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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

  • 2.
    Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Dewulf, Jo
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Guinée, Jeroen
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Schulze, Rita
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    Euromines, Belgium.
    Towards product-oriented sustainability in the (primary) metal supply sector2019Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 145, s. 40-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Consideration of sustainable supply of (primary) metals is increasingly influencing the policy agenda of western societies. Environmental sustainability can be managed from different perspectives, including a site-oriented one (strongly used by the mining sector) and a product-oriented one (as with life cycle assessment). The objectives of this article are to analyse and discuss the differences in these perspectives; to discuss potential benefits to the metal/mining sector of also considering the product-oriented perspective; and to propose ways for a smooth implementation. We made use of literature and expert knowledge, on top of interviews with different stakeholders, to identify why and how these perspectives are (not) used in the metal/mining sector. Moreover, we identified three key concerns related to the implementation of a product-oriented perspective in the sector (e.g., use of unrepresentative life cycle inventory (LCI) datasets for metal-based products) and proposed three corrective actions for all of them (e.g., increase the quantity and quality of LCI). Finally, we discuss how the corrective actions could be implemented in the sector in a smooth way and some potential benefits from its implementation.

  • 3.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Genesis and tectonic setting of the hypozonal Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit, northern Sweden2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known Skellefte Ore District, northern Sweden, hosts a large number of massive sulphide deposits, a few porphyry-type-deposits and a number of gold deposits in different geological settings. Southwest of this district a new ore province, the so called Gold Line, is presently being uncovered. During the past decade a number of gold occurrences have been discovered in this area. Only one deposit is in production, the Svartliden gold deposit (2 Mton at 4.3 ppm Au). However, with regards to tonnage the Fäboliden gold deposit stands out with a known mineral resource of c. 16 Mton with 1.33 ppm Au. Additional 24.5 Mton with 1.5 ppm Au is indicated down to a depth of 350 m. The late- to post-orogenic, c. 1.81-1.77 Ga, Revsund granite constitutes the main rock type in the Fäboliden area and surrounds a narrow belt of metavolcanic rocks and metagreywackes. The metasedimentary rocks are strongly deformed, within a roughly N-S trending subvertical shear zone, with boudinaged competent horizons that indicate E-W shortening and a suggested dextral sense of shear within the shear zone. The mineralization at Fäboliden constitutes a 30-50 m wide, N-S striking, steeply dipping ore zone. The mineralization is commonly hosted in arsenopyrite-bearing quartz-veins, which parallel the main foliation, within the metagreywackes in the shear zone. The fine-grained (2-40 µm) gold is closely associated with arsenopyrite-löllingite and stibnite and found in fissures and as intergrowths in the arsenopyrite-löllingite. Gold is also seen as free grains in the silicate matrix of the metagreywacke host rock. Microprobe analysis shows that the gold occurs as electrum (Au:Ag 2:1). The proximal ore zone display enrichment in Ca, total S, As, Ag, Au, Sb, Sn, W, Pb, Bi, Cd, Se, and Hg, whereas K and Na are slightly depleted. The hydrothermal alteration assemblage in the proximal ore zone is diopside, calcic amphibole, biotite, and minor andalusite and tourmaline. This type of assemblage is commonly recognized in hypozonal orogenic gold deposits worldwide. The c. 1.3 km long ore body (lode) is steeply dipping and known to a depth of 150 m, with a few deeper boreholes indicating a continuation of the mineralization towards depth. The mineralization is also open towards north and south. The fabric that hosts the mineralization is also found in the outer margin of the surrounding Revsund granite. It is therefore suggested that at least the final stages of the gold mineralization are late- or post-orogenic in age, and the maximum age for the mineralization is constrained at c. 1.80 Ga (Revsund age). The mineralizing fluids were composed of CO2-CH4-H2S. Gold, arsenopyrite- löllingite, and graphite were precipitated from this fluid. The crystal structure of the graphite, enclosed in the gold related quartz veins, indicates a maximum temperature of 520-560ºC for the mineralizing event, temperature conditions equal to mid-amphibolite facies. These temperatures indicate pressure conditions of c. 4 kbar for the mineralizing event. During deformation mineralizing fluids are often concentrated into deformation zones. Therefore, the potential for economic mineralization in the Lycksele-Storuman region is regarded as very high since the initial results from this project have indicated the existence of several larger ductile to semi-ductile shear zones and accompanied silica alteration in the studied area. During 2004 the project strongly assisted in locating a new gold target in the Gold Line area. For more effective future exploration in this area a better understanding of the structural conditions and evolution is a key factor.

