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  • 1.
    Bosch-Rekveldt, Marian
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Bourne, Mike
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Forster, Rick
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Kirkham, Richard
    The University of Manchester, UK.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Performance Measurement in Project Management2023In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 41, no 7, article id 102518Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 2.
    Bourne, Mike
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK.
    Bosch-Rekveldt, Marian
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherland.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Moving goals and governance in megaprojects2023In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 41, no 5, article id 102486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project management is known for its tools and techniques that are used to plan and deliver projects in a controlled context. Megaprojects don't always fit well into this paradigm due to their size, complexity and longevity. Megaprojects often start without precisely defined goals and without a detailed knowledge of how the project will progress or the outcomes will be delivered. We examine the requirements for governance of megaprojects by reviewing the literature and reflecting on practice. We use the analytical model of where, how and what to illustrate different units of analysis (i.e., context, governance and goals) in megaprojects in three countries and to illustrate how goals and governance move. Building upon the governance and performance management literature, the paper contributes to the understanding of moving goals and governance for ensuring performance. We propose a framework for diagnosing goals and we list six systemic errors that result in a misfit.

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  • 3.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    et al.
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansen, Malin
    Bodø Science Park, Bodø, Norway.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Mineev, Andrei
    High North Center at Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodø Science Park, Bodø, Norway.
    Pedersen, Pål
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insights to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Department of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Södertörn, Sweden.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Entrepreneurship and Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Addressing dual embeddedness: The roles of absorptive capacity and appropriabilitymechanisms in subsidiary performance2019In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 78, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity.

  • 5.
    Dahlin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Ekman, Peter
    Mälardalen University.
    Röndell, Jimmie
    Mälardalen University.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Exploring the business logic behind CSR certifications2020In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 112, p. 521-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that CSR certification motives span from being symbolic to substantive. Prior studies have mainly focused on the differences between firms that hold and do not hold CSR certificates. This study explores if the extent of CSR certification is related to different business logic amongst firms who hold CSR certificates. The study utilizes full sample data from the Swedish commercial real estate industry to analyze the variance in motives and performance among firms with CSR certificates. The results indicate that firms that have a substantive CSR commitment have a business logic that entails a holistic and long-term perspective on both financial and CSR performance. However, substantive CSR commitment comes with greater staffing costs and lower financial returns as opposed to those of firms that obtain CSR certificates based on symbolic motives.

  • 6.
    Dahlin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Moilanen, Mikko
    University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway.
    Østbye, Stein Eirik
    University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Absorptive capacity, co-creation, and innovation performance: A cross-country analysis of gazelle and nongazelle companies2020In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of absorptive capacity (ACAP) and co-creation on innovation performance (INN).

    Design/methodology/approach

    The authors use survey data from Swedish and Norwegian companies (n=1,102) and establish a cross-national equivalence between Sweden and Norway.

    Findings

    The subsequent structural model revealed interesting differences. For Sweden, co-creation fully mediates the effect of ACAP on INN, whereas for Norway, ACAP has a direct effect on INN with no mediation. Subsequent regressions including control variables showed that the structural model is reasonably robust. The authors conclude that, despite the many common national features conducive to innovation between these two countries, sufficient differences remain to create substantial variation in the innovation processes.

    Originality/value

    The study presents a second-order model of ACAP that permits a unique test of cross-country differences.

  • 7.
    Dahlin, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, P.O. Box 883, SE-721 23, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Drivers of cost and time overruns: A client and contractor perspective2021In: Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal, E-ISSN 1847-6228, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 2374-2382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large infrastructure investments are expected to be of sustained value to society for a long time. Such investment projects include, for instance, hospitals, tunnels, sport arenas, power plants, roads, railways, and bridges. They involve a complex organization of contracts and agreements. The client is expected to plan, procure, and determine the critical steps of a project, while the contractor should solve issues raised by the client. Many of these agreements are path-dependent and reflect past routines, experiences, and contacts. As such, many investments tend to return to similar sources instead of replacing routines and collaborations that did not work. This can cause change orders that furthermore reflect consequences such as cost and time overruns. While much is known about these effects in construction projects, this paper sheds light on the drivers of change orders. We build upon a sample of 234 observations responding to a survey on investment planning. The results show that project assumptions are often wrong and inadequate in large investments. Such wrong assumptions are caused by interpersonal and leadership issues, poor planning, or sometimes even intentional profit-seeking. Our results show that clients and contractors have different perceptions and enter contractual obligations differently. The implication is, therefore, that better routines of documentation, more frequent feedback, and more accurate or precise standards may close the gap between planning and what is actually achieved. More precise contractual agreements may also create a better process to procure, manage projects, and allocate resources. 

