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  • 1.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    et al.
    Nord University Business School.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansen, Malin
    Bodö Science Park.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    Oulu University Business School.
    Mineev, Andrei
    Nord University Business School.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodö Science Park.
    Pedersen, Pål
    Nord University.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    Oulu University Business School.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insights to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2017Report (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Addressing dual embeddedness: The roles of absorptive capacity and appropriabilitymechanisms in subsidiary performance2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1512-1523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Vasa.
    Buyer-supplier integration in project-based industries2013In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study is to propose and test a buyer-supplier integration model, based on clients’ collaborative purchasing practices, in a project-based industry.Design/methodology/approach - A two-stage survey study of client-contractor relationships in the Swedish construction industry was conducted. The survey rounds in 2006 and 2009 obtained 87 and 106 responses respectively. The proposed model was empirically tested using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings - The empirical results support our proposed model: incentive-based payment and partner selection based on multiple criteria enhance buyer-supplier integration, in terms of joint action. Furthermore, incentive-based payment increases the use of partner selection based on multiple criteria.Research limitations/implications - A useful theoretical contribution is that incentive-based payment is an important type of incentive structure that enhances buyer-supplier integration in project contexts.Practical implications - We also found that the occurrence of joint action has been increasing from 2006 to 2009. Especially, incentive-based payment plays a more important role for establishing joint action in 2009 than in 2006. The recent economic downturn and a recently completed training program targeting the survey population may explain some of the unexpected findings.Originality/value - The paper addresses an identified gap in the relationship marketing literature, that is, the lack of quantitative studies of relationship marketing aspects in project-based industries.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Modelling procurement effects on cooperation2007In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 893-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative arrangements, such as partnering, have received increased interest in recent years. Several studies show however that cooperative relationships are not easily achieved in construction. Implementation of cooperative relationships requires changes in several elements of the traditional procurement procedures. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose and test a sequential model regarding clients' cooperative procurement procedures. We especially ask: what elements in clients' procurement procedures facilitate the establishment of cooperation and trust in their relationships with contractors? The model was tested through structural equation modelling. The empirical data required for the test were collected through a survey responded to by 87 Swedish professional construction clients. The empirical results show that cooperative procurement procedures are triggered by clients' wish to involve contractors early in specification, which has a simultaneous effect on procedures regarding bid invitation and compensation. Furthermore, these simultaneous effects breed a certain kind of partner selection based on task-related attributes, which also has a direct positive effect on trust and above all on cooperation in client-contractor relationships. Besides these implications from the model, the improvement of measurements for future modelling is discussed.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Renewal in Current Educational Practices in Auditing2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Rogers, Waymond
    Texas University in Old Elpaso.
    Retention of professional auditors: Influences of human and social capital2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The importance of hard project management and team motivation for construction project performance2018In: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Hard project management practices, based on strict planning and control, are traditionally applied in construction projects, although research frequently promotes the importance of teams for various project outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of hard project management and team motivation for process performance in construction projects. A hypothesis tested is that hard project management can impair process performance if team motivation is not promoted.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper presents and empirically tests a structural equation model, with and without a mediating link between hard project management and process performance, based on data from a survey of 2,175 respondents, representing contractors and clients involved in 109 Swedish construction projects.

    Findings

    The results confirm that hard project management is best conveyed through teams to enhance process performance. “Path analysis,” using the model with the mediating link, confirms that neglecting team motivation can significantly impair process performance.

    Research limitations/implications

    The data set provides unusually high representation of views of contractors and clients involved in diverse Swedish construction projects. Thus, the results have likely relevance in other project-based industries and/or national settings, but this possibility requires further investigation.

    Originality/value

    The findings show that team motivation is a key process performance factor; hard project management may indeed be important, but its effects will be enhanced by (and partially mediated through) team motivation. Thus, the findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the development of project management practices.

