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  • 1.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Svensson, Malin
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1301-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  • 2. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Svensson, Malin
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in incineration residues2005In: Waste Management in the Focus of Controversial Interests: 1st BOKU Waste Conference 2005 / [ed] Peter Lechner, Facultas Universitätsverlag , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash: sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 14, p. 3541-3547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash - sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 27-1 fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material×ash ratio and ash ratio×compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (α = 0.05). Freezing on 5 freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R2adjusted values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 × 10-11 m s-1 and 8.9 × 10-10 m s-1 if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm-3, the ash ratio between 20 and 75 % and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10-9 m s-1.

  • 4. Svensson, Malin
    Aktivitet: Miljöriktig användning av askor, Värmeforsk2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Svensson, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Controlling the mobility of organic carbon (OC) ant its impact on metal transport from incineration residues2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration residues contain both inorganic and organic material. The organic material may affect the mobility of pollutants in e.g. landfills or geotechnical constructions. Limit values of TOC (total organic carbon), determined according to European standard are stipulated to reduce the disposal of organic materials. The European standard methods to determine TOC and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) are evaluated. Factors controlling the mobility of DOC and its effect on metal mobility have also been studied. Determination of TOC according to European standard methods EN 13 137 and EN 1 484 include those carbon fractions that are oxidized during combustion. The definition of TOC as total organic carbon is not equivalent with the analytical result. The European standards on the definition of TOC need revision. Both organic and elemental carbon are oxidized upon heating, and the analytical TOC is thus a sum of organic and elemental carbon present in the sample. Since elemental carbon comprise the major part of the analytical TOC in solid samples of incineration residues, such results will most likely be misunderstood. Revision of the standard method EN 13 137 is recommended to better suit incineration residues. The L/S ratio (the relationship between the mass of liquid and the mass of solid material), excessive carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH in the solution was stable for 2.5 h) and extraction pH were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in incineration bottom ash. Up to ~60 weight-% of the TOC in the bottom ash could be mobilized by controlling these factors (i. e. by using them as parameters). Only a minor part of the TOC (~7 weight-%) in APC residues was extractable with water, indicating a high proportion of elemental carbon. Water-soluble organic compounds may affect the mobility of metals in several ways. The formation of DOC-metal complexes has a direct effect on the metal mobility. Biological degradation of organic material may also affect the metal mobility indirectly due to changes of pH and redox- potential. The complexation capacity of DOC can be used in the development of washing as a pre-treatment process of incineration residues. Excessive carbonation may be useful in a washing process to enhance the separation of metals. Further treatment-oriented investigations of bottom ashes and APC residues are recommended in the development of a washing process of the materials.

  • 6. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF-Process AB.
    Ifwer, Karin
    Tekedo AB, Nyköping.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) dry scrubber residue2007In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 144, no 1-2, p. 477-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-landfilling of incineration ash and cellulose might facilitate the alkaline degradation of cellulose. A major degradation product is isosaccharinic acid (ISA), a complexing agent for metals. The impact of ISA on the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd from a municipal solid waste incineration dry scrubber residue was studied at laboratory using a reduced 25-1 factorial design. Factors investigated were the amount of calcium isosaccharinate (Ca(ISA)2), L/S ratio, temperature, contact time and type of atmosphere (N2, air, O2). The effects of pH and Ca(ISA)2 as well as other factors on the leaching of metals were quantified and modelled using multiple linear regression (α = 0.05). Cd was excluded from the study since the concentrations were below the detection limit. The presence of Ca(ISA)2 resulted in a higher leaching of Cu indicating complex formation. Ca(ISA)2 alone had no effect on the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr. A secondary effect on the mobilization was predicted to occur since Ca(ISA)2 had a positive effect on the pH and the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr increased with increasing pH. The leaching of Pb varied from 24 up to 66 wt.% of the total Pb amount (1.74 ± 0.02 g(kg TS)-1) in the dry scrubber residue. The corresponding interval for Zn (7.29 ± 0.07 g(kg TS)-1) and Cu (0.50 ± 0.02 g(kg TS)-1) were 0.5-14 wt.% of Zn and 0.8-70 wt.% of Cu. Maximum leaching of Cr (0.23 ± 0.03 g(kg TS)-1) was 4.0 wt.%. At conditions similar to a compacted and covered landfill (4 °C, 7 days, 0 vol.% O2) the presence of ISA can increase the leaching of Cu from 2 to 46 wt.% if the amount of cellulose-based waste increases 20 times, from the ratio 1:100 to 1:5. As well, the leaching of Pb, Zn, and Cr can increase from 32 to 54 wt.% (Pb), 0.8-8.0 wt.% (Zn), and 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% (Cr) depending on the amount of cellulose and L/S ratio and pH value. Therefore, a risk (α = 0.05) exists that higher amounts of metals are leached from landfills where cellulose-containing waste and ash are co-disposed. This corresponds to an additional 29 t of Pb and 17 t of Cu leached annually from a compacted and covered landfill in the north of Sweden.