  • 4.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    On the origin of the Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit, northern Sweden2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A new promising ore province, the Gold Line, southwest of the well- known Skellefte District, northern Sweden, is currently under exploration. This province hosts, so far, one operating mine, the Svartliden Au mine, and the recently closed Blaiken Zn-Pb-Au-Ag mine. The largest known gold deposit, the hypozonal Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit, in the area was recently granted mining permits. The deposit holds c. 54 Mt at 1.2 g/t Au, with a planned production of 4.6 Mt of ore/year. The mineralization at Fäboliden is commonly hosted in arsenopyrite-bearing quartz-veins, within a roughly N-S striking, steeply dipping shear zone in amphibolite facies volcano- sedimentary host rocks. The narrow belt of supracrustal rocks is surrounded by late- to post-orogenic Revsund granite. The gold is fine-grained (2-40 µm) and closely associated with arsenopyrite- löllingite and stibnite. Gold is found in fractures and as inclusions in the arsenopyrite-löllingite. Gold is also seen as free grains in the silicate matrix of the host rock. The hydrothermal mineral assemblage in the proximal alteration zone is diopside, calcic amphibole, biotite, and minor andalusite and tourmaline. This type of assemblage is commonly recognized in hypozonal orogenic gold deposits worldwide. The lateral extent of the proximal alteration zone is estimated to 30-50 meters, and there is a good agreement between diopside- amphibole-biotite alteration, quartz veining, and gold mineralization. The mineral assemblage in the distal alteration zone is characterised by the presence of Ca- and Fe-Mg amphiboles, hedenbergite, biotite, and quartz. The transition from the distal alteration into the regional metamorphic assemblage is diffuse, and the only discernable feature appears to be a gradual decrease of amphibole away from the mineralization. The ductile gold-hosting fabric progresses laterally across the Revsund granite contact and then disappears after a few meters inside the granite, suggesting that at least the final stages of mineralization syn- to postdate the emplacement of the c. 1.81-1.77 Ga Revsund granite. Relationships between garnet-biotite and graphite geothermometry, together with these field relationships, indicate that the late stages of mineralization at Fäboliden post-date regional peak-metamorphism in the area, which is estimated at c. 1.80 Ga. The Fäboliden gold mineralization is hosted by a reverse, mainly dip-slip, high-angle shear zone with a relatively small horizontal shear movement. The mineralization constitutes two sets of mineralized quartz veins, one steep fault-fill vein system that is parallel to the regional foliation and one flat-lying extensional vein system. Both vein sets are suggested to have been generated from the same stress field, during E-W shortening at c. 1.80 Ga. At least two types of ore shoot are present at Fäboliden, intersections between the fault-fill vein set and the extensional vein set and bends in the shear zone system both show elevated gold content, similar to many gold- quartz vein deposits globally. The fluids involved in the precipitation of gold at Fäboliden shows characteristics similar to other hypozonal orogenic gold deposits, such as a CO2-CH4-H2S fluid composition and pressure-temperature conditions of c. 4 kbar and 520-560°C. Sulphur isotope data ranges between -1.5 and +3.6‰. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data ranges between +10.6 and 13.1‰, and -120 to -67‰, respectively. The hydrothermal fluids at Fäboliden are interpreted to have originate from a crustally contaminated magmatic source. The potential for future orogenic gold discovery in the Fennoscandian Shield is considered good. From this PhD study it is suggested that interesting targets, concerning exploration for orogenic gold in at least the Gold Line, would be areas associated with roughly N-S striking tectonic zones that were active at around 1.80 Ga.