  • 9.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bryksenkov, Andrey
    Russian State Hydrometeorological University.
    Mineev, Andrey
    Nord University Business School, Norway.
    Gunnarsson, Bjørn
    Nord University Business School, Norway.
    Dybtsyna, Elena
    Nord University Business School, Norway.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    Nord University Business School, Norway.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Balmosov, Sergey
    Center for High North Logistics, Murmansk.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodø Science Park, Norway.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insights to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2018Report (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    The Department of Tourism and Hospitality , The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    School of Management, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Adventure tourist destination choice in Tanzania2013In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 63-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is said an adventure is an experience and experience is a part of expectations. Yet as adventure tourists expect unique experiences, certain ingredients of services (degree of satisfaction) affect their deeper needs to become attached to a place. Are such needs developed over time at a new destination? This paper suggests tourist behaviours and preferences towards destination choice change over time. The proposed model suggests that tourists’ expectations and motivation at early stages of planning affect satisfaction and level of perceived constraints, and these further predict place identity and dependence at the end of travel. As much as satisfaction arises from concrete services such as food and transportation services, constrained activities are expected to have a negativeconsequence on expectations and motivations. Since this paper is based on international adventure tourists, typically willing to take on calculated risks during their visits to Tanzania, we expect many of these hypothesised gaps to diminish as tourists become mature and aware of services offered at the destination. To test awareness and familiarity, we add different proxies for maturity (i.e. late stage of stay, repeat visitors and loyalty intentions) and awareness (i.e. tourists with escape motives) of services provided at the specific destination.

  • 11.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Department of Tourism, National College of Tourism, Dar Es Salaam.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Antecedents of national park knowledge in Tanzania2018In: Journal of Ecotourism, ISSN 1472-4049, E-ISSN 1747-7638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over time, national park knowledge has come to constitute the gap between the full social freedom and individual consciousness of the ecological conditions inside a park. While other visitors have a rigorous knowledge of transportation, nature, and culture, some visitors naively enter the area in order to enjoy their tourism rights. Theoretically, our model proposes that national park knowledge can change as a result of knowing about eco-tourist attractions; also, knowledge of public infrastructure and accessibility is strongly correlated to knowledge of what you can and cannot do in the protected area. Eco-tourist attractions include natural resources, cultural attractions, and recreational facilities. The argument is that all the infrastructure is developed around these, as that these are the sources of attraction. Based on the literature, we link these variables with the ecotourism concept, thus positioning our paper as an ecotourism study. A total of 103 questionnaires were returned on the basis of convenience sampling. A satisfying underlying factor structure was confirmed by CFA and EFA, in which four hypotheses were tested. With 103 observations, the model sufficiently met the minimum sample size for SEM. This paper provides some evidence for its cross validity and may inspire more studies in future.

  • 12.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, The Open University of Tanzania.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Developing reciprocal exchanges for tourism investors: empirical evidence from Tanzania2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1184-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a unique sample of 111 tourism investors in Tanzania. Investors have a significant role in establishing services and supporting continuance in local tourism networks. As important as investors are, many of them overlook relationships they may find abundant but not meaningful. Many investors shift relationships when meaningful ideas or other outcomes no longer feed into the relationship. Relationships could thus be seen as gradual processes in which meaningful exchanges cement the relationships together. At the entry stage, investors select partners they trust or focus on identifying a specific style characterized by partner-related criteria. These expectations typically depend on the motives or reasons investors enter relationships. We suggest that investors’ relationships develop from motives toward defined selection criteria as the basis for a continued exchange defined by their reciprocal orientation. Thus, a theoretical model is presented with constructs such as hard and soft motives, trust and network awareness, partner selection criteria, and reciprocal orientations. We hope these findings may illustrate how policymakers in Tanzania can support investor relationships and nurture them toward a long-term exchange.

