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  • 1.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic and treatment performance of a 19-year old constructed stormwater wetland: Finally maturated or in need of maintenance?2016In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 95, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs) are a commonly used measure for stormwater retention and quality treatment. However, although questions have been raised about the long-term performance of CSWs, only a few studies have targeted this issue and none have evaluated the performance of CSWs more than approximately 5–10 years old. Further, most studies have not examined the development of the long-term performance of CSWs but delivered a snapshot at a certain point of time. The present study investigated the performance of a 19-year-old CSW in Växjö, Sweden, treating stormwater from a 320-ha urban catchment. Besides removal of sediment from the CSW’s forebay, no other maintenance had been conducted. However, regular inspections had been performed. The results of the present sampling campaign were compared to two existing datasets collected at the same CSW after three years of operation in 1997 and nine years of operation in 2003. The CSW was found to provide efficient peak flow reduction and, depending on the event characteristics, also volume reduction. It still treated stormwater effectively: removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, TSS and TP event mean concentrations were between 89 and 96%, whereas mean concentrations of TN were reduced by 59%. The load removal efficiencies were even higher. Comparative analysis of the three monitoring periods based on the load removal efficiency revealed that the CSW, despite the lack of maintenance, performed more efficiently and stably for most pollutants compared to when newly constructed. This underlines the importance of the establishment and maturation of constructed wetland systems. Overall, the results showed that CSWs are resilient systems, which if designed well and regularly inspected to prevent major issues, can work efficiently for at least two decades.

  • 2.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems: a field survey2013In: NOVATECH 2013: Planning and Technologies for Sustainable Urban Water Management, 23 - 27 June 2013, Lyon, France., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examined the factors influencing the long-term hydraulic performance of some stormwater infiltration systems (swale and two types of permeable pavements) in Växjö, southern Sweden. The infiltration capacities of 9 permeable pavements and 2 swales sites, all with different ages ranging from 1 year to 14 years, were measured using replicate double ring infiltrometers. The sites were either constructed of swale (2), interlocking concrete pavers (ICP) filled with gravel (2), concrete grid pavers (CGP) filled with gravel (3), or concrete grid pavers (CGP) filled with grass (4). The results of this study showed that the long-term behaviour of the infiltration capacity relies largely on the type and age of the system and the type of joint filling (gravel and grass). Furthermore, the study showed that the 11 year old concrete grid pavers filled with grass had the highest infiltration capacity (4.80 + 2.46 mm/min), whilst the 9 and 14 year old swales had the lowest infiltration capacity (0.10 + 0.00 mm/min).

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  • 3.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Merriman, Laura S.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Hunt, William F.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Survey of the operational status of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater management ponds2017In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 143, no 6, article id 05017001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past 50 years, wet stormwater ponds have been constructed to reduce negative environmental impacts of urban stormwater discharges on receiving aquatic environments. However, in many jurisdictions there is little information on the current operational status of such ponds and their functioning. This paucity of information prompted a field survey of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater ponds, aged between 3 and 26 years. The pond survey focused on estimating the pond hydraulic loading and efficiency, the state of littoral vegetation, characteristics of bottom sediment in the inlet and outlet zones (sizes and the chemistry), and the overall operational pond status, including the access for maintenance. The hydraulic efficiencies of ponds were estimated for pond footprint shapes and relative locations of the inlets and outlets using literature data. The estimated hydraulic efficiencies correlated well with the pond length-to-width ratios and the ratio of the pond surface area to the impervious area of the runoff contributing catchment (i.e., the hydraulic loading). Littoral vegetation was inspected visually and found to be overgrown at some facilities, which impeded the maintenance access. Benthic sediments in ponds contained silt and clay (&lt;63&#x2009;&#x2009;&#x3BC;m" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;"><63  μm<63  μm), sand and gravel fractions, and when compared with the literature data, such sediments appeared relatively coarse. Chemical characteristics of sediments reflected anthropogenic (traffic) activities, but without excessive contamination warranting special disposal requirements. Of the 25 ponds surveyed, four were fenced off and inaccessible to machinery. In fact, the design of these four ponds was such that it made inspection and maintenance very difficult, which may pose potential risks to ponds operation. Fifty-four percent of the investigated ponds were in need of minor maintenance, primarily because of sediment and litter accumulation in their inflow and outflow sections. The fact that the inspection survey revealed relatively few minor issues that could be corrected easily demonstrates the importance of relatively simple regular inspections serving to detect minor problems at an early stage before they would seriously impact pond functioning. The above survey methodology should be helpful for developing similar low-cost surveys in other jurisdictions.

  • 4.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Effectiveness of a 19-Year Old Combined Pond-Wetland System in Removing Particulate and Dissolved Pollutants2017In: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 485-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study monitored the stormwater runoff quantity and quality treatment performance of a 6.8 ha 19-year old combined pond-wetland system, located in south Sweden, over one year. The mean volume reductions for 53 storm events for the pond and wetland were 40% and 28%, respectively, while the mean flow reductions were 60% and 76%, respectively. Pollutant concentrations in the influent to the wetland were highly variable. The pond-wetland system could efficiently remove an average of 91%, 80%, 94%, 91%, 83% and 92% of TSS, TP, particulate Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively, whereas the removal of particulate and dissolved Ni was highly variable with an average of 67% ± 62% and −5% ± 41%, respectively. The removal of TN, NH4-N and NO3 + NO2-N was highly variable with an average of 45% ± 27%, 12% ± 96% and 45% ± 43%, respectively. These removal percentages are high in comparison to other studies and underline that relatively old systems can also provide efficient treatment. Although the pond accounted for a substantial reduction of pollutant concentration, the wetland significantly enhanced both the treatment performance and the peak flow reduction. This underlines that a combined pond/wetland system is a more beneficial solution than a pond only. The pollutant removal efficiency was significantly influenced by some factors including Antecedent Dry Days, seasonal variations, air temperature, retention times, rainfall depth and duration, and peak rainfall intensity.

  • 5.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed Mohammed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Engström, Malin
    Växjö Municipality, Växjö, Sweden.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-Term Treatment Efficiency of a Constructed Stormwater Wetland: Preliminary Results2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed stormwater wetlands (CSWs) are commonly used in Sweden and worldwide because of their high efficiency in urban stormwater management. However, questions have been raised about the long-term performance of CSWs. This study investigated the performance of a 19-year-old constructed wetland, which was designed to treat the stormwater from a 320-ha catchment located in the city of Växjö, southern Sweden. The system has not been maintained since its construction in 1994. The results of the present study were compared with results obtained from a previous study conducted by Växjö Municipality in 1997. The results showed that the CSW significantly reduced peak flows by 72%. High concentration reductions were found for Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, TSS and TP (90, 89, 91, 90, 96, 96 and 86%, respectively). TN concentrations were reduced by 61%. The results indicated that lack of maintenance had no effect on the performance of wetland system during this long period of operation (19 years). In contrast, especially the removal of Cu and nitrogen was enhanced compared to 1997, which may be due to maturing of the system. The results show that CSWs are resilient systems, which (provided that design is sufficient) can work efficiently for at least two decades.