  • 5.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Orogenic gold in the late stages of the Svecokarelian orogen: with emphasis on the Palaeoproterozoic Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit2004Inngår i: The 26th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting: abstract volume / [ed] Joakim Mansfeld, Uppsla: Geological Society of Sweden , 2004, s. 146-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Broman, C.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Weihed, Pär
    Fluid chemistry of the hypozonal Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit, northern Sweden2006Inngår i: The 27th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, January 9-12, 2006, Oulu, Finland: abstract volume / [ed] Petri Peltonen; Antti Pasanen, 2006, s. 13-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Southwest of the well-known Skellefte District in northern Sweden a new ore province is presently being explored, the so called Gold Line. Today the largest known gold deposit in the Gold Line is the Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit.The gold mineralization is commonly hosted in quartz veins, which parallel the steep main foliation, within a shear zone in the metagreywacke host rocks. The fine-grained (2-40 μm) gold is closely associated with arsenopyrite in the quartz veins.Two main groups of fluid inclusions are present in the Fäboliden quartz veins. 1) Primary inclusions with a CO2-CH4 or a H2S (±CH4) composition (the latter recognized for the first time in a Swedish ore deposit). 2) Secondary fluid inclusions composed of pure CH4 and low-salinity aqueous fluids. The primary fluid inclusions are associated with arsenopyrite (+gold) and the CO2-CH4 fluid was also involved in precipitation of graphite. The graphite-forming reactions should generate a H2O phase as well. However, the presence of a H2O phase was not detected in any of the primary fluid inclusions and is suggested to have been consumed by wall rock reactions, generating hydrated alteration minerals such as Ca-amphibole, biotite, and minor tourmaline. Fluid inclusion data indicate arsenopyrite and graphite deposition at a pressure condition of ~4 kbars. Graphite is useful as an indicator of the metamorphic grade because the graphitization process is irreversible with no effects on the graphite structure during retrogression (Beyssac et al., 2002). Graphite in the mineralized quartz veins at Fäboliden indicates maximum temperatures of 520-560°C for the hydrothermal alteration system.Pyrrhotite was deposited after a subsequent pressure decrease and a later input of pure CH4 and low-salinity aqueous fluids, as suggested by the secondary fluid inclusions. These later fluids were trapped at a substantially lower pressure of ~0.3 kbars and a temperature of ~400°C.

  • 7.
    Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Weihed, Pär
    Fluid chemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic Fäboliden hypozonal orogenic gold deposit, northern Sweden: evidence from fluid inclusions2007Inngår i: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 129, nr 3, s. 197-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new ore province, the Gold Line, southwest of the Skellefte District, northern Sweden, is currently under exploration. The largest known deposit in the Gold Line is the hypozonal Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit. The mineralization is hosted by arsenopyrite-bearing quartz veins, within a steep shear zone in amphibolite facies metagreywacke host rocks. Gold occur in fractures and as intergrowths in arsenopyrite-löllingite, and as free grains in the silicate matrix of the host rock. The hydrothermal mineral assemblage in the proximal alteration zone is diopside, calcic amphibole, biotite, and minor andalusite and tourmaline. Primary fluid inclusions in the Fäboliden quartz veins show a CO2-CH4 or a H2S (±CH4) composition (the latter recognized for the first time in a Swedish ore deposit). The primary fluid inclusions are associated with arsenopyrite-löllingite (+gold) and the CO2-CH4 fluid was also involved in precipitation of graphite. A prevalence of carbonic over aqueous fluid inclusions is characteristic for a number of hypozonal high-temperature orogenic gold deposits. The Fäboliden deposit, thus, shows fluid compositions similar to other hypozonal orogenic gold deposits. The proposed main mechanism for precipitation of gold from the fluids, is a mixing between H2S-rich and H2O?-CO2±CH4 fluids. Fluid inclusion data indicate arsenopyrite-löllingite and graphite deposition at a pressure condition of about 4 kbar. Graphite thermometry indicates maximum temperatures of 520-560°C for the hydrothermal alteration at Fäboliden, suggesting that at least the late stages of the mineralizing event took place shortly after peak-metamorphism in the area, i.e. at c. 1.80 Ga.