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  • 8.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1512-1523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Vasa.
    Buyer-supplier integration in project-based industries2013In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study is to propose and test a buyer-supplier integration model, based on clients’ collaborative purchasing practices, in a project-based industry.Design/methodology/approach - A two-stage survey study of client-contractor relationships in the Swedish construction industry was conducted. The survey rounds in 2006 and 2009 obtained 87 and 106 responses respectively. The proposed model was empirically tested using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings - The empirical results support our proposed model: incentive-based payment and partner selection based on multiple criteria enhance buyer-supplier integration, in terms of joint action. Furthermore, incentive-based payment increases the use of partner selection based on multiple criteria.Research limitations/implications - A useful theoretical contribution is that incentive-based payment is an important type of incentive structure that enhances buyer-supplier integration in project contexts.Practical implications - We also found that the occurrence of joint action has been increasing from 2006 to 2009. Especially, incentive-based payment plays a more important role for establishing joint action in 2009 than in 2006. The recent economic downturn and a recently completed training program targeting the survey population may explain some of the unexpected findings.Originality/value - The paper addresses an identified gap in the relationship marketing literature, that is, the lack of quantitative studies of relationship marketing aspects in project-based industries.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Modelling procurement effects on cooperation2007In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 893-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative arrangements, such as partnering, have received increased interest in recent years. Several studies show however that cooperative relationships are not easily achieved in construction. Implementation of cooperative relationships requires changes in several elements of the traditional procurement procedures. The purpose of this paper is therefore to propose and test a sequential model regarding clients' cooperative procurement procedures. We especially ask: what elements in clients' procurement procedures facilitate the establishment of cooperation and trust in their relationships with contractors? The model was tested through structural equation modelling. The empirical data required for the test were collected through a survey responded to by 87 Swedish professional construction clients. The empirical results show that cooperative procurement procedures are triggered by clients' wish to involve contractors early in specification, which has a simultaneous effect on procedures regarding bid invitation and compensation. Furthermore, these simultaneous effects breed a certain kind of partner selection based on task-related attributes, which also has a direct positive effect on trust and above all on cooperation in client-contractor relationships. Besides these implications from the model, the improvement of measurements for future modelling is discussed.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Governing technical and organizational complexity through supply chain integration: A dyadic perspective on performance in infrastructure projects2023In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 41, no 4, article id 102479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its declared importance for governing complexity in projects, few empirical studies have studied how different types of supply chain integration (SCI) activities (e.g., coordinative and collaborative integration) interplay and affect performance. To address this gap, the purpose of this paper is to study how complexity can be governed through coordinative and collaborative SCI, and how their interplay affects performance in project-based buyer-supplier relationships. We apply structural equation modeling, using dyadic empirical data from 102 infrastructure projects. The overall results verify our developed model and illuminate how the interplay between contractual and relational governance, in terms of coordinative and collaborative SCI, mediates the effect of technical and organizational complexity on project performance. This study contributes to theory and practice by distinguishing between contractual governance based on formal coordinative SCI and relational governance based on emerged collaborative SCI, as well as showing how their interplay affects performance in project-based supply chains.