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  • 6.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Can vacuum cleaning recover the infiltration capacity of a clogged porous asphalt?2012In: WSUD 2012: Water Sensitve Urban Design - 21 - 23 February 2012, Melbourne Cricket Ground : building the water sensitve community, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main threat for the performance of porous asphalt is clogging leading to decreased infiltration capacity. Thus, we investigated the potential of vacuum cleaning to recover the infiltration capacity of clogged permeable asphalts which have been in use for several decades. The influence of road operation and maintenance measures on the results was discussed.Method: We investigated the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of two roads with porous asphalt in Haparanda and Luleå, Sweden, which had been in use for 28 years and 15 years, respectively. A lack of appropriate maintenance during their operating life had lead to significant clogging and thus malfunction. The roads were vacuum cleaned using a vacuum cleaner/sweeping truck combination. This technology is recommended as a maintenance option for porous asphalt. Before and after the vacuum cleaning, replicate HC measurements were conducted using double-ring infiltrometers.Result: Before vacuum cleaning, mean HC was <0.1mm/min in Haparanda and between 0.4 and 0.8 mm/min in Luleå. After vacuum cleaning, HC increased significantly in Luleå (between 1.1 and 7.1mm/min) while no significant increase was detected in Haparanda. Despite the improvement after vacuum cleaning, HC was still far lower than the initial HC after construction. Reasons for the different results in Haparanda and Luleå were identified; the road winter maintenance was of primary importance.Conclusion: Depending on the extent of clogging, vacuum cleaning has the ability to recover HC of porous asphalt. However, long term behaviour of the HC depends largely on the street maintenance, thus regular appropriate maintenance is preferable.

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  • 7.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term performance of a porous asphalt pavement in Luleå, Sweden: preliminary results2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stenglein, Anna Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of porous asphalt pavements in northern Sweden2013In: Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, ISSN 0733-9437, E-ISSN 1943-4774, Vol. 139, no 6, p. 499-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of clogging on the long-term infiltration capacity and porosity of two 18- and 24-year-old porous asphalts was examined by using replicate double-ring infiltrometer tests and analyzing asphalt core samples. Tests were carried out to see if high pressure washing and vacuum cleaning could restore the hydraulic performance. The infiltration capacity of the porous asphalts decreased substantially, primarily due to surficial clogging (0.50 +/- 0.26 in Lulea, Sweden, and 0.22 +/- 0.12 in Haparanda, Sweden, compared to initially > 290 mm min(-1)). In Lulea, washing and vacuum cleaning could partially restore the infiltration capacity (3.48 +/- 3.00 mm min(-1)), but in Haparanda, no effect was measured. The porosity was constantly between 16 and 18%. The difference of the long-term behavior and effect of cleaning in Lulea and Haparanda is primarily attributable to different street maintenance, age, and winter maintenance (application of fine gravel and/or sand). Although the infiltration capacity in Lulea was far below initial values, the asphalt still has the capacity to infiltrate an intense design rainfall (100 year average return interval, 15 min duration), underlining that porous asphalt can be a resilient feature also under nonfavorable conditions

  • 9.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Long-term hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration systems2015In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 660-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common use of stormwater infiltration systems, there is still only limited data available evaluating the long-term hydraulic function of such systems. The hydraulic performance of twelve stormwater infiltration systems (vegetated and unvegetated concrete grid pavers, unvegetated interlocking concrete pavers and grassed swales) was therefore investigated in field and laboratory environments in Växjö, Sweden. The systems investigated had not been subjected to regular maintenance to sustain infiltration capacity. Due to this, and the fact that, for most systems, an inappropriate joint filling material was used and (at the swales) there was severe compaction, most systems showed a reduced infiltration capacity. Despite this, especially the older vegetated systems, were still capable of infiltrating intense design rainfalls. This study showed the influence of some factors (type and age of the system, the type of joint filling material (grass and macadam) and the distance from the edge of the pavement) on the long-term behaviour of the infiltration capacity. In conclusion, there is a significant risk that existing stormwater infiltration systems are not working adequately in praxis. Proper implementation of construction and regular control by the inspecting authority has to be ensured.

  • 10.
    Banach, Agata
    et al.
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Sundström, Staffan
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Björn
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Jonas
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Assargård, Hanna
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gestaltning av dagvatten: Exempel och framgångsfaktorer2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 11.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Datasets of a stormwater treatment train facility consisting of a gross pollutant trap and biofilters/sand filter in Sundsvall, Sweden2023Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The data were collected from a stormwater treatment train facility in Sundsvall, Sweden. The facility consists of a gross pollutant trap (GPT) followed by three parallel biofilter cells: a vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter (BFC or F1), a non-vegetated sand filter (SF or F2), and a vegetated biofilter (BF or F3).One of the objectives of our research project was to assess and monitor stormwater quality received from a major road catchment (incl. E4 highway bridge in Sundsvall) and also evaluate the performance of the various sections of the treatment train in removing organic micropollutants from the stormwater.

    The file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.csv" contains event mean concentration (EMC) data on stormwater samples collected from 8 rain events (coded by A to H) in one year between September 2020 and September 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and global water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data elaborate on the generated distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. Besides, the number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples are mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "StormwaterRunoffQualityData_SND.docx". Stormwater flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Stormwater_SND.csv".

    The file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.csv" presents event mean concentration (EMC) data not only for the stormwater runoff quality but also for the treated stormwater in the GPT-biofilter/sand filter treatment train downstream of the catchment. In addition to the untreated stormwater runoff as the system's inflow (SW), EMCs have been presented for 4 more sampling points: GPT outflow (GPT), vegetated, chalk-amended biofilter outflow (BFC), non-vegetated sand filter (SF), and vegetated biofilter outflow (BF). For this part of the research, a total of 11 rain events (coded by A to K) were covered from Sep. 2020 until Sep. 2021. The samples have been analyzed for organic micropollutants and other conventional water quality parameters (42 parameters in total). EMCs have been mathematically generated by a Monte-Carlo simulation from measured concentrations in sub-samples collected during each event. The data present a distribution for each EMC with Q2.5, Q50, and Q97.5 percentiles and standard deviation from the mean. The number of detected and non-detected (censored) data of sub-samples is also mentioned. The list of all pollutants and their abbreviations are included in the documentation file named "TreatmentTrainQualityData_SND.docx". Flow data are also presented in the file "VolumeData_Treatment train_SND.csv".

