die experiment2002In: Process modeling in powder metallurgy & particulate materials: proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Process Modeling in Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, [held October 28 - 29, 2002, Newport Beach, California] / [ed] Alan Lawley, Prinecton; NJ: Metal powder industries federation , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Sundin, Karl-Gustaf
    Wikman, Bengt
    Kajberg, Jörgen
    Åkerström, Paul
    Material characterisation using advanced experiments and inverse methods2006In: Computational mechanics: Abstracts : abstracts of the papers presented at the regular sessions of the sixth world congress on computational mechanics in conjunction with the second Asian-Pacific congress on computational mechanics, September 5-10, 2004, Beijing, China / [ed] Zhenhan Yao; Mingwu Yuan; Wanxie Zhong, Bejing: Tsinghua University Press, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Study of metal powder component pressing with use of numerical simulations1998In: Proceedings of the 1998 powder metallurgy world congress and exhibition: Granada, Spain, October 18 - 22, 1998, Shrewsbury: European powder metallurgy association , 1998, Vol. 2, p. 2.51-2.56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global behaviour of the cold pressing process of iron powder is dependent on the process kinematics, material response in the powder as well as the friction effects in the contact between the powder and the tool walls. The analysis of powder pressing requires accurate material models of the various powder mixes that are used. The modelling is dependent on tri-axial compression tests for the material model and friction tests for the nonlinear friction model. The modelling parameters have been determined in international cooperation within the COST 512 and MMPF (Modelling of Metal Powder Forming) research programs. Component pressing with varying kinematic conditions have been performed by the Sintertech company. In this work, a set of process and model parameters have been established for numerical simulations of powder pressing process.

  • 9.
    Svoboda, Ales
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    A coupled plastic and viscoplastic model for modelling of hot isostatic pressing1998In: First ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming : Sophia-Antipolis (France), 17 - 20 March 1998, European Scientific Association for Material Forming Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux , 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Westman, Eva-Lis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Pederson, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Numerical and microstructural evaluation of elevated temperature compression tests on Ti-6AI-4V2004In: Ti-2003 : science and technology: proceedings of the 10. World Conference on Titanium, held at the CCH-Congress Center Hamburg, Germany, 13 - 18 July 2003 / [ed] Gerd Lütjering, Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Wikman, Bengt
    Friction modelling in numerical simulation of iron powder die pressing1997Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 12. Wikman, Bengt
    Inverse modelling for determination of constitutive parameters: a literature review1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review concerns concepts, ideas and methods for the theoretical framework behind the development of an inverse modelling system. The intention is to give a survey of some available literature on topics related to inverse modelling for determination of constitutive parameters and to put the individual aspects into context.

  • 13. Wikman, Bengt
    Modelling and simulation of powder pressing with consideration of friction1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element modelling and simulation of the powder pressing process can be used in the rational development of powder metallurgy (PM) components. Many of the nonlinear finite element (FE) codes available today can be used for powder pressing simulations. The critical features of such simulations include almost every aspect of nonlinear FE analysis. This may be material behaviour, large deformation and contact boundary conditions, as well as the temperature and density dependence of the process. It is thus important to use appropriate models which capture the event of pressing and make the analysis worthwhile. The objective of the research presented in the present thesis has been to tighten the connection between models of powder pressing and pressing reality. There are mainly two reasons for this action: to increase the predictive capability of the pressing simulations and to reach further understanding of the PM forming process. The sliding friction contact between the powder and the tool is known to prevent homogeneous densification in the die pressing of metal powders. It is also known that the coefficient of friction in the contact varies considerably during pressing. A friction model with a nonconstant friction coefficient has been developed in this research. The model has been fitted to data from friction experiments. The final density distribution and press forces have been shown to be depentend on the choisce of friction model. The influence of a continuously varying initial density distribution on the numericalsimulations has also been investigated. The final density distribution shows a significant dependence on the starting conditions. A modification has been made to the DiMaggio-Sandler cap model which takes into account density dependence in describing the cohesive strength of powder materials. As friction models have been included in the analyses, it has also been of interest to effectively calibrate the models. Here, the friction coefficient has been estimated by combining an experiment with modelling of the experiment. Two methods for assessment of friction are presented, an optimization approach and an analytical approach. The experimental data have been taken from the single-action cold pressing of a cylinder-shaped component. A procedure to estimate friction also in low density regime is presented. In modelling the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of powder materials, different deformation mechanisms are active during the consolidation process. The early stage of consolidation is dominated by granular behaviour. In order to account for these early granular deformation mechanisms in the numerical analyses, a combined elasto-plastic and elasto-viscoplastic material model has been developed and tested. Analysis with the combined material model shows improved characterization of the initial deformations compared with results from using the elasto-viscoplastic model only.