  • 13.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Haahti, Antti
    Lapland Institute for Tourism Research and Education, University of Lapland.
    Testing a model of destination attachment: insights from tourism in Tanzania2013In: Tourism and Hospitality Management, ISSN 1330-7533, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 165-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Haahti, Antti
    Salunke, Sandeep
    Determinants of Place Identity and Dependence: The Case of International Tourists in Tanzania2012In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 97-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Department of Tourism, National College of Tourism, Dar es Salaam; Department of Tourism and Hospitality, The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Jack, Sarah
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Strategy and Innovation, Lancaster University Management School (LUMS), Lancaster University; Department of Management and Organization, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Role of reciprocity and innovativeness on performance in a developing context: empirical evidence from Africa2018In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 69-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, investors tend to invest when likelihood of success is high. Many investors consider Africa as one market and neglect individual differences among African countries. Africa is mostly considered a high-risk market and conceptually innovativeness involves uncertainty, which precedes risk. However, it is known that when uncertainty is high there is a stronger correspondence between innovativeness and performance. As uncertainty is high in Africa, this paper claims that it is plausible to find correspondence between innovativeness and performance. This argument is developed since investors typically cope with uncertainty by networking on a reciprocal basis and preferring munificent markets. This link leads us to ask if innovativeness mediates the effect of relatively rich/poor environmental munificence and reciprocal exchange on performance in South Sudan (S. Sudan) and Tanzania. A tested model reveals that four components and an underlying 12 different observations are equivalent across both countries. Furthermore, a tested structural model confirms that the business logic of investors is quite different in S. Sudan and Tanzania. Innovativeness completely mediates effects of reciprocity and munificence on performance in Tanzania but not in S. Sudan. We found some support for the relationship between reciprocity and innovativeness but no support for munificence on innovativeness and performance.

  • 16. Nordquist, Matthias
    et al.
    Picard, Robert
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Industry associations as change agents: The institutional roles of newspaper associations2010In: Journal of Media Business Studies, ISSN 1652-2354, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 51-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the institutional roles of industryassociations, employing institutional theory to identify and characterizethe roles of leading associations in the newspaper industry. Using fourleading newspaper associations as cases, the authors explore associationfunctions evidenced through interviews with their key executives. Thepaper finds that the association leaders tended to emphasize normativefunctions, while associations’ operational executives tended to focus onmimetic and coercive functions.

  • 17.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Network Capability, Innovativeness, and Performance: A Multidimensional Extension for Entrepreneurship2017In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 94-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and start-up firms in the high-tech industry usually engage in networking to overcome resource, knowledge, and competence constraints in creative, innovation-based competition. Quite often, however, network relationships fail due to lack of network capability (NC), defined as the ability to manage and gain benefits from external relationships. In the present study, we propose and examine an updated five-dimension NC construct and test its effect on innovativeness and performance. Two independent high-tech samples of small firms and start-ups support measurement properties of the proposed NC construct and suggest that the often-overlooked dimension in NC research of network relationship building is important to include in a complete NC construct. Doing so can help explain organizational innovativeness and effects on the customer, sales, and innovation performance more effectively. As a result, we find support for the proposed NC scale and the importance of network capabilities for small companies and start-ups to remain competitive.

  • 18.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Advances in Modern Tourism Research Economic Perspectives: Economic perspectives2009In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 249-250Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Lärande, innovationsförmåga och prestation2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreläsning vid Mälardalens Högskola i Västerås

  • 20.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Audit independence2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Creative cities, cultural clusters and local economic development: Edited by Philip Cooke and Luciana Lazzeretti2008In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 626-628Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Industrial Organisation.
    Development of relationships in interorganizational networks: studies in the tourism and construction industries2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A firm is a type of organizational arrangement often involved in interorganizational networks. Typically, interorganizational networks are the outcome of individuals in firms working together in cooperative groups. Through these individuals firms establish both formal and social relationships. The individuals develop lasting relationships because they share time, interests, goals, industrial, geographical or some other type of relatedness. Shared goals and interests of the relationship become an observable unit built upon various constructs. Interorganizational networks typically involve one or several different types of relationship constructs. This thesis elaborates on different relationship constructs and proposes different roles for each construct. All relationships are studied at a firm level since managers are considered key informants for the firm. The overall research question is: How do relationships in interorganizational networks develop? The main objective is to examine the development of these relationships in interorganizational networks. The approach is to synthesize 10 essays on relationships between five constructs - reciprocity, trust, cooperation, interorganizational commitment and loyalty. The results indicate that relationships are based upon a long term orientation. Secondly, relationships develop from certain processes before interaction is initiated. These processes involve the influence of cooperative motives to enter interorganizational networks and preferences upon which potential partners are selected. Furthermore, the initial processes involving motives and preferences expand to include the development of relationships based on friendships, interpersonal commitments, reciprocity and trust. The ultimate outcome of this process is stability and maturity, which means relationships are sustained by dependencies, their initial objectives and the desire to protect.Dependencies are reflected in interorganizational commitment, which means the firms' future intentions and promises strengthen the relationships. The objectives interorganizational networks are founded upon motivate network firms to develop relationships based on cooperative strategies so that shared goals and decisions can be effectively pursued. Finally, the firms typically protect their relationships by developing loyalties. All models represent unique examples of potential relationships and some models are particularly important because they were purified so that convergent, nomological and discriminant validity criteria could be met. The results are consistent with but extend previous research and are considered important for future business studies in general, but particularly within the tourism and construction industries. A practical implication of the research is thus that in evaluating new opportunities, firms should carefully examine the characteristics of potential partners as well as how the partnership might influence the content of their relationships. Another practical implication is that trust and reciprocity should be viewed differently in building successful network partnerships.