  • 12.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Managing environmental risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in highway stormwater: Role of gross pollutant trap-biofilter treatment train: [Gestion du risque environnemental des micropolluants organiques (OMP) dans les eaux pluviales des autoroutes: Rôle de la chaîne de traitement piège à polluant brut-biofilter]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 13.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in highway stormwater: a comparative field study in Sweden2023In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, no 31, p. 77299-77317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study details the occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in stormwater collected from a highway bridge catchment in Sweden. The prioritized OMPs were bisphenol-A (BPA), eight alkylphenols, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and four fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), along with other global parameters, namely, total organic carbon (TOC), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, and conductivity (EC). A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was applied to estimate the event mean concentrations (EMC) of OMPs based on intra-event subsamples during eight rain events, and analyze the associated uncertainties. Assessing the occurrence of all OMPs in the catchment and comparing the EMC values with corresponding environmental quality standards (EQSs) revealed that BPA, octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), five carcinogenic and four non-carcinogenic PAHs, and C16-C40 fractions of PHCs can be problematic for freshwater. On the other hand, alkylphenol ethoxylates (OPnEO and NPnEO), six low molecule weight PAHs, and lighter fractions of PHCs (C10-C16) do not occur at levels that are expected to pose an environmental risk. Our data analysis revealed that turbidity has a strong correlation with PAHs, PHCs, and TSS; and TOC and EC highly associated with BPA concentrations. Furthermore, the EMC error analysis showed that high uncertainty in OMP data can influence the final interpretation of EMC values. As such, some of the challenges that were experienced in the presented research yielded suggestions for future monitoring programs to obtain more reliable data acquisition and analysis.

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  • 14.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Performance of a gross pollutant trap-biofilter and sand filter treatment train for the removal of organic micropollutants from highway stormwater (Field study)2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This field study assessed the occurrence, event mean concentrations (EMCs), and removal of selected organic micro-pollutants (OMPs), namely, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), nonylphenol (NP), 4-t-octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), in a gross pollutant trap (GPT)-biofilter/sand filter stormwater treatment train in Sundsvall, Sweden. The effects of design features of each treatment unit, including pre-sedimentation (GPT), sand filter medium, vegetation, and chalk amendment, were investigated by comparing the units' removal performances. Overall, the treatment train removed most OMPs from highway runoff effectively. The results showed that although the sand filter provided moderate (<50 % for phenolic substances) to high (50–80 % for PAHs and PHCs) removal of OMPs, adding a vegetated soil layer on top of the sand filter considerably improved the removal performance (by at least 30 %), especially for BPA, OP, and suspended solids. Moreover, GTP did not contribute to the treatment significantly. Uncertainties in the removal efficiencies of PAHs and PHCs by the filter cells increased substantially when the ratio of the influent concentration to the limit of quantification decreased. Thus, accounting for such uncertainties due to the low OMP concentrations should be considered when evaluating the removal performance of biofilters.

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  • 15.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Goldstein, Alisha
    Dept. of Biological and Agriculture Engineering, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Dept. of Building and Construction Engineering, Univ. of Technology, 19006, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt III, William F.
    Dept. of Biological and Agriculture Engineering, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Survey of the Operational Status of Twenty-six Urban Stormwater Biofilter Facilities in Sweden2021In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 297, article id 113375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the operational status of twenty-six biofilter facilities across nine cities in Sweden, with respect to their functional design criteria, engineered design features (filter media composition, hydraulic conductivity, and drawdown time), and includes a visual inspection of the biofilter components (pre-treatment, in/outlet structures, filter media, and vegetation). These indicators were used to examine the performance level of each biofilter in achieving their design objectives set by the operators. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the biofilter facilities had been properly maintained to meet the objectives. Results indicate that the soil media used was consistent with respect to percentage sand, fines, and organic matter and comparable to design recommendations used by municipalities in other countries. The field-tested hydraulic conductivity for the biofilters ranged from 30 to 962 mm/h. This range of values, along with noticeable sediment accumulation within the biofilter indicate that not all the sites were operating optimally. Pre-treatment stages in poor condition with high volumes of sediment and litter accumulation were the primary causes for, and indicators of, low hydraulic conductivity rates. The ponding volume calculations revealed that at least 40 % of facilities did not have enough capacity to retain every-day and/or design rainfall due to design and/or construction flaws. These analyses raise concerns that, for a considerable number of the biofilters surveyed, water retention and flood protection identified by operators as prioritised objectives are not being met. This raises significant concerns about the functionality of biofilter in practice. Finally, some suggestions are given for tackling the design and maintenance problems discovered.

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  • 16.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The intra-event dynamics of the removal of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) in stormwater treatment trains: gross pollutant trap and biofilter2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Biofiltration technologies for stormwater quality treatment2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to high runoff volumes and peak flows, and significant contamination with (inter alia) sediment, metals, nutrients, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and salt, urban stormwater is a major cause of degradation of urban water ways. Since current urban drainage systems, which heavily rely on piped sewer networks, may not be sustainable, attempts are being made to develop and refine sustainable urban drainage solutions, notably in Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and Low Impact Development (LID) concepts. Promising systems recommended for application in both WSUD and LID are stormwater biofilters (also known as bioretention systems or rain gardens) using vegetated filter media. Besides their capacity to attenuate flows and minimise runoff volumes, stormwater biofilters have proven efficacy for enhancing effluent water quality. Furthermore, they can be aesthetically pleasingly integrated even in dense urban environments. However, there are still gaps in our knowledge of the variability of biofilters' pollutant removal performance, and the factors that affect their performance.In the studies this thesis is based upon, the effects of various ambient factors, stormwater characteristics and modifications of filter design on the removal of metals, nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) in biofilters, and pollutant pathways through them, have been investigated. For these purposes, standard biofilters and variants equipped with a submerged zone, a carbon source and different filter materials were exposed to varying temperatures and dry periods, dosed with stormwater and snowmelt, and the inflow and outflow concentrations of the pollutants were measured.Although removal percentages were consistently high (>70%), demonstrating that biofilters can reliably treat stormwater, the results show that metal outflow concentrations may vary widely depending on the biofilter design and the ambient conditions. Prolonged drying especially impaired their removal efficiency, but variations in temperature and filter media variations had little effect on metal removal rates. The adverse effects of drying could be mitigated by using a submerged zone, and thus providing a more constant moisture regime in the filters between storm events. Combined with embedded organic matter, the submerged zone especially significantly enhances Cu removal, helping to meet outflow target concentrations. Similarly, installing a mulch layer on top of the filter provides additional sorption capacity, hence metals do not ingress far into the filter and are mainly trapped on/in the top layer by sorption processes and/or mechanical trapping associated with TSS. This leads to significant metal accumulation, which facilitates biofilter maintenance since scraping off the top layer removes high proportions of previously accumulated metals, thus delaying the need to replace the whole filter media. However, removal of accumulated pollutants from the filter media is crucial for successful long-term performance of the filters to ensure that no pollutant breakthrough occurs.Nitrogen removal was found to be more variable than metal removal, and to be adversely affected by temperature increases, leading to high nitrogen leaching in warm temperatures. Phosphorus removal rates were consistently high, since most phosphorus was particle-bound and thus trapped together with TSS. However, in initial stages phosphorus was washed out from the filter media, indicating that filter media that do not have high levels of labile phosphorus should be used to avoid high effluent concentrations. Given that most outflow concentrations were far lower than those in the stormwater, biofilters are appropriate stormwater treatment systems. Dependent on the ambient conditions, the target pollutants and the sensitivity of the recipient, adaptation of the filter design is recommended. Further work is required to investigate the winter performance and improve the reliability of nitrogen removal, which is highly variable.