  • 8.
    Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Textural setting of gold and its implications on mineral processing: preliminary results from three gold deposits in northern Sweden2013Inngår i: Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world: Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12–15 August 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, Uppsala: Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning , 2013, s. 302-305Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the European Union (EU27) the two most important gold producers are Finland and Sweden, covering more than two thirds of the European market. Due to the high gold prize mining companies are looking to extract more of the metal by improving recovery. We have done textural analysis on three gold-bearing deposits to better understand how the gold-textures seen in drill cores might affect the processing of different gold-ore types. In the Nautanen IOCG deposit, gold deportment is different whether gold is associated with pyrite or magnetite, and this must be considered when optimising the future mine and process planning. In the VMS-type Kristineberg deposit, the gold is associated with pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Low gold recoveries from flotation could be explained by the occurrence of gold-inclusions in the pyrite. In the epigenetic Svartliden lode gold deposit, the gold is rather coarse-grained and associated with arsenopyrite-löllingite, and silicates. The relatively large grain size of gold can result in incomplete breakdown of the largest gold grains in the cyanide leaching process. To properly understand gold deportment in ores and to be able to improve mine planning and predict metal recoveries a comprehensive textural analysis of gold in drill core-samples is essential.

  • 9.
    Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Geodynamic settings for Paleoproterozoic gold mineralization in the Svecofennian domain: a tectonic model for the Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit, northern Sweden2012Inngår i: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 48, s. 403-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Sweden is currently experiencing active exploration within a new gold ore province, the so called Gold Line, situated southwest of the well-known Skellefte VMS District. The largest known deposit in the Gold Line is the hypozonal Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit. Mineralization at Fäboliden is hosted by arsenopyrite-rich quartz veins, in a reverse, mainly dip-slip, high-angle shear zone, in amphibolite facies supracrustal host rocks. The timing of mineralization is estimated, from field relationships, at ca. 1.8 Ga.The gold mineralization is hosted by two sets of mineralized quartz veins, one steep fault-fill vein set and one relatively flat-lying extensional vein set. Ore shoots occur at the intersections between the two vein sets, and both sets could have been generated from the same stress field, during the late stages of the Svecofennian orogen.The tectonic evolution during the 1.9–1.8 Ga Svecofennian orogen is complex, as features typical of both internal and external orogens are indicated. The similarity in geodynamic setting between the contemporary Svecofennian and Trans-Hudson orogens indicate a potential for world-class orogenic gold provinces also in the Svecofennian domain.The Swedish deposits discussed in this paper are all structurally associated with roughly N-S striking shear zones that were active at around 1.8 Ga, when gold-bearing fluids infiltrated structures related to conditions of E-W shortening.

  • 10.
    Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Weihed, Pär
    Orogenic gold in the new Lycksele-Storuman ore province, northern Sweden: the Palaeoproterozoic Fäboliden deposit2007Inngår i: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 32, nr 1-2, s. 431-451Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Southwest of the well-known Skellefte District, northern Sweden, a new gold ore province, the so called Gold Line, is presently being explored. During the past decade a number of gold occurrences have been discovered in this area. The largest known gold occurrence is the Fäboliden deposit. Late-to post-orogenic, ca. 1.81 to 1.77 Ga, Revsund granite constitutes the main rock type in the Fäboliden area and surrounds a narrow belt of mineralized metagreywackes and metavolcanic rocks. The supracrustal rocks are strongly deformed within a roughly N-S trending subvertical shear zone. The mineralization constitutes a 30 to 50 m wide, N-S striking, steeply dipping zone. The mineralization is commonly hosted by arsenopyrite-bearing quartz-veins within the supracrustal rocks. The quartz veins parallel the main foliation in the shear zone. Gold is closely associated with arsenopyrite-löllingite and stibnite and found in fractures and as intergrowths in the arsenopyrite-löllingite. Gold is also seen as free grains in the silicate matrix of the host rock. The proximal alteration zone displays positive correlation with Ca, S, As, Ag, Sb, Sn, W, Pb, Bi, Cd, Se, and Hg, whereas K and Na show a slightly negative correlation. The hydrothermal mineral assemblage in the proximal alteration zone is diopside, calcic amphibole, biotite, and minor andalusite and tourmaline. This type of assemblage is commonly recognized in hypozonal orogenic gold deposits worldwide. Garnet-biotite geothermometry indicates amphibolite facies in the Fäboliden area. The ductile fabric that hosts the mineralization is also found in the margin of the surrounding Revsund granitoid. It is therefore suggested that at least the final stages of the gold mineralization are syn- to late-kinematic, and the minimum age for the mineralization is thus constrained at ca. 1.80 Ga (Revsund age).