  • 7. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Berg, M.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Wikman, K.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in MSWI dry scrubber residue2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, p. 13-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Selektiv mobilisering av kritiska element hos energiaskor2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMAK syftade till att undersöka möjligheterna att selektivt separera element med hög mobilitet i botten- och flygaska. I faktordesignade extraktionsförsök identifierades de faktorer som har en signifikant och avgörande inverkan på elementens mobilitet. Försöken stöddes av kemiska jämviktsberäkningar med PHREEQC-2. Den optimala faktorinställningen användes sedan för att bedöma askans behandling enligt den kommande EU-lagstiftningen samt avfallsförordningen, Naturvårdsverkets generella riktvärden för förorenad mark och kemikalineinspektionens föreskrifter. Målet är att erhålla en produkt som på ett robust och ekonomiskt sätt kan omhändertas och helst återanvändas. Dessa behandlingar visade sig dock inte förändra botten- eller flygaskans klassificering enligt Rådets beslut om acceptanskriterier vid deponering.

  • 9.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Svensson, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in bottom ash2006In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 145-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), bottom ash, generated at a stoker grate type incinerator, the critical elements were identified in terms of EU regulation. The stabilizing effect of moderate carbonation (pH 8.28 ± 0.03) on critical contaminants was studied through availability and diffusion leaching protocols. Data from the performed tests were evaluated with the goal of reusing MSWI bottom ash as secondary construction material. To investigate the mobilizing effect of CO2, suspended MSWI bottom ash was severely carbonated (pH 6.40 ± 0.07). The effect of CO2 and its interaction with other leaching factors, such as liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching time, pH, ultrasound treatment, and leaching temperature, were examined using a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Contaminants identified as critical were Cr, Cu, Mo, Sb, Cl-, and SO4 2-. Although moderate carbonation decreased the release of Cr, Cu, Mo, and Sb from compacted bottom ash, the main disadvantage remains its inability to demobilize Cl- and SO4 2-. The hypothesized mobilizing effect of severe carbonation was proven. The treatment enhanced the separation of critical components (α = 0.05) (except for Cl-), i.e., about fivefold for Sb and about twofold for Cr, Cu, and S. Nevertheless, the prospect is good that severe carbonation could constitute the deciding key parameter to facilitate the technical feasibility of a future washing process for MSWI bottom ash.

  • 10.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF-Process AB.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF-Process AB.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Nedbrytningshastigheten för tätskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten från de experimentella studierna tyder på att aska-slam-blandningar mycket väl kan användas som tätskikt utan att nedbrytningen av organiskt material kommer att påverka täckningens funktion negativt. Om tätskiktet initialt har en tillräckligt låg permeabilitet så kommer utlakningen av organiskt material att vara av mindre betydelse. En viss utlakning av det organiska materialet kan ske till en början men denna avstannar efter en relativt kort tid. Materialförlusten efter att utlakningen avstannat är enligt analyserna så pass liten att det inte ger någon påverkan på tätskiktets genomsläpplighet.

  • 11.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Nedbrytningsmönster för cellulosa i närvaro av aska2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkalisk nedbrytning av cellulosa och dess inverkan på metallutlakningen har studerats för kombinationer av aska och cellulosahaltiga material. Den främsta nedbrytningsprodukten vid spjälkning av cellulosa är den lösliga syran isosackarinsyra (ISA) som kan komplexbinda till metaller i askan så att dessa mobiliseras och lakas ut. De experimentella försöken i denna studie har visat att nedbrytningsprodukten ISA bidrar till ökat innehåll av Pb och Zn i lakvattnet från flygaska. För nedbrytningen av cellulosa kan en kombination av aska och cellulosahaltigt material ha vissa positiva effekter genom att pH-värdet i det cellulosahaltiga materialet höjs. Om en starkt alkalisk miljö erhålls bryts dock cellulosan ned långsamt. Ytterligare studier med avseende på nedbrytningshastigheten av cellulosa under inverkan av alkaliskt lakvatten med hög metallhalt är emellertid nödvändigt för att klargöra detta.

1 - 11 of 11
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