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  • 18.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt, William F.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lord, William G.
    North Carolina Cooperative Extension, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Stormwater control measure (SCM) maintenance considerations to ensure designed functionality2017In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 278-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Great investment is made in the design and installation of stormwater control measures (SCMs). Substantial research investment, too, is made to optimise the performance of SCMs. However, once installed, SCMs often suffer from lack of maintenance or even outright neglect. Key maintenance needs for wet ponds, constructed stormwater wetlands, bioretention, infiltration practices, permeable pavement, swales, and rainwater harvesting systems are reviewed with many tasks, such as the cleaning of pre-treatment areas and the preservation of infiltration surfaces, being common maintenance themes among SCMs. Consequences of lacking maintenance are illustrated (mainly insufficient function or failure). Probable reasons for neglect include insufficient communication, unclear responsibilities, lack of knowledge, financial barriers, and decentralised measures. In future designs and research, maintenance (and lack thereof) should be considered. Assessing the performance of SCMs conservatively and including safety factors may prevent consequences of under-maintenance; and requiring regular inspection may help to enforce sufficient maintenance.

  • 19.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Karlsson, Kristin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Closure to “Environmental Risk Assessment of Sediments Deposited in Stormwater Treatment Facilities: Trace Metal Fractionation and Its Implication for Sediment Management”2018In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 144, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Laboratory study of stormwater biofiltration in low temperatures: total and dissolved metal removal and fates2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 219, no 1-4, p. 303-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters, which are recommended for application in both Water-Sensitive Urban Design and Low Impact Development, can remove up to 80% or 90% of total metals found in stormwater. However, their winter operation is a common concern. That was addressed in this study by investigating the metal removal effectiveness of replicate laboratory biofilter mesocosms at 2°C, 8°C and 20°C. As recommended for cold climate bioretention, coarse filter media were implemented and in the top 100 mm layer topsoil was added to increase the sorption capacity. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations measured in the biofilter effluent were far below those in the influent and this significantly improved the treated stormwater quality. Contrary to a common notion that coarse media in the main filter body impair dissolved metal sorption, satisfactory removals of dissolved metals were found in this study with most metal burdens retained in the top layer of the filter in which the sorption capacity was enhanced by topsoil. Some metal uptake by the plants was also detected. Temperature did not affect Cd, Pb and Zn removals in general, but Cu removals increased with decreasing temperatures. This was explained by increased biological activities in the filters at warmer temperatures, which may have led to an increased release of Cu with dissolved organic matter originating from root turnover and decomposition of organic litter and debris. Furthermore, plant uptake and biofilm adsorption may also be influenced by temperature. However, even in the worst case (i.e. at 20°C), Cu was removed effectively from the stormwater. Further research needs were identified including the effects of road salts on stormwater biofiltration during the winter period.

  • 21.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Søberg, Laila
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Dataset on stormwater bioretention column studies: Impact of temperature, salt and a submerged zone on the removal of metals, nutrients and suspended solids2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This data set presents the full raw data from bioretention column studies conducted at Luleå University of Technology in 2010-2014. The pilot scale columns were watered with synthetic stormwater. Influent and effluent samples were collected and analysed for pollutants including total and dissolved metals, nutrients, pathogens and suspended sediment. Further, supporting parameters (e.g. pH, conductivity) are included. The data enables quantifying the impact of bioretention design factors (submerged zone) and ambient factors (salinity in stormwater inflow, temperature) on the removal of these pollutants by bioretention. All filters utilised the same general column design and filter material as well as stormwater preparation. This enables inter-comparability between the different studies. Synthetic stormwater inflow concentrations and bioretention effluent concentrations are presented in the data set. Further, metal concentrations in the filter material and plant tissue have been analysed. The data set enables further analyses of bioretention performance, comparison with similar work performed elsewhere and can be used in modelling of bioretention removal performance and processes. Scientific papers describing the data have been published (see Publications)

  • 22.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rentz, Ralf
    Malmgren, Charlotte
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stormwater impact on urban waterways in a cold climate: variations in sediment metal concentrations due to untreated snowmelt discharge2012In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 758-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Stormwater discharges include contaminated sediments that accumulate in the receiving water body. It is thus important to investigate sediment and pollutant processes and pathways from the catchment to, and within, the receiving water. These processes may be influenced by seasonal changes. The objective of this study was to investigate the stormwater impact on receiving waters in the Luleå area, Northern Sweden; seasonal changes in contamination loads in the receiving waters due to snowmelt; and factors influencing the pollutant pathways in the receiving waters. Materials and methods: In front of three storm sewer outlets in Luleå, samples of bottom sediment (surface layer 0-2 cm) were collected from the connecting ditches and the downstream water body in autumn and spring (before and after the snow season 2009/2010). The characteristics of the receiving waters differed in geomorphology and vegetation. The sediment was analyzed for loss-on-ignition (LOI), grain size, and bulk concentrations of SiO 2, Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, TiO 2, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, S, V, and Zn. The sediment contamination was compared to concentrations at a reference point in Luleå where the bottom sediment was not affected by stormwater discharges and with Swedish environmental quality guidelines. Pearson's correlation and a principal component analysis were used to further evaluate the results. Results and discussion: Relative to the reference point, elevated trace metal concentrations were detected in sediments at all three sampling stations. At two of the stations, seasonal variations in ditch sediment grain size, LOI, and contaminant concentrations were observed, originating from stormwater sediment. Snowmelt runoff caused an increased proportion of fine-grained sediment fractions (<0.063 mm) in spring, mainly due to changes in runoff intensity and high sediment loads in the snowmelt runoff. The retention of metals appeared to be due to low turbulence in the water and the presence of organic material. Conclusions: Stormwater discharge affected the contaminant concentrations in the bottom sediments. The observed seasonal variation of contaminants indicated that relatively high amounts of contaminants are discharged during snowmelt and then reallocated within the receiving water body, either directly or after some temporal retention, depending on the characteristics of the receiving water. A calm water column and the presence of organic material in the receiving water body were crucial for the retention of metals

  • 23.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Tondera, Katharina
    Stormwater Research Group, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Metals: Occurrence, Treatment Efficiency and Accumulation Under Varying Flows2018In: Ecotechnologies for the Treatment of Variable Stormwater and Wastewater Flows / [ed] Katharina Tondera, Godecke-Tobias Blecken, Florent Chazarenc, Chris C. Tanner, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 75-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals were the first priority pollutants to be widely investigated in stormwater. In solid phase, they are often attached to very fine particles. The dissolved fraction creates considerable environmental problems as it is the most bioavailable fraction. Hence, removal of both fine and dissolved particles plays a major role in the treatment of polluted runoff. Ecotechnologies specifically designed to remove metals should be able to address different treatment mechanisms. However, the exhaustion of sorption capacity reduces the lifespan of treatment facilities. Additionally, metal concentrations fluctuate extremely—spatially, seasonally and over time—which poses another challenge for further increasing removal efficiencies. While soil- or sand-based systems should be designed in a way that the filter material can be exchanged, newer developments such as Floating Treatment Wetlands show promising removal capacities as the installations bind metals in sludge sediments, which can be removed from time to time. The different treatment mechanisms, aforementioned developments and techniques as well as their removal capacities will be discussed in this chapter

  • 24.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rening av dagvatteni biofilter: Effekt av biokol som tillsats i filtermaterialet2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 25. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Biofilter treatment of stormwater: temperature influence on the removal of nutrients2007In: Techniques et stratégies durables pour la gestion des eaux urbaines par temps de pluie: 6e Conférence internationale, [25-27] juin 2007, Lyon, France, Villeurbanne: Graie , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients can cause eutrophication of natural water bodies. Thus, urban stormwater which is an important nutrient source has to be treated in order to reduce its nutrient loads. Biofilters which use media, biofilms and plants, are a good treatment option regarding nutrients. This paper presents the results of a biofilter column study in cold temperatures (+2°C, +8°C, control at +20°C) which may cause special problems regarding the biofilter performance. It was shown that particle bound pollutants as TSS and a high fraction of phosphorus were reduced well without being negatively influenced by cold temperatures. Nitrogen, however, was not reduced; especially NOx was produced in the columns which can be explained with both insufficient denitrification and high leaching from the columns.