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  • 12.
    Huemann, Martina
    et al.
    Project Management Group, WU Vienna, Austria.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The first impression counts: The essentials of writing a convincing introduction2022In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 827-830Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Juuso, Päivi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    SROI fallstudie Sverige – Naturbaserade tjänster för personer med stressrelaterad ohälsa: [SROI Case Ruotsi: Luontoperustaiset palvelut stressiperäisistä sairauksista kärsiville henkilöille]2022In: Naturvärden som källa till välbefinnande: Nordic NaBS projektets resultat: [Luontoarvot hyvinvoinnin lähteeksi: Nordic NaBS -hankkeen tulokset] / [ed] Sanna Vinblad, Leena Välimaa, Nordic NaBS , 2022, p. 60-70Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Högskolan i Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nybond, Per-Anders
    Klyo AB, Sweden.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Möjligheter och utmaningar: Utveckling av hållbara affärsmodeller i SMF2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Renewal in Current Educational Practices in Auditing2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Högskolan i Halmstad, Halmstad, Sverige.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Engström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    Juuso, Päivi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    Strukturella förutsättningar för landsbygdens entreprenörskap: Institutionella logiker och naturbaserade sociala innovationer2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Rogers, Waymond
    Texas University in Old Elpaso.
    Retention of professional auditors: Influences of human and social capital2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Karlsson, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Goel, Sanjay
    University of North Dakota.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitsis, Tyrone
    Durham University.
    Gender Role of Corporate Governance in Swedish Gazelle Companies2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate governance in Swedish publicly listed firms is known for the “Old boys’ network”. This paper examine qualitative aspects of board process on performance. We further test for number of women on board on performance. To further explore performance, we isolate findings to only so called high growth gazelle companies. We contribute to the research stream focusing on heterogeneous representation in corporate governance, specifically whether gender equality can enhance management accounting functions and financial performance. In line with this, we examine qualitative aspects of board composition and females on board and performance in gazelle companies in Sweden. This paper build upon a survey to 76 high growth companies in Sweden. We compare these to a stratified sample of 91 Swedish companies with sales>50 MSEK and 67 publicly listed companies. We regress on four dimensions of governance process on performance. We found based on an OLS regression that acting on authority and seeking consensus is strongly related to perceived performance. When further examining the same model and adding controls for number of females on the corporate board we found a significant negative effect. The latter may imply that more heterogeneous boards may also constrain the ease and efficiency in reaching decisions. We discuss our results and search for tentative explanations to this unique sample of companies.

  • 19.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The importance of hard project management and team motivation for construction project performance2018In: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Hard project management practices, based on strict planning and control, are traditionally applied in construction projects, although research frequently promotes the importance of teams for various project outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of hard project management and team motivation for process performance in construction projects. A hypothesis tested is that hard project management can impair process performance if team motivation is not promoted.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper presents and empirically tests a structural equation model, with and without a mediating link between hard project management and process performance, based on data from a survey of 2,175 respondents, representing contractors and clients involved in 109 Swedish construction projects.

    Findings

    The results confirm that hard project management is best conveyed through teams to enhance process performance. “Path analysis,” using the model with the mediating link, confirms that neglecting team motivation can significantly impair process performance.

    Research limitations/implications

    The data set provides unusually high representation of views of contractors and clients involved in diverse Swedish construction projects. Thus, the results have likely relevance in other project-based industries and/or national settings, but this possibility requires further investigation.

    Originality/value

    The findings show that team motivation is a key process performance factor; hard project management may indeed be important, but its effects will be enhanced by (and partially mediated through) team motivation. Thus, the findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the development of project management practices.

  • 20.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bryksenkov, Andrey
    Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Moscow, Russia.
    Mineev, Andrei
    High North Center at Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Dybtsyna, Elena
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodø Science Park, Bodø, Norway.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insight to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bryksenkov, Andrey
    Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Moscow, Russia.
    Mineev, Andrey
    High North Center at Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Dybtsyna, Elena
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodø Science Park, Bodø, Norway.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insight to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2020Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 22.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bryksenkov, Andrey
    Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Moscow, Russia.
    Mineev, Andrey
    High North Center at Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Gunnarsson, Bjørn
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Dybtsyna, Elena
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    Nord University Business School, Bodø, Norway.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Balmosov, Sergey
    Center for High North Logistics, Murmansk, Russia.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodø Science Park, Bodø, Norway.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insights to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Oulu.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlin, Peter
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University.
    Mineev, Andrei
    High North Center at Nord University Business School.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    Nord University Business School.
    Innovative Businesses in the Arctic: Many ways to success2020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 24.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    The Department of Tourism and Hospitality , The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    School of Management, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Adventure tourist destination choice in Tanzania2013In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 63-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is said an adventure is an experience and experience is a part of expectations. Yet as adventure tourists expect unique experiences, certain ingredients of services (degree of satisfaction) affect their deeper needs to become attached to a place. Are such needs developed over time at a new destination? This paper suggests tourist behaviours and preferences towards destination choice change over time. The proposed model suggests that tourists’ expectations and motivation at early stages of planning affect satisfaction and level of perceived constraints, and these further predict place identity and dependence at the end of travel. As much as satisfaction arises from concrete services such as food and transportation services, constrained activities are expected to have a negativeconsequence on expectations and motivations. Since this paper is based on international adventure tourists, typically willing to take on calculated risks during their visits to Tanzania, we expect many of these hypothesised gaps to diminish as tourists become mature and aware of services offered at the destination. To test awareness and familiarity, we add different proxies for maturity (i.e. late stage of stay, repeat visitors and loyalty intentions) and awareness (i.e. tourists with escape motives) of services provided at the specific destination.