  • 14. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Bergman, Greger
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    INVSYS - an Inverse Modelling System: user manual2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    INVSYS is a tailor-made programming system for the analysis of inverse problems. The origin of the present code springs from the need to test and evaluate modelling techniques in the context of inverse analysis. The program is based on a modified sequential simplex optimisation algorithm (subplex). How to use the system is described and exemplified in this manual.

  • 15. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Bergman, Greger
    Gestamp Hardtech AB.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Estimation of constitutive parameters for powder pressing by inverse modelling2006In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 400-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder metallurgy processes are used in many material technologies for manufacturing of a wide range of industrial parts. Products such as components for cars, cemented carbides and high-speed steels for mechanical cutting, magnets and soft magnetic materials, bearings and refractory metals are made from powder. These parts are manufactured by powder die pressing followed by sintering of the resulting green body in a furnace. Traditionally, experience-based methods have been used to design and adapt the processing variables for optimal performance. Cost savings can be made if the tool design can be based on reliable predictive numerical simulations of the powder compaction process. Computer modelling could aid process and design engineers in selecting and optimizing the best pressing route for many industrial components. The aim of the present work has been to develop an efficient way to determine the necessary constitutive model parameters of the numerical models by means of inverse modelling. An experiment for establishing input data to the inverse problem has been designed and validated. The objective function is formed based on the discrepancy in force-displacement data between the numerical model prediction and the experiment. Minimization of the objective function with respect to the material parameters is performed using an in-house optimization software shell which is built on a modified Nelder-Mead simplex method also known as the subplex method. The completed analyses show that the proposed approach can readily be used to determine material parameters.

  • 16. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Design of the container for hot isostatic pressing of a diesel engine piston top2003In: P / M Science & Technology Briefs, ISSN 1527-2478, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 10-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations of the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process for manufacturing of a piston top have been used to achieve near net shape in this work. The shape of the container is optimised by repeated simulations of the manufacturing process. The application is a piston top for a large diesel engine. The aim is to contribute to the development of an integrated computer based tool for the design and manufacture of hot isostatically pressed products. The computer aided concurrent engineering (CACE) system which is integrated using a relational database includes the solid modeller of a computer aided design system, codes for non-linear finite element analysis (FEA), and data from a coordinate measuring system (CMM). Predictions of near net shape geometry obtained numerically are in tolerable agreement with experimental measurements. The model is based on an associated flow rule and linear isotropic hardening is assumed, the material properties correspond to AISI 304 steel.

  • 17. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Inverse modelling of powder compaction: the influence of material and friction behaviour interaction2000In: Proceedings of 2000 Powder Metallurgy World Congress : November 12 - 16, 2000, Kyoto International Conference Hall, Japan: organized by Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy, Japan Powder Metallurgy Association / [ed] Koji Kosuge; Hiroshi Nagai, Tokyo: Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy , 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Modelling of powder-wall friction for simulation of iron powder pressing1997In: Proceedings of the International workshop on modelling of metal powder forming processes, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Modelling methods in pressing simulations of metal powder components1998In: Simulation of materials processing : theory, methods and applications: international conference on numerical methods in industrial forming processes, NUMIFORM '98 / [ed] J. Huétink; F.P.T. Baaijens, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1998, p. 397-402Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of pressing metal powder to net shape with subsequent sintering is very important for the automotive industry and similar industries with production of metal components in large quantities. The development of products and tools for the pressing of the products is a very time consuming and costly process. It is of great importance for the industry to be able to predict the result of the pressing operation with respect to the powder flow and final density distribution. With this knowledge the time and cost for product development, tool manufacturing and tool testing can be significantly reduced. In this work a set of methods used for analyses of the pressing process are presented. The methods used are based on an explicit finite element formulation with arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. The material model used is a cap-plasticity model. The contact constraint are imposed with a method based on explicit integration of the contact interface equations in order to determine the contact forces. The contact algorithm includes a non-linear friction model with parameters based on experimental observations. An analysis of a pressed component is presented and compared with experimental results.