  • 23. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Evaluating prerequisites to collaborative strategic decisions: a simulated collaborative scenario of two actors2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper conceptualizes different grounds for collaborative decisions in order to forecast how different behaviors behave in a game-theoretical prisoner's dilemma (PD). Forecasting is facilitated by a simulated scenario between two actors. The paper views consequences of different behavioral strategies and underpins an evaluation through analyses of the game, and also presents a unique aggregated analysis modeling strategic behavior on the basis of game-theory. The paper suggests that game-theory could be a potential and powerful tool for researchers and practitioners struggling with the strategic dilemmas, i.e. trust-building versus opportunistic behavior in inter-firm cooperation. The paper outlines some strategic principles that may unsettle the dilemma situation through either social or formal contracts.

  • 24. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Forming trust, commitment and cooperation under trying circumstances in peripheral tourism networks2005In: Proceedings, VIII Nordic-Scottish Conference on Rural and Regional Development, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Industrial Organisation.
    Hur utvecklar små och medelstora turismföretag interorganisatoriska förbund?: en validerad strukturell ekvationsmodell2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan företag som ingår i framgångsrika samverkansnätverk bygga interorganisatoriska förbund i perifera regioner under krävande omständigheter? Den här uppsatsen utvecklar en modell och testar empiriskt en enkät till 254 företag i två olika samverkansnätverk i Norra Minnesota (N. Mn.). Uppsatsen har två huvudsakliga bidrag. Först, genom att definiera sex återkommande problem för den här typen av "krävande" perifera regioner stimulerar uppsatsen till mer forskning på det här området. I det andra bidraget demonstreras en unik strukturell ekvationsmodell, vilken är indelad i fyra olika sekvenser. Sekvenserna baseras på sex olika konstrukt (begrepp konstruerade av flera element av engelskans construct), som är värderade genom att använda data från en enkät med krossektioner. Den första sekvensen innehåller två begrepp och mäter hårda samt mjuka motiv till samverkan. Den andra sekvensen innehåller grunder på vilka potentiella partners väljs. Den är baserad på hur viktigt förtroende är vid val av partner. I tredje sekvensen används två begrepp - förtroende i nuvarande relationer och reciprocitet. Den fjärde sekvensen utvärderar den slutgiltiga beroendevariabeln - interorganisatoriska förbund. Genom att föreslå sex propositioner ger uppsatsen nya utgångar för teoriutveckling inom den inbäddade litteraturen. Samtliga propositioner är genererade från teori, tidigare resultat eller en logisk argumentation färdig att testas. Efter det slutgiltiga testet visades att två av propositionerna kunde bekräftas och att två misspecificerade relationer kunde identifieras, vilket möjligen kan bidra till att lösa några av de utmaningar som ligger bakom personliga relationer i samverkansnätverk av företag. Förutom detta kan uppsatsen även bidra till utveckling av måtten. Samtliga mått baserades på tidigare teori men när interaktioner mellan begreppen studerades kan denna uppsats visa på mått som stöds av innehålls-, konvergent, diskriminant och nomologisk validitet. De teoretiska och praktiska implikationerna går till strategisk management av små och medelstora turismföretag verksamma under krävande omständigheter i perifera regioner. En sådan proper implikation, som även stimulera till mer forskning, är att etablering av varaktiga samverkansnätverk kräver några noggranna överväganden, där företag bör överväga motiv, val av partner och dess konsekvenser. När samverkansnätverk är implementerade omsorgsfullt, med hänsyn till personliga relationer, kommer företag att ha mer kunskap om vad de kan förvänta sig av relationen, vilket minskar risken eller i alla fall kunskapen om den, som i sin tur även har effekten att samverkan med större sannolikhet även blir varaktig.