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  • 26. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Hedström, Annelie
    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) in sewer systems: a significant problem in Sweden and Norway2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Fett i avloppsnät: kartläggning och åtgärdsförslag2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fat oil and grease (FOG) from food preparation can cause severeproblems if it is discharged to the municipal sewer network. A surveyamong Swedish and Norwegian municipalities has shown that nearlyall respondents experience FOG-related problems. The most commonproblem is FOG accumulation connected to the sewer pipes whichdecreases the pipe pipe capacity and may lead to sewer overflows. FOGaccumulation occurs especially at lift stations and depressions. FOGdeposits are often made up of saponised FOG. The fatty acids promotefurthermore corrosion of concrete pipes. FOG can even impact wastewater treatment and might cause severer working conditions.The aim for the water suppliers has thus to be an effective FOGsource control before FOG is discharged to the sewer network. Sourcesare both commercial establishments and residential sewer customers.In this report different source control measures are discussed. Greaseinterceptors are commonly used for commercial FOG sources. However,a number of them lack a grease interceptor and quite often operationand maintenance is deficient. An insufficient frequency ofemptying and a lack of supervision have been identified as a commonproblem. FOG collection systems for commercial FOG producers existin both Sweden and Norway. Collection systems for private householdsare currently in a test phase and experiences from among others Austriaare promising. Even the collected amount of FOG could presumablybe increased. Collected FOG and FOG slurry from interceptors is avaluable resource which can be used as raw material in the chemicalindustry or as an energy source (combustion, biodiesel, fermentation).Threshold values for FOG discharges are set up commonly by municipalities.However, even here supervision is often insufficient. Often, thethreshold values are inadequately low and a value of at least 150 mg/lis recommended. All those measures have to be supported by informationcampaigns which aim on both commercial and private customers.

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  • 28.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Projekt: Fett i avloppsnät - Kartläggning och åtgärdsförslag2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Matfett och -olja som släpps ut till avloppsnätet kan orsaka driftproblem. Denna enkätstudie har visat att nästan alla kommuner i Norge och Sverige upplever problem på grund av fettet.

  • 29.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Effect of retrofitting a saturated zone om the performance of biofiltration for heavy metal removal: preliminary results of a laboratory study2010In: NOVATECH 2010: 7th International conference on sustainable techniques and strategies in urban water management, Lyon, France, June 27 - July 1st, 2010, Villeurbanne: Graie , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters are a stormwater treatment technology which has been becoming increasingly popular. Recently it has been shown that a submerged zone in the filter media improves the magnitude and consistency of nitrogen treatment. Furthermore, the submerged zone has even been shown to be beneficial for retention of heavy metals, particularly Cu. However, most existing biofilters do not include a saturated zone. Since it is relatively simple to retrofit a submerged zone by elevating the outflow, the effect of such a retrofitting on metal removal was investigated in this laboratory study using biofilter columns. It has been shown that a retrofitted submerged zone has a statistically significant but practically small effect on metal removal: Zn removal is slightly enhanced while the effect on Cu removal is inconsistent. Thus, retrofitting of a submerged zone is not recommended if metals are the main target pollutants. But if a submerged zone would have other benefits (e.g. for nitrogen removal or to protect the system from prolonged drying periods) it can be retrofitted without compromising metal removal.

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  • 30. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Deletic, Ana
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Impact of a submerged zone and a carbon source on heavy metal removal in stormwater biofilters2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 769-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilters are an effective treatment option for the substantial heavy metal loads in urban stormwater. However, to increase their nitrogen treatment efficacy, the introduction of a submerged (anoxic) zone (SZ) and a cellulose based carbon source (C) has been recommended because it has been shown to enhance denitrification and thereby increase overall nitrogen removal. To examine the impact of this design modification on heavy metal treatment, a laboratory study using biofilter mesocosms with different levels of SZ and with or without added C was conducted. The results show that SZ and C have a significant impact on metal treatment. In particular, the removal of Cu was improved significantly. The presence of SZ and C allows outflow Cu concentrations to meet Swedish and Australian water quality guidelines, which are not met with a standard biofilter without SZ or C. Although Zn and Pb removal was enhanced slightly by the presence of a SZ, this improvement is of less practical importance, since Zn and Pb removal is already very high (>95%) in standard biofilters. The best metal treatment was achieved with 450 and 600 mm SZ. Based on these results, the incorporation of SZ with C in stormwater biofilters is recommended.

  • 31.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim D
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Laboratory studies on metal treatment efficiency of stormwater biofilters2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters are a reliable technology to remove metals from stormwater. A solid carbon source in the filter (combined with a submerged zone) enhances especially Cu removal further; the already high Pb and Zn removal is slightly enhanced. However, the submerged zone helps to minimize (Cu, Zn) or eliminate (Pb) the negative effects which prolonged drying has on the removal rates. Thus, the introduction of a submerged zone is only recommended if nitrogen treatment is targeted (Zinger et al. 2007) or if drying is expected. Temperature differences might have a little influence on especially Cu treatment. However, this influence is not of practical importance indicating that biofilters can successfully be implemented throughout the whole seasonal cycle. A high proportion of metals are retained at the top of the filter which is important for biofilter design and maintenance planning. A filter less than the currently recommended 800 to 900 mm might be sufficient for reliable metal treatment. Furthermore, scraping of the top layer could delay replacing of the whole filter media

  • 32.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Deletic, Ana
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Viklander, Maria
    Laboratory study on stormwater biofiltration: nutrient and sediment removal in cold temperatures2010In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 394, no 3-4, p. 507-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater biofilters have the ability to remove nutrients from stormwater. Reliable pollutant removal during the cold season is particularly important due to the comparably high contamination levels. However, the removal performance might be negatively affected by low temperatures. A biofilter column study was conducted in thermostat-controlled climate rooms (at 2, 7 and 20 °C) to investigate the effect of low temperatures on nutrient removal. Phosphorus and suspended solids removal were significantly correlated and consistently very high (typically in excess of 90 and 95%, respectively, at all temperatures). This is important for the successful implementation of biofilters in cold climates since phosphorus is commonly of principal concern, often being the limiting factor for eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems. Unfortunately, nitrogen removal was poor and leaching was shown, which increased with temperature. The increasing nitrate-nitrogen production rates with temperature were well described by the Arrhenius relationship with temperature coefficients Q10 in the range which is typically used to describe temperature effects on nitrification. Thus, temperature effects have to be considered when nitrogen removal is targeted and the biofilter might be exposed to cold temperatures.