  • 25.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Department of Tourism, National College of Tourism, Dar Es Salaam.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Antecedents of national park knowledge in Tanzania2019In: Journal of Ecotourism, ISSN 1472-4049, E-ISSN 1747-7638, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 199-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over time, national park knowledge has come to constitute the gap between the full social freedom and individual consciousness of the ecological conditions inside a park. While other visitors have a rigorous knowledge of transportation, nature, and culture, some visitors naively enter the area in order to enjoy their tourism rights. Theoretically, our model proposes that national park knowledge can change as a result of knowing about eco-tourist attractions; also, knowledge of public infrastructure and accessibility is strongly correlated to knowledge of what you can and cannot do in the protected area. Eco-tourist attractions include natural resources, cultural attractions, and recreational facilities. The argument is that all the infrastructure is developed around these, as that these are the sources of attraction. Based on the literature, we link these variables with the ecotourism concept, thus positioning our paper as an ecotourism study. A total of 103 questionnaires were returned on the basis of convenience sampling. A satisfying underlying factor structure was confirmed by CFA and EFA, in which four hypotheses were tested. With 103 observations, the model sufficiently met the minimum sample size for SEM. This paper provides some evidence for its cross validity and may inspire more studies in future.

  • 26.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, The Open University of Tanzania.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Developing reciprocal exchanges for tourism investors: empirical evidence from Tanzania2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1184-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a unique sample of 111 tourism investors in Tanzania. Investors have a significant role in establishing services and supporting continuance in local tourism networks. As important as investors are, many of them overlook relationships they may find abundant but not meaningful. Many investors shift relationships when meaningful ideas or other outcomes no longer feed into the relationship. Relationships could thus be seen as gradual processes in which meaningful exchanges cement the relationships together. At the entry stage, investors select partners they trust or focus on identifying a specific style characterized by partner-related criteria. These expectations typically depend on the motives or reasons investors enter relationships. We suggest that investors’ relationships develop from motives toward defined selection criteria as the basis for a continued exchange defined by their reciprocal orientation. Thus, a theoretical model is presented with constructs such as hard and soft motives, trust and network awareness, partner selection criteria, and reciprocal orientations. We hope these findings may illustrate how policymakers in Tanzania can support investor relationships and nurture them toward a long-term exchange.

  • 27.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Haahti, Antti
    Lapland Institute for Tourism Research and Education, University of Lapland.
    Testing a model of destination attachment: insights from tourism in Tanzania2013In: Tourism and Hospitality Management, ISSN 1330-7533, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 165-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Haahti, Antti
    Salunke, Sandeep
    Determinants of Place Identity and Dependence: The Case of International Tourists in Tanzania2012In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 97-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Mlozi, Shogo
    et al.
    Department of Tourism, National College of Tourism, Dar es Salaam. Department of Tourism and Hospitality, The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Jack, Sarah
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Strategy and Innovation, Lancaster University Management School (LUMS), Lancaster University. Department of Management and Organization, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Role of reciprocity and innovativeness on performance in a developing context: empirical evidence from Africa2018In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID), ISSN 2042-1338, E-ISSN 2042-1346, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 69-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, investors tend to invest when likelihood of success is high. Many investors consider Africa as one market and neglect individual differences among African countries. Africa is mostly considered a high-risk market and conceptually innovativeness involves uncertainty, which precedes risk. However, it is known that when uncertainty is high there is a stronger correspondence between innovativeness and performance. As uncertainty is high in Africa, this paper claims that it is plausible to find correspondence between innovativeness and performance. This argument is developed since investors typically cope with uncertainty by networking on a reciprocal basis and preferring munificent markets. This link leads us to ask if innovativeness mediates the effect of relatively rich/poor environmental munificence and reciprocal exchange on performance in South Sudan (S. Sudan) and Tanzania. A tested model reveals that four components and an underlying 12 different observations are equivalent across both countries. Furthermore, a tested structural model confirms that the business logic of investors is quite different in S. Sudan and Tanzania. Innovativeness completely mediates effects of reciprocity and munificence on performance in Tanzania but not in S. Sudan. We found some support for the relationship between reciprocity and innovativeness but no support for munificence on innovativeness and performance.