  • 11. Bark, Glenn
    et al.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The new Lycksele-Storuman gold ore province, northern Sweden; with emphasis on the early Proterozoic Fäboliden orogenic gold deposit.2003Inngår i: Mineral exploration and sustainable development: proceedings of the Seventh Biennial SGA Meeting, Athens, Greece, 24-28 August 2003, Rotterdam: Millpress , 2003, s. 1061-1064Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Fettweis, Reginald
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The new Vindelgransele gold ore domain, northern Sweden: preliminary results from the Fabodtjarn lode gold deposit2017Inngår i: Mineral Resources to Discover / [ed] Mercier Langevin, P; Dube, B; Bardoux, M; Ross, PS; Dion, C, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits , 2017, s. 139-142Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fabodtjarn lode gold deposit is located in the Vindelgransele area, in the Skellefte District, in northern Sweden. The mineralization consists of a quartz vein system hosted in a sequence of turbiditic greywackes and pelitic sedimentary rocks, situated 20-30 meters above the contact with a granodiorite sill. The aim of the study is to better understand the genesis and controls on ore at Fabodtjarn and improve exploration guides for the area. Gold deposits have been known in the Skellefte District for over a century. However, there is an ongoing debate whether some of these deposits are intrusion-related or orogenic gold. Several gold deposits in the Vindelgransele area are spatially associated with intrusive rocks. There might thus be a genetic link between the Fabodtjarn deposit and the intrusion, or the intrusive rocks have simply acted as structural traps during compressional stress conditions.

  • 13.
    Garcia Uriarte, Ainara
    et al.
    TECNALIA Research & Innovation.
    Menger, Pierre
    TECNALIA Research & Innovation.
    Garcia Zambrano, Laura
    TECNALIA Research & Innovation.
    Alonso Galdames, Aritz
    TECNALIA Research & Innovation.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Dewulf, Jo
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Sanjuan-Delmás, David
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores & Industrial Minerals (Euromines).
    Lindblom, Mats
    Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden.
    Alcon, Lucas
    Cobre las Cruces, S.A., Spain.
    Escobar Torres, Juan Manuel
    Cobre las Cruces, S.A., Spain.
    van Oers, Lauran
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Guinée, Jeroen B.
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Schulze, Rita
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Heijungs, Reionout
    TECNALIA Research & Innovation.
    SUstainable management of PRIMary raw materials through a better approach in Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (SUPRIM)2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project focuses on the assessment of the environmental impact of raw materials production and the development of services to better understand sustainability issues in the sector. The main objectives of the project are:

    • Development of a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method to address resource accessibility in sustainability assessment and testing and validatingthe method.

    • Development of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) datasets through case studies in collaboration with the industrial partners from the mining sector and apply anenvironmental assessment with the aim to better understand the environmental impacts of the production of copper and the sources of these impacts.

    • Bring the service to a broader audience, including the LCIA community, mining companies and their downstream users, policy makers, academia.

    Two case studies have been performed, the Cobre las Cruces mine in Spain, operated by First Quantum Minerals Ltd, as well as the Aitik mining operation innorthern Sweden, operated by Boliden Mineral AB.