  • 33. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Heavy metal removal by stormwater biofilters: can it withstand alternative drying and wetting conditions?2008In: Conference Proceedings : 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage: Edinburgh International Conference Centre, Scotland : 11 ICUD: 31st August - 5th September 2008, Munich: Oldenbourg Industrieverlag , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban stormwater contains substantial loads of Cu, Pb and Zn, which are considered as key stormwater contaminants. Stormwater biofiltration is a promising option to treat these contaminants. Biofilters are exposed to an alternate cycle of drying and wetting, and the influence of this on pollutant removal performance is as-yet unknown. To investigate the effect of drying and subsequent rewetting on the retention of heavy metals by stormwater biofilters, a laboratory study has been conducted using three groups of biofilter columns, which were dosed with semi-synthetic stormwater according to three different drying and wetting regimes. Some biofilters were fitted with a submerged zone combined with a carbon source, at the bottom of the filter. Overall, the biofilters were very effective in heavy metal removal, provided that they received regular stormwater input. However, after drying extending to three or four weeks, removal of heavy metals decreased significantly. A statistically significant correlation between antecedent dry days and metal removal was shown. Furthermore, a clear effect of the submerged zone was found: after extended dry periods, biofilters with this feature performed significantly better than those without it. In particular, the removal of Cu was clearly increased both during wet and dry periods; for Pb the negative effect of drying was completely eliminated by introducing a submerged zone.

  • 34. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Deletic, Ana
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Influence of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on heavy metal removal by stormwater biofilters2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 18, p. 4590-4598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofiltration is a technology to treat urban stormwater runoff which conveys pollutants, including heavy metals. However, the variability of metals removal performance in biofiltration systems is as yet unknown.A laboratory study has been conducted with vegetated biofilter mesocosms, partly fitted with a submerged zone at the bottom of the filter combined with a carbon source. The biofilters were dosed with stormwater according to three different dry/wet schemes, to investigate the effect of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on metal removal.Provided that the biofilters received regular stormwater input, metal removal exceeded 95%. The highest metal accumulation occurs in the top layer of the filter media.However, after antecedent drying before a storm event exceeding three to four weeks the filters performed significantly worse, although metal removal still remained relatively high. Introducing a submerged zone into the filter improved the performance significantly after extended dry periods. In particular, copper removal in filters equipped with a submerged zone was increased by around 12% (α = 0.05) both during wet and dry periods and for lead the negative effect of drying could completely be eliminated, with consistently low outflow concentrations even after long drying periods.

  • 35. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Muthanna, Tone M.
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Trondheim.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The influence of temperature on nutrient treatment efficiency in stormwater biofilter systems2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients can cause eutrophication of natural water bodies. Thus, urban stormwater which is an important nutrient source in urbanised areas has to be treated in order to reduce its nutrient loads. Biofilters which use soil filter media, biofilms and plants, are a good treatment option for nutrients. This paper presents the results of a biofilter column study in cold temperatures (+2 °C, +8 °C, control at +20 °C) which may cause special problems regarding biofilter performance. It was shown that particle-bound pollutants as TSS and a high fraction of phosphorus were reduced well without being negatively influenced by cold temperatures. Nitrogen, however, was not reduced; especially NOx was produced in the columns. This behaviour can be explained with both insufficient denitrification and high leaching from the columns

  • 36.
    Ekka, Sujit A.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA. Department of Environment-Water Resources, AECOM, 1600 Perimeter Park Dr, Suite 400, Morrisville, NC, 27560, USA.
    Rujner, Hendrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hunt, William F.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.
    Next generation swale design for stormwater runoff treatment: A comprehensive approach2021In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 279, article id 111756Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swales are the oldest and most common stormwater control measure for conveying and treating roadway runoff worldwide. Swales are also gaining popularity as part of stormwater treatment trains and as crucial elements in green infrastructure to build more resilient cities. To achieve higher pollutant reductions, swale alternatives with engineered media (bioswales) and wetland conditions (wet swales) are being tested. However, the available swale design guidance is primarily focused on hydraulic conveyance, overlooking their function as an important water quality treatment tool. The objective of this article is to provide science-based swale design guidance for treating targeted pollutants in stormwater runoff. This guidance is underpinned by a literature review.

    The results of this review suggest that well-maintained grass swales with check dams or infiltration swales are the best options for runoff volume reduction and removal of sediment and heavy metals. For nitrogen removal, wet swales are the most effective swale alternative. Bioswales are best for phosphorus and bacteria removal; both wet swales and bioswales can also treat heavy metals. Selection of a swale type depends on the site constraints, local climate, and available funding for design, construction, and operation. Appropriate siting, pre-design site investigations, and consideration of future maintenance during design are critical to successful long-term swale performance. Swale design recommendations based on a synthesis of the available research are provided, but actual design standards should be developed using local empirical data. Future research is necessary to identify optimal design parameters for all swale types, especially for wet swales.

  • 37.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Heléne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Contamination of Urban Stormwater Pond Sediments: A Study of 259 Legacy and Contemporary Organic Substances2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 3009-3020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater ponds improve water quality by facilitating the sedimentation of particles and particulate contaminants from urban runoff. Over time, this function entails the accumulation of contaminated sediments, which must be removed periodically to maintain a pond’s hydraulic and treatment capacity. In this study, sediments from 17 stormwater sedimentation facilities from four Swedish municipalities were analyzed for 259 organic substances likely to be found in the urban environment. A total of 92 substances were detected in at least one sample, while as many as 52 substances were detected in a single sample. A typical profile of urban contamination was identified, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organotins, aliphatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, aldehydes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated substances, and alkylphenols. However, levels of contamination varied greatly between ponds, influenced heavily by the dilution of urban pollutants and wear particles from other sources of particles such as eroded soil, sand, or natural organic matter. For 22 of 32 samples, the observed concentrations of at least one organic substance exceeded the regulatory threshold values derived from toxicity data for both sediment and soil.