  • 30.
    Mubarak, Namra
    et al.
    Capital University of Science and Technology, Pakistan; Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Khan, Jabran
    Cardiff School of Management, Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lord of the Flies in project-based organizations: The Role of Passive Leadership on Creativity and Project Success2023In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Mubarak, Namra
    et al.
    Cardiff Metropolitan University.
    Khan, Jabran
    Cardiff Metropolitan University.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Roadmap to Achieve Green Project Performance: The Role of Knowledge Co‑creation2024In: Journal of the Knowledge Economy, ISSN 1868-7865, E-ISSN 1868-7873, Vol. 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study has attempted to identify the factors that can contribute toward green project performance. Based on the social exchange theory, the current study highlights that green leadership directs and promotes green vision, bringing everyone on the same page to improve the green performance of the project. The mediating and moderating mechanisms of green creativity and co-creation have also been discussed. Utilizing the data from the development projects, the study tested the antecedents of green project performance by collecting data from 231 project employees in three waves. The study’s findings confirm the importance of green leadership to achieve green project performance. Green co-creation does not moderate the relationship between green leadership and green creativity. It is essential to identify the factors that can help us deal with the energy crises. Roadmap to achieve green project performance through green leadership is highlighted in this study along with the intervening mechanisms. This study provides guidelines to practitioners that green competitive advantage can be achieved by empowering employees under green leaders through motivation and inspiration. 

  • 32. Nordquist, Matthias
    et al.
    Picard, Robert
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Industry associations as change agents: The institutional roles of newspaper associations2010In: Journal of Media Business Studies, ISSN 1652-2354, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 51-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the institutional roles of industryassociations, employing institutional theory to identify and characterizethe roles of leading associations in the newspaper industry. Using fourleading newspaper associations as cases, the authors explore associationfunctions evidenced through interviews with their key executives. Thepaper finds that the association leaders tended to emphasize normativefunctions, while associations’ operational executives tended to focus onmimetic and coercive functions.

  • 33.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Network Capability, Innovativeness, and Performance: A Multidimensional Extension for Entrepreneurship2017In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 94-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and start-up firms in the high-tech industry usually engage in networking to overcome resource, knowledge, and competence constraints in creative, innovation-based competition. Quite often, however, network relationships fail due to lack of network capability (NC), defined as the ability to manage and gain benefits from external relationships. In the present study, we propose and examine an updated five-dimension NC construct and test its effect on innovativeness and performance. Two independent high-tech samples of small firms and start-ups support measurement properties of the proposed NC construct and suggest that the often-overlooked dimension in NC research of network relationship building is important to include in a complete NC construct. Doing so can help explain organizational innovativeness and effects on the customer, sales, and innovation performance more effectively. As a result, we find support for the proposed NC scale and the importance of network capabilities for small companies and start-ups to remain competitive.

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  • 34.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Advances in Modern Tourism Research Economic Perspectives: Economic perspectives2009In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 249-250Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Lärande, innovationsförmåga och prestation2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreläsning vid Mälardalens Högskola i Västerås