  • 26. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Interfirm network content analysis2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores and describes some directions within the field of interfirm networks. The directions correspond to an aggregation of 210 different papers in order to achieve a content trajectory. Papers analyzed are based on a collection from 1961 until July 2002 from a number of databases. The papers where categorized into different categories. The categories used in this paper are as follows: author; year; name of journal; theoretical base; approach in the paper; methods used; unit of analysis in the paper and focus of content. Further the categories are quantified in a number of histograms. The paper also includes an appendix which consists, except from the categories, also a column with some concluding remarks from the paper; proposals for further research and also a quotation in order to enable some kind of validation process for the reader. The findings are mostly descriptive but will reveal some interesting data about common research techniques and approaches used. The main contribution is to reveal and offer a platform for upcoming research within the area of network related research.

  • 27.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Personnel- and action control in gazelle companies in Sweden2017In: Journal of Management Control, ISSN 2191-4761, E-ISSN 2191-477X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 107-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral accounting theory questions the role of accounting and how accounting constructs can support other organizational activities. This paper examines whether personnel and action controls and the perception of current growth mediate meaningful support of innovative ideas (i.e., innovativeness) on future growth. While some literature has supported innovativeness as a spontaneous process, this paper examines whether innovative ideas are supported by formal behavioral controls on current and future growth. The paper further develops and finds support for the notion that future growth builds on the relative confidence of current growth. This paper uses exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for construct validation and further tests mediation using structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping technique of indirect effects. The model testing is based on a survey conducted in Sweden with key informants from high-growth (i.e., gazelle) companies. A total of 150 usable responses were returned.  The results may stimulate further research as they show that the predefined hypothesis has different direct and indirect roles in the building of future growth.

  • 28. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Successful cooperation under trying circumstances2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Turism för rika: ett nätverksperspektiv2003Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University.
    Reduction of Tension Effects on Partner Evaluation2018In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 425-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper examines how tension management as a means of achieving compromise and overcoming minor conflicts reduces the effects of the opportunism and bargaining costs of relationships on the evaluation of business partners. The paper proposes and tests a theoretical model with a full-information approach using structural equation modeling.

    Design/methodology/approach: Our dataset was based on 312 observations from a unique survey based on a business-to-business relationship sample in Sweden. The measurements reflect the effects of partner opportunism, bargaining costs, and tension management on partner evaluations.

    Findings: Our findings corroborate that partner opportunism and bargaining costs have a negative impact on partner evaluation. In addition, our model shows that tension management weakens the negative effects of opportunism and bargaining costs on the evaluation.

    Originality/value: This study offers evidence on how negative effects are reduced through intervening constructs. With most studies focusing on the positive side of relationships, this paper makes an important contribution to the literature through not only describing negative effects, but also how these can be decreased.

  • 31. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition among nature-based tourism firms: competition at a local level and cooperation at a destination level2006In: 2nd Workshop on Coopetiton Strategy: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition among nature-based tourism firms: competition at local level and cooperation at destination level2010In: Coopetition Strategy: Winning Strategies for the 21st Century, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated , 2010, p. 166-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Hair, Joseph F.
    Kennesaw State University, Department of Marketing.
    Validating a model of cooperative procurement in the construction industry2009In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 552-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management in the construction industry involves coordination of many tasks and individuals, affected by complexity and uncertainty, which increases the need for efficient cooperation. Procurement is crucial since it sets the basis for cooperation between clients and contractors. This is true whether the project is local, regional or global in scope. Traditionally, procurement procedures are competitive, resulting in conflicts, adversarial relationships and less desirable project results. The purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically test an alternative procurement model based on cooperative procurement procedures that facilitates cooperation between clients and contractors in construction projects. The model is based on four multi-item constructs - incentive-based compensation, limited bidding options, partner selection and cooperation. Based on a sample of 87 client organisations, the model was empirically tested and exhibited strong support, including content, nomological, convergent and discriminant validity, as well as reliability. Our findings indicate that partner selection based on task related attributes mediates the relationship between two important pre-selection processes (incentive-based compensation and limited bid invitation) and preferred outcome of cooperation. The contribution of the paper is identifying valid and reliable measurement constructs and confirming a unique sequential order for achieving cooperation. Moreover, the findings are applicable for many types of construction projects because of the similarities in the construction industry worldwide.