  • 38.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Université Paris Est, LEESU (MA102), École des Ponts ParisTech , UPEC, AgroParisTech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, F 77455 Marne la Vallée cedex 2.
    Cartwright, Mathilde
    Université Paris Est, LEESU (MA102), École des Ponts ParisTech , UPEC, AgroParisTech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, F 77455 Marne la Vallée cedex 2.
    Shen, Pengfei
    Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Victoria, 3810, Australia.
    McCarthy, David
    Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Victoria, 3810, Australia.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    Université Paris Est, LEESU (MA102), École des Ponts ParisTech , UPEC, AgroParisTech, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, F 77455 Marne la Vallée cedex 2.
    Treatment of micropollutants in stormwater biofilters: comparing model results with field and lab data: [Traitement de micropolluants par une noue filtrante : confrontation d’un modèle aux données expérimentales]2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Furén, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. NCC Sverige AB, Department of Research and Innovation.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Winston, Ryan
    Department of Food, Agriculture, and Biological Engineering, Deprtment of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Core Faculty, Sustainability Institute, Ohio State University.
    Dorsey, Jay
    Department of Food, Agriculture, and Biological Engineering, Deprtment of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Core Faculty, Sustainability Institute, Ohio State University.
    Tirpak, Andrew
    Department of Food, Agriculture, and Biological Engineering, Deprtment of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Core Faculty, Sustainability Institute, Ohio State University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and concentrations of organic micropollutants in bioretention filter media2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 40.
    Furén, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. NCC Sverige AB, Department of Research & Innovation, 170 80 Solna, Sweden.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Winston, Ryan J.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Tirpak, R. Andrew
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Dorsey, Jay D.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence, concentration, and distribution of 38 organic micropollutants in the filter material of 12 stormwater bioretention facilities2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 846, article id 157372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of bioretention facilities as a low impact development measure for treating stormwater runoff underscores the need to further understand their long-term function. Eventually, bioretention filter media must be (partly) replaced and disposed of at the end of its functional lifespan. While there are several studies of metal accumulation and distributions in bioretention media, less is known about organic pollutant pathways and accumulation in these filters. The present study considers the occurrence and accumulation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls, 13 phthalates, and two alkylphenols throughout 12 older bioretention facilities (7–13 years old) used for stormwater treatment in Michigan and Ohio, USA. These pollutant groups appear to behave similarly, with greater instances of detection and higher concentrations in the upper media layers which decrease with increased depth from the surface. The patterns of detection and concentration in the filter material may be explained by characteristics of the pollutants, such as molecular structures and solubility that affect the removal of the organic pollutants by the filter material. There is also a large variation in concentration magnitudes between the bioretention sites, most likely due to differences in pollutant sources, contributing catchment size and/or land uses.

  • 41.
    Furén, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. NCC Sverige AB, Department of Research and Innovation, Herrjärva Torg 4, 17080 Solna, Sweden.
    Österlund, Heléne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Winston, Ryan J.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Agricultural Engineering Building AE, Building 298, 590 Woody Hayes Dr, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, 470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Tirpak, R. Andrew
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Agricultural Engineering Building AE, Building 298, 590 Woody Hayes Dr, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Dorsey, Jay D.
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Agricultural Engineering Building AE, Building 298, 590 Woody Hayes Dr, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Smith, Joseph
    Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Agricultural Engineering Building AE, Building 298, 590 Woody Hayes Dr, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Concentration, distribution, and fractionation of metals in the filter material of 29 bioretention facilities: a field study2023In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400, E-ISSN 2053-1419, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 3158-3173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollutant loads stemming from anthropogenic activities conveyed in urban stormwater runoff contribute to the impairment of downstream water bodies. Cities and municipalities are increasingly turning toward green infrastructure stormwater control measures to treat pollutants at the source of runoff. One example of these technologies is bioretention, which is commonly applied for stormwater treatment in urban areas due to its demonstrated effectiveness in removing various pollutants from water, including sediment, nutrients (e.g., N and P), and metals. As metals are mainly removed by filtration or adsorption to soil particles, the filter media is important for metal removal in bioretention. However, the capacity to remove metals through adsorption by bioretention media is finite; thus, the media may need to be replaced and disposed of after maintenance or at the end of its operational lifespan. Pollutant accumulation in bioretention media has the potential to approach toxicity thresholds, which may introduce complexities for safe handling and disposal. To fully capture the potential challenges associated with metals accumulation in media over time, it is important to understand the accumulation processes and mobility of metals in bioretention facilities as they age. Although several studies have investigated metal accumulation and distribution in bioretention media, few have assessed metal mobility by fractionation using sequential extraction methods in older (i.e., >7 years) facilities. In November 2019, we conducted a comprehensive field study of older facilities in Ohio, Michigan, and Kentucky (USA) to improve the understanding of the accumulation processes and metal mobility in bioretention. In this study, concentrations of several metals (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed in samples of filter material from 29 bioretention sites in operation for 7–16 years. Except for Cd, all metals were found in all samples. Metals accumulation was clear with highest concentrations found in the top (0–5 cm) layer of the filter material, attributable to the filtration of particles percolating through the media profile. Lower concentrations were observed in deeper (i.e., >10 cm) layers of the bioretention media. The fractionation showed that the metals of interest were present at high levels with a risk of leaching over time, among which Cd, Zn, and Pb were suggested to be mobile from the filter material during precipitation. Thus, there is a potential risk of leakage from filter material or sediment removed from biofilters, e.g., during maintenance and disposal. The results of principal component analysis indicated specifically correlations between metal concentrations and the filter material soil texture including the organic matter content. These results contribute to improved design and operation and suggest regular maintenance to reduce long-term risks associated with the accumulation of metals in bioretention and similar urban stormwater treatment facilities. Since most metals are trapped in the top layer of the filter it may be enough to remove only the top layer. However, metal fractionation should be considered when handling the material.

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  • 42.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Water Östersund, Östersund Municipality, Krondikesvägen 60, 83182 Östersund, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Indicator bacteria variation in separate sewersystems in Östersund, Sweden - Preliminary results: [La variation des indicateurs bactériens et des flux de MES dans les systèmes séparatifs d'eaux pluviales à Östersund, en Suède - Résultats préliminaires]2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal bacteria are a major pollution threat of water bodies designated for multipurpose use including drinking water sources or recreational purposes. Even though stormwater discharges may contribute significantly to microbiological pollution, they have not been fully investigated in the European context. We have studied the presence of indicator bacteria and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater discharged from four urban catchments, with areas between 5 and 40 ha, in Östersund, Sweden. The aim was to determine local variation of standard bacteria strains and TSS in Swedish urban catchments with specific land uses. Further, intra event variations were investigated. During dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100 CFU/100 mL. During storm runoff, total coliform and int. enterococci concentrations increased 102 to 103 times, compared to those in baseflow. Compared to these two parameters, considerably lower concentrations were observed for E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and partly, a first flush phenomenon was observed. Partly, significant correlations between TSS and indicator bacteria were observed. These were catchment specific and need a more detailed assessment. Further research will focus on seasonal variations and influential factors.

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  • 43.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Water Engineering, Water Dept. Östersund, Östersund Municipality, Krondikesvägen 60, 83182 Östersund, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Inter-Event and Intra-Event Variations of Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the Storm Sewer System of the City of Östersund, Sweden2016In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, no 7, article id 6016003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An episode of microbiological contamination of the drinking water supply of the City of Östersund, Sweden (63°10′45″N; 14°38′09″E) prompted a study of fecal pollution in four storm drainage catchments discharging in the vicinity of the water treatment plant intake, with the overall aim of determining the presence and variation of standard fecal indicator bacteria strains and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater from urban catchments with specific land uses and sizes varying from 5 to 40 ha. Four bacteria strains used as indicators of fecal pollution in Sweden were studied: total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). In dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in storm sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL, but during wet weather, total coliform and enterococci concentrations increased 10 2 102 to 10 3 103 times, compared to those in baseflow, and considerably less in the case of E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and in the majority of events observed in the four catchments; higher bacteria concentrations were observed during the early phases of runoff. Only in one catchment, positive correlations were observed between TSS and total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci, suggesting similar sources; in the remaining catchments, no such correlations were observed. The collected indicator bacteria data represent a useful addition to the available data on indicator bacteria in stormwater in cold-climate regions.