  • 36.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Audit independence2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Creative cities, cultural clusters and local economic development: Edited by Philip Cooke and Luciana Lazzeretti2008In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 626-628Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Industrial Organisation.
    Development of relationships in interorganizational networks: studies in the tourism and construction industries2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A firm is a type of organizational arrangement often involved in interorganizational networks. Typically, interorganizational networks are the outcome of individuals in firms working together in cooperative groups. Through these individuals firms establish both formal and social relationships. The individuals develop lasting relationships because they share time, interests, goals, industrial, geographical or some other type of relatedness. Shared goals and interests of the relationship become an observable unit built upon various constructs. Interorganizational networks typically involve one or several different types of relationship constructs. This thesis elaborates on different relationship constructs and proposes different roles for each construct. All relationships are studied at a firm level since managers are considered key informants for the firm. The overall research question is: How do relationships in interorganizational networks develop? The main objective is to examine the development of these relationships in interorganizational networks. The approach is to synthesize 10 essays on relationships between five constructs - reciprocity, trust, cooperation, interorganizational commitment and loyalty. The results indicate that relationships are based upon a long term orientation. Secondly, relationships develop from certain processes before interaction is initiated. These processes involve the influence of cooperative motives to enter interorganizational networks and preferences upon which potential partners are selected. Furthermore, the initial processes involving motives and preferences expand to include the development of relationships based on friendships, interpersonal commitments, reciprocity and trust. The ultimate outcome of this process is stability and maturity, which means relationships are sustained by dependencies, their initial objectives and the desire to protect.Dependencies are reflected in interorganizational commitment, which means the firms' future intentions and promises strengthen the relationships. The objectives interorganizational networks are founded upon motivate network firms to develop relationships based on cooperative strategies so that shared goals and decisions can be effectively pursued. Finally, the firms typically protect their relationships by developing loyalties. All models represent unique examples of potential relationships and some models are particularly important because they were purified so that convergent, nomological and discriminant validity criteria could be met. The results are consistent with but extend previous research and are considered important for future business studies in general, but particularly within the tourism and construction industries. A practical implication of the research is thus that in evaluating new opportunities, firms should carefully examine the characteristics of potential partners as well as how the partnership might influence the content of their relationships. Another practical implication is that trust and reciprocity should be viewed differently in building successful network partnerships.

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  • 39. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Evaluating prerequisites to collaborative strategic decisions: a simulated collaborative scenario of two actors2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper conceptualizes different grounds for collaborative decisions in order to forecast how different behaviors behave in a game-theoretical prisoner's dilemma (PD). Forecasting is facilitated by a simulated scenario between two actors. The paper views consequences of different behavioral strategies and underpins an evaluation through analyses of the game, and also presents a unique aggregated analysis modeling strategic behavior on the basis of game-theory. The paper suggests that game-theory could be a potential and powerful tool for researchers and practitioners struggling with the strategic dilemmas, i.e. trust-building versus opportunistic behavior in inter-firm cooperation. The paper outlines some strategic principles that may unsettle the dilemma situation through either social or formal contracts.

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  • 40. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Forming trust, commitment and cooperation under trying circumstances in peripheral tourism networks2005In: Proceedings, VIII Nordic-Scottish Conference on Rural and Regional Development, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 41.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Industrial Organisation.
    Hur utvecklar små och medelstora turismföretag interorganisatoriska förbund?: en validerad strukturell ekvationsmodell2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan företag som ingår i framgångsrika samverkansnätverk bygga interorganisatoriska förbund i perifera regioner under krävande omständigheter? Den här uppsatsen utvecklar en modell och testar empiriskt en enkät till 254 företag i två olika samverkansnätverk i Norra Minnesota (N. Mn.). Uppsatsen har två huvudsakliga bidrag. Först, genom att definiera sex återkommande problem för den här typen av "krävande" perifera regioner stimulerar uppsatsen till mer forskning på det här området. I det andra bidraget demonstreras en unik strukturell ekvationsmodell, vilken är indelad i fyra olika sekvenser. Sekvenserna baseras på sex olika konstrukt (begrepp konstruerade av flera element av engelskans construct), som är värderade genom att använda data från en enkät med krossektioner. Den första sekvensen innehåller två begrepp och mäter hårda samt mjuka motiv till samverkan. Den andra sekvensen innehåller grunder på vilka potentiella partners väljs. Den är baserad på hur viktigt förtroende är vid val av partner. I tredje sekvensen används två begrepp - förtroende i nuvarande relationer och reciprocitet. Den fjärde sekvensen utvärderar den slutgiltiga beroendevariabeln - interorganisatoriska förbund. Genom att föreslå sex propositioner ger uppsatsen nya utgångar för teoriutveckling inom den inbäddade litteraturen. Samtliga propositioner är genererade från teori, tidigare resultat eller en logisk argumentation färdig att testas. Efter det slutgiltiga testet visades att två av propositionerna kunde bekräftas och att två misspecificerade relationer kunde identifieras, vilket möjligen kan bidra till att lösa några av de utmaningar som ligger bakom personliga relationer i samverkansnätverk av företag. Förutom detta kan uppsatsen även bidra till utveckling av måtten. Samtliga mått baserades på tidigare teori men när interaktioner mellan begreppen studerades kan denna uppsats visa på mått som stöds av innehålls-, konvergent, diskriminant och nomologisk validitet. De teoretiska och praktiska implikationerna går till strategisk management av små och medelstora turismföretag verksamma under krävande omständigheter i perifera regioner. En sådan proper implikation, som även stimulera till mer forskning, är att etablering av varaktiga samverkansnätverk kräver några noggranna överväganden, där företag bör överväga motiv, val av partner och dess konsekvenser. När samverkansnätverk är implementerade omsorgsfullt, med hänsyn till personliga relationer, kommer företag att ha mer kunskap om vad de kan förvänta sig av relationen, vilket minskar risken eller i alla fall kunskapen om den, som i sin tur även har effekten att samverkan med större sannolikhet även blir varaktig.

