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  • 1. Fredriksson, Christian
    et al.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Förbättrad utformning av sekundärförbränningszon i vedpanna2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Development of an optimization model for the location of biofuel production plants2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    First generation biofuels have not achieved the expected greenhouse gas emission savings and the production may in some cases compete with food production. Issued from non arable land and certified wood, the production of the second generation biofuels are more adapted to tackle those issues. Very large production plants are however required to reach competitive production costs via economy of scale effects. This may cause large logistical issues as the biomass feedstock often is located on the countryside, while the production plants are situated near harbors to enable boat transports. Moreover negative social and environmental effects may occur due to heavy traffic from the transport of the raw material and the final product, such as road damaging, noise perturbation, pollutant emission increase. To face those intensive logistic issues, the geographical location and size of the plant should be determined optimally with respect to raw material and demand location prior to plant investment and construction. The main aim of this thesis has therefore been to develop a model for optimization of the geographical location of second generation biofuel production plants by minimizing the cost of the complete supply chain, which comprises biomass harvesting, biomass transport, biofuel production, biofuel transport and biofuel distribution. The model is not intended to be applied to maximize the profitability of one single plant, but to minimize the final cost of biofuel for the region's welfare. The development of the model is illustrated via several case studies, where also analysis of critical parameters affecting the fuel production cost and the production plant location has been carried out. The model is a mixed integer program. The production of two liquid biofuels for the transportation sector have been studied, methanol via biomass gasification and ligno-cellulosic ethanol via fermentation. The model has been applied on areas as large as country levels. A set of optimal production plant can be determined to fulfill the biofuel demand of a selected area. It can be applied for different biofuel production processes and take into account the by-products geographically explicitly if required. The model can manage demands, costs and prices that change with time. Existing biomass based industries can be integrated to the model, and thus the competition on the biomass between these plants and possible bioenergy plants can be modeled, giving a better estimation of the available biomass for biofuel production. Biofuel imports from long distances are taken into account and finally policy tools such as carbon tax can be applied to limit the emissions from the transports or as a subsidy to the amount of mitigated fossil fuel emissions from the bioenergy production. The developed model can be applied for any kind of biomass based production plant and feedstock as long as the input data is available. As geographical energy planning is important, the developed model may be a valuable tool for decision makers in order to determine the most suitable strategy regarding locations of new biofuel production plants.

  • 3. Leduc, Sylvain
    Study of the reduction of particle emissions and borate black liquor gasification in bioenergy systems2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biofuel for district heating and for electricity generation is expected to increase consistently in the coming decades due to the neutral impacts on the greenhouse gases. Domestic wood boilers are first studied in this thesis. The particle emissions from these boilers are high and encounter health problems. This requires better understanding of the combustion process in the boiler. CFD software has been used as a tool for simulating the conditions inside the boiler for design and optimisation of the wood fired boiler. With the CFD model studied in this thesis, it is possible to get a detailed knowledge of the conditions inside the boiler, without excessive computational time and with acceptable accuracy. To decrease the emission of particles from a domestic wood-log boiler, particle traps based on inertial separation could be used. To find out whether the particle tracking option in the commercial CFD-code is reliable, a low-pressure impactor has been studied, and each stage of the impactor has been simulated. By comparing with experiments, it is possible to determine the accuracy of the particle tracking option. It has been shown that the particle tracking procedure in the CFD software Fluent V6.0 offers good accuracy at velocities below 12 m/s with Reynolds numbers 790-2150. Acceptable accuracy was shown for velocities 20-170 m/s at Reynolds numbers 960-2980. The particle tracking with Fluent is then appropriate for the domestic wood-log boiler where the velocities usually do not exceed 30 m/s and the Reynolds numbers are low. 3D simulations with either the RSM turbulence model, for accuracy, or the RNG k-ƒÕ model, to save calculation time, should be used together with the stochastic particle tracking. Knowing that tracking particles with an acceptable accuracy is possible for a domestic wood-log boiler, flow conditions in such a boiler were studied. The three-dimensional velocity and temperature fields were simulated in the secondary combustion zone of the boiler. The results from the simulations were validated against measurements. The temperature field was well described and the velocity field was predicted with acceptable accuracy. Chemical reactions were not included in these simulations. Turbulence was modelled using the RNG k-ƒÕ model, which is relatively easy to use. This thesis also performs a study on a new model of black liquor gasification with borate autocausticizing, which has the potential to improve the production performance of pulp mills. The earlier model from Jansson did not have the efficiency expected, and was found unacceptable as a means of replacing the lime cycle. The new process has a real advantage compared to earlier borate autocausticizing processes; it can theoretically be led either on a full scale or as a part of the process to an ordinary causticizing and with moderate borate setting. The booster gasifier is studied. The material and energy balance is formulated for a sulphate- recycling block with this process and is compared with the conventional techniques. The results of the usual black liquor gasification were very close to reality and very promising. Regarding the black liquor gasification with borate, lack of data for the orthoborate, like the Gibbs free energy, did not enable good accuracy of the results. The model is so far a good start in black liquor gasification, but it needs to be improved as soon as some new data are available.