  • 44.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Influence of sampling methods on the measurements of urban stormwater quality constituents - Preliminary results: [Influence des méthodes d'échantillonnage pour la mesure de la qualité des eaux pluviales urbaines - Résultats préliminaires]2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice between automatic and manual sampling of urban stormwater quality has been addressed in the past as an issue of economic efficiency, field safety, and practicality. Nevertheless, there is experimental evidence that both types of sampling may yield statistically different stormwater quality data. While the past attention focused on differences in sampled solids, a new issue was addressed in this study, the potential impacts of sampling methods on concentrations of indicator bacteria. Towards this end, four indicator bacteria (coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and C. perfringens) were sampled in storm sewers of two urban catchments in Östersund, Sweden, using both automatic samplers and manual sampling. Such data were further supplemented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity, recognizing that bacteria are mostly transported in the attachment to solids. Preliminary results indicate that there may be large differences between indicator bacteria in automatic and manual samples, with E. coli measurements yielding the least differences, and turbidity readings were correlated well with all the indicator bacteria and particularly E. coli. These findings will be used in the continuation of this study for refining the existing experimental design and developing practical guidance for surveys of municipal storm sewers for faecal pollution.

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  • 45.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sundelin, Monica
    Hjortens Laboratorium, Fagerbacken 28, 831 46, Östersund, Sweden.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Comparison of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by automated and manual sampling of urban stormwater runoff2014In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, no 9, article id 2065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by laboratory analysis of grab samples of storm water, which were collected manually or by automatic samplers, was carried out in two urban catchments. Samples were analyzed for four types of indicator bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens and further documented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. Analysis of complete data sets (N=198) indicated no statistically significant differences in the geometric means of all the constituent samples collected automatically or manually, but there were some small differences between the results produced by the two sampling methods applied. Total coliform concentrations were positively biased in samples collected by automatic samplers, but for the three remaining indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens), the opposite was true. Risk of sample cross-contamination in automatic samplers was assessed in the laboratory by sampling consecutively synthetic storm water with high and low concentrations of E. coli and enterococci. The first low-concentration samples preceded by high-concentration samples were cross-contaminated and the measured concentrations were positively biased. This cross-contamination was explained by storm-water residue in the sampling line. Such a residue remained in place even after line purging by compressed air, and its mass depended on the sampling line length (tested up to 5 m), as verified by measurements in the laboratory. The study findings should be helpful for improving field protocols for indicator bacteria sampling.

  • 46.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Facilitating maintenance of stormwater ponds: comparison of analytical methods for determination of metal pollution2022In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, no 49, p. 74877-74893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater ponds are widely used for controlling runoff quality through the sedimentation of particles and associated pollutants. Their maintenance requires regular removal and disposal of accumulated material. This necessitates an assessment of material hazardousness, including potential hazard due to its contamination by metals. Here we analyze 32 stormwater pond sediment samples from 17 facilities using several chemical analysis methods (total extraction, sequential extraction, diffusive gradients in thin-films DGT, and pore water extraction) in order to consider the complementarity and comparability of the different approaches. No clear relationship was found between analyses that have the potential to measure similar metal fractions (DGT and either fraction 1 of the sequential extraction (adsorbed and exchangeable metals and carbonates) or pore water concentrations). Loss on ignition (LOI) had a significant positive correlation with an indicator of the environmental risk developed in this paper (∑ranks) that incorporates different metals, speciations, and environmental endpoints. Large variations in metal levels were observed between ponds. As clustering was limited between the different analyses, a comprehensive analysis of different parameters is still needed to fully understand metal speciation and bioavailability.

  • 47.
    Goldkuhl, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Urban water research in an urban living lab setting: How does it work?2017In: 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference on Urban Drainage: Conference Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Urban water research in an urban living lab
  • 48.
    Hamann, Frieder
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Valuing the Multiple Benefits of Blue-Green Infrastructure for a Swedish Case Study: Contrasting the Economic Assessment Tools B£ST and TEEB2020In: Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, E-ISSN 2379-6111, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 05020003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to flooding and water quality management, blue-green infrastructure (BGI) provides multiple benefits to humans and ecosystems, including health and biodiversity. Various tools are available for assessing these benefits but few evaluate economic benefits. Two tools that monetize the benefits, the Benefits Estimation Tool (B£ST) (UK) and The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (Netherlands), have been used to estimate value for a case study in Luleå, Sweden. Three options for a newly developed area were assessed in comparison with two different baselines. The main economic benefits of the newly developed area were related to amenities, home values, health, and social cohesion rather than to stormwater. However, as a result of the proposed development, negative economic benefits (i.e., costs) were attributed to carbon sequestration and biodiversity when considering the value of the existing area due to a loss of green spaces and trees. B£ST gave higher negative impacts than TEEB. Direct comparison of each category used in each tool was not possible since these categories and the way in which the monetized values are determined in each case differ. While the overall approach used in both tools is applicable in Sweden, calculations and data used need to be adapted to local circumstances and valuation.

  • 49.
    Kali, Suna Ekin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Occurrence and Concentration of Pollutants from Stormwater Runoff in Receiving Water: A Case Study Fyrisån River: [Occurrence et concentration des polluants provenant des eaux de ruissellement dans les eaux réceptrices : Une étude de cas Fyrisån]2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how urban stormwater runoff, known to contain various chemical substances, alters pollutant concentrations in the receiving water bodies. Samples were collected under dry and wet weather conditions at 4 sampling stations along the Fyrisån, a river that passes along the city of Uppsala, Sweden. Samples were analyzed for 80 organic substances, 19 metals (total and dissolved phase), and conventional physicochemical parameters. 19 of 80 organic substances were qualified above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in at least one sampling event. The most detected substance family was poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The concentrations of detected organic substances and metals increased in wet weather conditions. Organic substance and metal concentrations showed similar spatial variation with higher concentrations measured at sampling locations close to urbanized areas.

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  • 50.
    Karlsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Environmental Risk Assessment of Sediments Deposited in Stormwater Treatment Facilities: Trace Metal Fractionation and Its Implication for Sediment Management2016In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, no 11, article id 4016057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gather further data about metal mobility in accumulated sediments in stormwater treatment facilities, metal mobility in sediments from sedimentation tanks, gully pot sediment traps, and sedimentation ponds was investigated using the sequential extraction procedure. This method allows distinguishing the metal speciation between ion-exchangeable, carbonate-associated, reducible, organic matter/sulfide-associated, and residual fractions. The metal fractionation reveals that, for all treatment facilities, the majority of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn and a significant amount of Ni were in potentially mobile forms. Cd, Pb, and Zn are, to a large extent, associated with Fe-Mn oxides while Cu is commonly present as Cu–organic matter complexes. The metals in these potentially mobile fractions may represent a potential environmental hazard, e.g., due to release during maintenance (sediment removal) when the chemical phase distribution might change.

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