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  • 42. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Interfirm network content analysis2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores and describes some directions within the field of interfirm networks. The directions correspond to an aggregation of 210 different papers in order to achieve a content trajectory. Papers analyzed are based on a collection from 1961 until July 2002 from a number of databases. The papers where categorized into different categories. The categories used in this paper are as follows: author; year; name of journal; theoretical base; approach in the paper; methods used; unit of analysis in the paper and focus of content. Further the categories are quantified in a number of histograms. The paper also includes an appendix which consists, except from the categories, also a column with some concluding remarks from the paper; proposals for further research and also a quotation in order to enable some kind of validation process for the reader. The findings are mostly descriptive but will reveal some interesting data about common research techniques and approaches used. The main contribution is to reveal and offer a platform for upcoming research within the area of network related research.

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  • 43.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Measuring project performance2024In: The Handbook of Project Management / [ed] Martina Huemann; Rodney Turner, London: Taylor & Francis, 2024, 6, p. 97-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Personnel- and action control in gazelle companies in Sweden2017In: Journal of Management Control, ISSN 2191-4761, E-ISSN 2191-477X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 107-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral accounting theory questions the role of accounting and how accounting constructs can support other organizational activities. This paper examines whether personnel and action controls and the perception of current growth mediate meaningful support of innovative ideas (i.e., innovativeness) on future growth. While some literature has supported innovativeness as a spontaneous process, this paper examines whether innovative ideas are supported by formal behavioral controls on current and future growth. The paper further develops and finds support for the notion that future growth builds on the relative confidence of current growth. This paper uses exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for construct validation and further tests mediation using structural equation modeling and the bootstrapping technique of indirect effects. The model testing is based on a survey conducted in Sweden with key informants from high-growth (i.e., gazelle) companies. A total of 150 usable responses were returned.  The results may stimulate further research as they show that the predefined hypothesis has different direct and indirect roles in the building of future growth.

  • 45. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Successful cooperation under trying circumstances2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46. Pesämaa, Ossi
    Turism för rika: ett nätverksperspektiv2003Report (Other academic)
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  • 47.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Bourne, Mike
    Cranfield University, United Kingdom.
    Bosch-Rekveldt, Marian
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kirkham, Richard
    University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Forster, Rick
    Cranfield University, United Kingdom.
    Call for papers: Performance Measurement in Project Management2020In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 559-560Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlin, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University.
    Reduction of Tension Effects on Partner Evaluation2018In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 425-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper examines how tension management as a means of achieving compromise and overcoming minor conflicts reduces the effects of the opportunism and bargaining costs of relationships on the evaluation of business partners. The paper proposes and tests a theoretical model with a full-information approach using structural equation modeling.

    Design/methodology/approach: Our dataset was based on 312 observations from a unique survey based on a business-to-business relationship sample in Sweden. The measurements reflect the effects of partner opportunism, bargaining costs, and tension management on partner evaluations.

    Findings: Our findings corroborate that partner opportunism and bargaining costs have a negative impact on partner evaluation. In addition, our model shows that tension management weakens the negative effects of opportunism and bargaining costs on the evaluation.

    Originality/value: This study offers evidence on how negative effects are reduced through intervening constructs. With most studies focusing on the positive side of relationships, this paper makes an important contribution to the literature through not only describing negative effects, but also how these can be decreased.

  • 49.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Engström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Juuso, Päivi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Nursing and Medical Technology.
    B2B procurement of alternative health services: An interview study of the ecosystem of key stakeholders2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Coopetition among nature-based tourism firms: competition at a local level and cooperation at a destination level2006In: 2nd Workshop on Coopetiton Strategy: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
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