  • 14.
    Hamberg, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Release of arsenic from cyanidation tailings2016Inngår i: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 93, s. 57-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At a gold mine in northern Sweden, gold occurring as inclusions in pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite is leached by cyanidation of the ore. The main sulphide minerals in the ore are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. Effluents from the cyanidation process are treated with Fe2(SO4)3 to form Fe-precipitates suitable for the co-precipitation of As. The aim of this study was to perform static and kinetic leaching tests on the ore and tailings to define geochemical processes governing As mobility. Sequential leaching tests suggested that the majority of dissolved As deriving from the sulphide fraction in the ore was incorporated in newly formed Fe-precipitates in the tailings. The mobility of As in the tailings was therefore mainly dependent on the stability of these As-bearing Fe-precipitates. Weathering cell tests (WCT) involving 31 weekly cycles of wetting and air exposure were conducted to assess the stability of the As in the tailings under accelerated weathering conditions. The first stage of the WCT was characterized by a pH ≈ 5 and low As leaching, probably driven by the dissolution of amorphous Fe-As species. In the second stage of the WCT, leaching of Fe, S and As increased and the pH decreased to <3.5. An increase of the leachate’s molar Fe/S-ratio suggested that pyrrhotite oxidation was occurring. The falling pH destabilized As-bearing Fe-precipitates, causing further As release. The total As release during the WCT corresponded to only a small proportion of the tailings’ total As content. The accelerated As-leaching observed towards the end of the WCT could thus indicate that its release could increase progressively over time.

  • 15.
    Warlo, Mathis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Butcher, Alan
    Geological Survey of Finland/Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Espoo, Finland.
    McElroy, Iris
    Boliden AB.
    Brising, Dominique
    Boliden AB.
    Rollinson, Gavyn
    Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter.
    Automated quantitative mineralogy optimized for simultaneous detection of (precious/critical) rare metals and base metals in a production-focused environment2019Inngår i: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 9, nr 7, artikkel-id 440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM) systems are applied in the mining industry to quantify the mineralogy of the ore feed and products. With society pushing towards sustainable mining, this quantification should be comprehensive and include trace minerals since they are often either deleterious or potential by-products. Systems like QEMSCAN® offer a mode for trace mineral analysis (TMS mode); However, it is unsuitable when all phases require analysis. Here, we investigate the potential of detecting micron-sized trace minerals in fieldscan mode using the QEMSCAN® system with analytical settings in line with the mining industry. For quality comparison, analysis was performed at a mining company and a research institution. This novel approach was done in full collaboration with both parties. Results show that the resolution of trace minerals at or below the scan resolution is difficult and not always reliable due to mixed X-ray signals. However, by modification of the species identification protocol (SIP), quantification is achievable, although verification by SEM-EDS is recommended. As an add-on to routine quantitative analysis focused on major ore minerals, this method can produce quantitative data and information on mineral association for trace minerals of precious and critical metals which may be potential by-products in a mining operation

  • 16.
    Yousefi, Fazilat
    et al.
    Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Sadeghian, Mahmoud
    Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ghasemi, Habibollah
    Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Lambrini, Papadopoulou
    Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rezaei-Kahkhaei, Mehdi
    Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahrood University of Technology.
    Koroneos, Antonis
    Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
    Mineral chemistry and P-T conditions of the adakitic rocks from Torud–Ahmad Abad magmatic belt, S-SE Shahrood, NE Iran2017Inngår i: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 182, nr A, s. 110-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Torud-Ahmad Abad magmatic belt is located 175 km east and southeast of Shahrood in the northern part of the Central Iran Structural Zone and includes a thick sequence of Paleocene to middle Eocene volcanic and volcanosedimentary rocks. This magmatic belt was formed by numerous hypabyssal igneous adakitic domes constituting basaltic andesite, andesite, trachyandesite, dacite, trachydacite, and dacite. The investigated rocks are mainly composed of pyroxene, amphibole, and plagioclase, with minor biotite and opaque minerals. Mineral chemical analysis reveals that plagioclase composition varies from albite to labradorite, clinopyroxene varies from diopside to augite, and amphibole varies from Mg-hastingsite to Mg-hornblende.

    Amphibole geothermobarometry suggests crystallization temperatures of 850–1050 °C, at 2–6 kbar and the temperature of 920–970 °C, at a pressure of 3–4.5 kbar, which are conditions in agreement with andesite and dacite formation. Clinopyroxene crystallized at temperatures of 1020–1170 °C, at 2–10 kbar, indicating crystallization at crustal depths of maximum 30 km for the studied intrusive rocks in the Torud-Ahmad Abad magmatic belt.

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