  • 34. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Goel, Sanjay
    University of Minnesota.
    Advancing research on inter-firm networks: reconciling paradoxes via conceptual clarity and bridging methodological pluralism2003In: Scandinavian Academy of Management conference, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Goel, Sanjay
    University of Minnesota.
    Relative determinants of success in interfirm networks2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Industrial Organisation.
    Hair, J.
    Kennesaw State University, Georgia.
    Cooperative strategies for improving the tourism industry in remote geographic regions: an addition to trust and commitment theory with one key mediating construct2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 48-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of cooperative relationships is influenced by interorganizational commitment, which is a long-run goal of networks. Our research examined cooperative relationships in the tourism industry to better understand what makes them successful. The study is an extension of previous empirical research on commitment. The overall research questions were: "What factors lead to interorganizational commitment in remote tourism destinations?" and "What are the relationships between the factors?" A literature search was conducted to identify factors related to organizational commitment. Search findings suggested a model proposing that interpersonal commitment mediates the effect of trust and reciprocity on interorganizational commitment. Data for the model was collected from a sample of tourism firms in successful cooperative networks. The theoretical model was purified based on convergent, nomological and discriminant validity as well as construct reliability. Our findings demonstrated that the relationship between trust and interorganizational commitment is in fact mediated by interpersonal commitment. We confirmed that reciprocity is directly related to interorganizational commitment, and is not mediated by interpersonal commitment. Thus, tourism firms should develop cooperative strategies in their networks by focusing on enhancing interpersonal commitment through trust, thereby ultimately helping to strengthen interorganizational commitment.

  • 37. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Hair, J.F.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Developing a thermometer measuring tourist's needs, expectations and experiences: an empirical study of visitors in Norrbotten2007Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Hair, Joseph
    Kennesaw State University, Georgia.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    To protect and attract: firms cooperating in nature-based tourism destinations2008In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores solutions to potential communication problems that arise from cooperation in nature-based tourism (NBT) destinations. The questions posed in this article are: "When is a local firm in an NBT destination likely to cooperate with other firms?" and "How can cooperation be facilitated among NBT firms?" The primary focus of our research, therefore, is how to facilitate cooperation in NBT destinations. To do so, we first review different risk elements by describing a simulated scenario in which two participants (NBT firms) confront a prisoner's dilemma with different options-cooperation and competition. The outcome of that scenario demonstrates that cooperation is only rational when the benefits of cooperation are greater than those for competition. Such situations do not occur in single games involving the prisoner's dilemma, but only in infinitely repeated games. Because cooperation may not be rational from a game theoretic perspective, policy makers and the firms involved should work actively to increase the benefits of cooperation. We conclude that cooperation is best achieved by having activities coordinated either by a strong, aggressive company or a strategic hierarchical network. Our logic is that coordinating activities from one point will increase the likelihood that partners have the same information and thus minimize conflicts.

  • 39. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Hair, Joseph F.
    Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University.
    Kvist, Anna-Karin
    When collaboration is difficult: the impact of dependencies and lack of suppliers on small and medium sized firms in a remote area2007In: World Journal of Tourism Small Business Management, ISSN 1991-1394, Vol. 1, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure their success, small and medium sized firms must collaborate. This study reports the perceptions of tourism firms in Eastern Norrbotten, Sweden regarding collaboration. The findings indicate a very low level of collaboration and a lack of understanding of the dependencies among tourism firms and the benefits of reciprocity.