  • 20. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Reyre, M.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Three dimentional finite element analysis of powder compaction2002In: Process modeling in powder metallurgy & particulate materials: proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Process Modeling in Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, [held October 28 - 29, 2002, Newport Beach, California] / [ed] Alan Lawley, Princeton, NJ: Metal powder industries federation , 2002, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Solimannezhad, N.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Wall friction coefficient estimation through modelling of powder die pressing experiment2000In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 132-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forming of PM components through powder pressing is a process, which is influenced by the friction between the powder and the tool walls. For good performance of the pressing process it is of great interest to understand and estimate the effects of powder-wall friction. However, quantification of the friction coefficient between the powder and the tool is a delicate task. Local contact conditions, such as contact stress, must be measured or otherwise estimated in order to evaluate the coefficient of friction. Here, the friction coefficient is estimated by combining an experiment with modelling of the experiment. Two methods for assessment of friction are presented, an optimization approach using finite element analyses and an analytical approach. Experimental data are taken from the single action cold pressing of a cylinder shaped component.

  • 22. Wikman, Bengt
    et al.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    A combined material model for numerical simulation of hot isostatic pressing2000In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 189, no 3, p. 901-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modelling of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of powder materials the constitutive model should be able to describe different deformation mechanisms during the consolidation process. In the early stage, the consolidation is dominated by granular behaviour. As temperature and pressure increase in the powder the deformation can be described by a viscoplastic model. Experimental observations show substantial time-independent deformation in the early stage. At this stage of the densification process, pores in the powder are still interconnected. This cannot be described properly by a viscoplastic model. The inconsistency between the deformation mechanisms can be treated by a combined elasto-plastic and elasto-viscoplastic model. Here a granular plasticity model is combined with a viscoplastic model. In previous works the viscoplastic model, power-law breakdown, has been used to describe the entire deformation process. The combined model is implemented into an in-house finite deformation code for the solution of coupled thermomechanical problems. The simulation of a hot isostatic pressing test with dilatometer is performed in order to compare calculated results with the experimental measurement. The results from previously performed analysis carried out with a viscoplastic model only are also compared. Analysis with the combined material model shows good agreement with the experiment for the whole densification process.

  • 23.
    Zakrisson, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Numerical simulations of blast loads and structural deformation from near-field explosions in air2011In: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 597-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on deformable steel plates have been performed and compared to experiments. Two types of air blast setups have been used, cylindrical explosive placed either in free air or in a steel pot. A numerical finite element convergence study of the discretisation sensitivity for the gas dynamics has been performed, with use of mapping results from 2D to 3D in an Eulerian reference frame. The result from the convergence study served as a foundation for development of the simulation models. Considering both air blast setups, the numerical results under predicted the measured plate deformations with 9.4–11.1%. Regarding the impulse transfer, the corresponding under prediction was only 1.0–1.6%. An influence of the friction can be shown, both in experiments and the simulations, although other uncertainties are involved as well. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been tested as an alternative to the Eulerian model. The result for the simplified blast model deviates largely compared to the experiments and the Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter, and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. All together, reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved from near-field explosions in air.

  • 24. Åkerström, Paul
    et al.
    Wikman, Bengt
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Material parameter estimation for boron steel from simultaneous cooling and compression experiments2005In: Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 0965-0393, E-ISSN 1361-651X, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 1291-1308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the accuracy of numerical simulations of the hot stamping process, reliable material data is crucial. Traditionally, the material is characterized by several isothermal compression or tension tests performed at elevated temperatures and different strain rates. The drawback of the traditional methods is the appearance of unwanted phases for some test temperatures and durations. Such an approach is also both time consuming and expensive. In the present work an alternative approach is proposed, which reduces unwanted phase changes and the number of experiments. The isothermal mechanical response is established through inverse modelling of simultaneous cooling and compression experiments. The estimated material parameters are validated by comparison with data from a separate forming experiment. The computed global response is shown to be in good agreement with the experiments.

1 - 24 of 24
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