  • 4.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Fredriksson, Christian
    TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nyköping.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Particle-tracking option in Fluent validated by simulation of a low-pressure impactor2006Ingår i: Advanced Powder Technology, ISSN 0921-8831, E-ISSN 1568-5527, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 99-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the emission of particles from a domestic wood-log boiler, particle traps based on intertial separation could be used. These could be designed and optimized with simulation tools, i.e. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. To find out whether the particle-tracking option in a commercial CFD code is reliable, a low-pressure impactor has been studied and each stage of the impactor simulated. By comparing experiments, it has been possible to determine the accuracy of the particle-tracking option for the CFD code. It has been shown that the particle-tracking procedure in the CFD software Fluent V6.0 offers good accuracy at velocities below 12 m/s with Reynolds numbers between 790 and 2150. Acceptable accuracy was shown for velocities of 20-170 m/s at Reynolds numbers between 960 and 2980. Considering actual flow velocities in a wood-log boiler and many other similar applications, the particle-tracking procedure should be accurate enough, at least for flows with a Reynolds number lower than 3000. Thus, it is recommended to use the software Fluent for simulations to find ways to reduce the particle emissions by use of mechanical traps. Three-dimensional simulations with either the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) turbulence model, for accuracy, or the Renormalization Group (RNG) k-ε model, to save calculation time, should be used together with the stochastic particle tracking.

  • 5. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Franklin, O.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University.
    Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: a dynamic problem in northern Sweden2010Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 68-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 €/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand.

  • 6. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Franklin, Oskar
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Schmid, Erwin
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Optimal location for a biomass based methanol production plant: case study in Northern Sweden2007Ingår i: From Research to Market Deployment: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Berlin, Germany, 7 - 11 May 2007 / [ed] K. Maniatis, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methanol appears to be a new alternative fuel in the transport sector. Methanol can be produced through gasification of lignocellulosic biomass, which makes it a renewable fuel, and its utilization has therefore an impact on greenhouse gas emissions. The county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden has the characteristic to have great amount of woody biomass, and a sparsely inhabited area. Transportation distances of both biomass and methanol would then have a great impact on the final cost of methanol depending on where the methanol plant is located. This county was therefore studied as a case study with a twenty year perspective in order to validate an optimization model. The optimal locations of three different sizes of methanol plants were studied for four demographic scenarios. From this study it appears that methanol plants of 100 MWbiomass and 200 MWbiomass would be set up closer to the demand area than a 400 MWbiomass that would optimally be set up more inlands close to the available biomass.

  • 7.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Natarajan, Karthikeyan
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    McCallum, Ian
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimizing biodiesel production in India2009Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr Suppl. 1, s. S125-S131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain - from biomass harvesting to biodiesel delivery to the consumers - is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order to determine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based on minimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportation costs. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are considered where yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissions of the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence on the biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lower effect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locations highly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the production plant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum. In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements.

  • 8.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Schmid, Erwin
    University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Riahi, Keywan
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Methanol production by gasification using a geographically explicit model2009Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 745-751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methanol mixed with 15% gasoline appears to be a viable alternative energy source for the transportation sector. Produced from gasification of certified wood coming from well-managed forests, its production could be considered as sustainable and the well-to-wheel emissions can be reduced significantly. The physical flows of the entire bio-energy chain consisting of harvesting, biomass transportation, methanol production by gasification, methanol transportation, and methanol distribution to the consumers are assessed and costs are estimated for each part of the chain. A transportation model has been constructed to estimate the logistic demands of biomass supply to the processing plant and to the supply of gas station. The analysis was carried out on a case study for the geography of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It has been found that a typical optimal size for methanol production of some 130,000 m3, supplies about 100 gas stations, and the biomass supply requires on average 22,000 ha of short-rotational poplar, with an average transportation distance of biomass of some 50 km to the methanol processing plant. The methanol production costs appear to be most sensitive with respect to methanol plant efficiency, wood cost, and operating hours of the plant. In an area where biomass is spread heterogeneously, apart from the demand, the geographical position of the plant would appear to have a major impact on the final biofuel cost.