  • 40.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Halmstad University.
    Näsvall, Pia
    Region Norrbotten.
    Why Swedish medical doctors meet few patients?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Industrial Organisation.
    Jr, Joseph Franklin Hair
    Department of Marketing, Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University.
    More than friendship is required: an empirical test of cooperative firm strategies2007In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 602-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine a proposed six-construct theoretical model of factors influencing successful cooperative relationships and strategy development. Design/methodology/approach - A theoretical model of strategy development and cooperative relationships was tested. Qualitative research among key experts identified 15 successful regional tourism networks. Two successful cooperative networks were selected based on annual revenues. A sample of 254 small and medium-sized members were surveyed from the two networks in Northern Minnesota, USA. Findings - Strong support was obtained for the proposed model. Hypothesized relationships were tested and the findings were consistent with previous research. Long-term orientation has a positive effect on friendship, loyalty, trust and commitment. Friendship is related to loyalty and commitment, and loyalty is related to trust. Ultimately, trust and commitment engender successful cooperation. The model can be used as a guide to strategy development at different levels in an organization. Research limitations/implications - Large firms select between higher and lower order functional strategies. Small and medium-sized firms sometimes address commitment and cooperative strategies through shared goals and decisions in order pursue higher order strategies. This paper research supports a greater emphasis on establishing relationships using loyalty, trust and commitment to develop successful higher order strategies. However, relationships based on friendship also can be an important consideration in strategy development. Practical implications - Strategic implications for developing relationships that can be used as a planning component of hierarchical strategies. Originality/value - The paper maintains that loyalty is more important than friendship in developing successful strategies based on cooperation.

  • 42.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Jönkoping International Business School, Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth, Experience Industries.
    Jr, Joseph Franklin Hair
    Kennesaw State University, Department of Marketing.
    Haahti, Antti
    Faculty of Tourism and Business, University of Lapland.
    Motives, Partner Selection and Establishing Trust Reciprocity and Interorganizational Commitment2010In: International Journal of Tourism Policy, ISSN 1750-4090, E-ISSN 1750-4104, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research proposes a model of Interorganisational Commitment (IOC). The model is based on six constructs and was tested on 99 small and medium sized firms. The model examines interaction and non-interaction between firms. The theoretical model suggests that firms enter relationships in sequences, where they first consider motives and partner preferences before interaction takes place. Later in the sequence more extensive interactions develop into committed relationships that have consequences influenced by Trust (TRU) and Reciprocity (RCP) perceptions, which influence and promote lasting IOCs. The tested model exhibits nomological, convergent and discriminant validity, as well as reliability

  • 43.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Haahti, Antti
    Board of directors and its relationships on performance: case of Gnosjöregion in Sweden2008In: Innovative Marketing, ISSN 1814-2427, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Role of Performance Feedback on Process Performance in Construction Projects: Client and Contractor Perspectives2018In: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 34, no 4, article id 04018023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed a perceived research gap by examining the role of performance feedback in construction process performance from both client and contractor perspectives using a database of unprecedented scale, with 2,175 sets of observations (expressed views of 579 clients and 1,596 contractors involved in diverse Swedish construction projects). Following validation of latent concepts by multigroup assessment of responses across the two groups (clients and contractors), using confirmatory factor analysis, this enabled robust tests of evidence of structural paths (potentially causal or mediating relationships) embedded in both groups’ responses. The results confirmed, with unprecedented clarity, that performance feedback has significant, direct positive effects on construction process performance, and that performance feedback mediates (i.e., strengthens) effects of learning and collaboration on process performance.

  • 45.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    School of Management, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Pieper, Thorsten
    Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University.
    Silva, R Vinhas da
    ISCTE-IUL (Lisbon University Institute-BRU), Lisbon.
    Black, William
    Ourso College of Business, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.
    Jr, Joseph Franklin Hair
    Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University.
    Trust and reciprocity in building inter-personal and inter-organizational commitment in small business co-operatives2013In: Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management, ISSN 2213-297X, E-ISSN 2213-2988, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Salunke, Sandeep
    The moderating role of learning on competitive advantage: longitudinal evidence from young firms2012In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2011: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Andrew Zacharakis, New York: Babson College Center , 2012, p. 718-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Shoham, Aviv
    University of Haifa.
    Khan, LaL
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Muhammad, Irfan
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    The Impacts of Social Networking and Learning Orientation on Performance2015In: Journal of Global Marketing, ISSN 0891-1762, E-ISSN 1528-6975, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 113-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational learning orientation and social networking have been recognized as drivers of innovativeness and performance. The authors’ study extends existing research on these concepts in several ways. First, they posit that innovativeness mediates the effects of social networking and learning orientation on performance. Second, they propose that environmental munificence moderates the hypothesized relationships. Third, data for the study were collected in Pakistan, which represents a novel and as-yet-unexplored context for this type of research. A structural equation model based on 176 small firms in Pakistan supported most of the hypothesized relationships

  • 48.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Queensland University of Technology, Melbourne.
    Shoham, Aviv
    University of Haifa, Melbourne.
    Ruvio, Ayalla
    Temple University, Melbourne.
    Antecedents and Consequences of Innovativeness2017In: The Customer is NOT Always Right?: Marketing Orientationsin a Dynamic Business World : Proceedings of the 2011 World Marketing Congress / [ed] Campbell C.L., Cham: Springer, 2017, , p. 99p. 610-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovativeness is an organizational trait that leads to innovations. Organizations with high levels of innovativeness develop and renew products and processes and abandon obsolete ones. While potentially contributing to long term growth and profitability, utilizing innovativeness can be difficult, time consuming, and expensive. This paper examines a contingency-theory-based model centering on organizational innovativeness, its internal and external antecedents, and its performance outcomes. It assessed the role of a learning-orientation as a moderator of the relationships in the model. The model is tested by data from 395 strategic business units (SBU) in Israel’s healthcare industry. Innovativeness has added importance in the healthcare industry, because many innovations are expensive, take a long time to license and train, and require extensive organizational support. We find that overall, and, especially for high learning-oriented organizations, innovativeness mediates the impacts of risk-taking, creativity, and competitor orientation (internal characteristics), and environmental munificence (external characteristic) on performance. In contrast, innovativeness mediates only the impacts of risk-taking and creativity on performance in low learning-oriented SBUs.

  • 49. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Shoham, Aviv
    University of Haifa.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Ruvio, Ayalla A.
    Fox School of Business, Temple University, PA.
    How a learning orientation affects drivers of innovativeness and performance in service delivery2013In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 169-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relying on organizational innovativeness for long-term growth and profitability can be difficult, time consuming, and expensive. In the context of service delivery of 395 strategic business units (SBU) in Israel's healthcare industry, this paper examines the role of a learning-orientation as a moderator in an integrative model of organizational innovativeness. We find moderation of the impacts of risk-taking, creativity, competitor benchmarking orientation, and environmental opportunities on innovativeness. Moreover, we find the influence on performance pronounced for high learning-oriented SBUs. The paper shows that learning orientation should be considered for understanding effective innovativeness work for competitive service delivery.

  • 50. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Skurla, James A.
    University of Minnesota.
    Secret ties as a way to succeed: describing and exploring relations among successful tourism managers2004In: Tourism in peripheries: perspectives from the far north and south / [ed] Dieter K. Müller ; Bruno Jansson, Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI Publishing, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers and owners of successful companies act with deliberate purpose in order to succeed (Penrose, 1959; Nelson and Winter, 1982; Aldrich and Zimmer, 1986; Edquist, 1997; Metcalfe, 1997). Understanding the issue of success and failure has received great interest among practitioners, policymakers and researchers. This study considers a region understood as a rural, sparsely populated area. In this region, traditional industries such as mining, agriculture and forest products are suffering under pressure for sustainable replacement industries. Reconstruction of such areas involves structural processes facilitating the entry of new industries, such as tourism (Petterson, 2002). The replacement industries often demand a shift in terms of tangible assets and also in terms of finding decision routines adapted to sensitive customer needs. In order to understand the complexity of this industrial shift, this paper intends to describe and explore (as moderators for understanding success) present decision routines in tourism industry, at three levels, and to chart the decision paths.

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