  • 9.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Schwab,, Dagmar
    University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Schmid, Erwin
    University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal location of wood gasification plants for methanol production with heat recovery2008Ingår i: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 32, nr 12, s. 1080-1091Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Second generation biofuels from wood gasification are thought to become competitive in the face of effective climate and energy security policies. Cost competitiveness crucially depends on the optimization of the entire supply chain-field-wheel involving optimal location, scaling and logistics. In this study, a linear mixed integer programming model has been developed to determine the optimal geographic locations and sizes of methanol plants and gas stations in Austria. Optimal locations and sizes are found by the minimization of costs with respect to biomass and methanol production and transport, investments for the production plants and the gas stations. Hence, the model covers competition in all levels of a biofuel production chain including supply of biomass, biofuel and heat, and demand for bio- and fossil fuels.The results show that Austria could be self-sufficient in the production of methanol for biofuels like M5, M10 or M20, using up to 8% of the arable land share. The plants are optimally located close to the potential supply of biomass (i.e. poplar) in Eastern Austria, and produce methanol around 0.4 is an element of(-1). Moreover, heat production could lower the methanol cost by 12%.

  • 10. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Starfelt, F.
    Mälardalen University.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, G.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    McCallum, I.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Obersteiner, M.
    Obersteiner.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden2010Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 2709-2716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of ethanol production with combined heat and power plants is considered in this paper. An energy balance process model has been used to generate data for the production of ethanol, electricity, heat and biogas. The geographical position of such plants becomes of importance when using local biomass and delivering transportation fuel and heat. An optimization model has thus been used to determine the optimal locations for such plants in Sweden. The entire energy supply and demand chain from biomass outtake to gas stations filling is included in the optimization. Input parameters have been studied for their influence on both the final ethanol cost and the optimal locations of the plants. The results show that the biomass cost, biomass availability and district heating price are crucial for the positioning of the plant and the ethanol to be competitive against imported ethanol. The optimal location to set up polygeneration plants is demonstrated to be in areas where the biomass cost is competitive and in the vicinity of small to medium size cities. Carbon tax does not influence the ethanol cost, but solicits the production of ethanol in Sweden, and changes thus the geography of the plant locations.

  • 11.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wang, Chuan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Sweden in the forefront for a green society: a review on policy activities for greenhouse gas emission reduction2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews and analyzes how Sweden became a leader concerning low carbon emissions, by using economical incentives, investments in new technologies and work to form international collaborations. The lessons from the Swedish case may be used by other countries and regions to be better able to achieve results from policy initiatives.

  • 12.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    CHP or Biofuel Production in Europe?2012Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, s. 40-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO2 emissions.

  • 13. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    A feasibility study of black liquor booster gasification with borate autocausticizing2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    A feasibility study of black liquor booster gasification with borate autocausticizing2005Ingår i: Proceedings of ECOS 2005, the 18th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems: Trondheim, Norway, June 20 - 22, 2005 / [ed] Signe Kjelstrup, Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press , 2005, Vol. 3, s. 1533-1539Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor constitutes a huge energy potential. In order to improve the efficiency of a pulp mill, this study is focussed on borate autocausticizing, which has proved to work efficiently in recovery boilers. The leading idea is to complete an overloaded recovery boiler with a booster gasifier. In this configuration, the black liquor is gasified with air at low overpressure. Results regarding conventional black liquor gasification are close to the reality and very promising. Regarding black liquor gasification with borate, lack of data for orthoborate, like the Gibbs free energy, did not enable good results. The model so far is a good starting point for black liquor gasification studies, and needs to be improved as soon as new data on borates will be available

  • 15. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 462-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered – targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/tCO2. Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation.

  • 16. Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies: Second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power2013Ingår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has set a 10 % target for the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector for 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuels from, for example, forest residues are expected to replace around 3 % of the transport fossil fuel consumption. However, forest residues could also be utilised in the heat and electricity sectors where large amounts of fossil fuels can be replaced, thus reducing global fossil CO2 emissions. This study investigates the use of forest residues for second generation biofuel (ethanol or methanol) or combined heat and power (CHP) production at the European level, with focus on the influence of different economic policy instruments, such as carbon cost or biofuel policy support. A techno-economic, geographically explicit optimisation model is used. The model determines the optimal locations of bioenergy conversion plants by minimising the cost of the entire supply chain. The results show that in order to reach a 3 % second generation biofuel share, a biofuel support comparable to today’s tax exemptions would be needed. With a carbon cost applied, most available forest residues would be allocated to CHP production, with a substantial resulting CO2 emission reduction potential. The major potential for woody biomass and biofuel production is found in the region around the Baltic Sea, with Italy as one of the main biofuel importers.

  • 17.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production in Sweden2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production: the role of process integration in system studies2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenck, Anna von
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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