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  • 1.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Wasimi, Saleh
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Flow Variation of the Major Tributaries of Tigris River Due to Climate Change2019In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 437-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq relies greatly  on  the  flow of  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris Rivers  and  their tributaries. Five tributaries namely Khabour, Greater Zab, Lesser Zab, AlAd- hiam  and  Daylia,  which  are  the  major  tributaries  of  Tigris  River,  sustain Northern  Iraq  Region,  a  semi-arid,  mainly  a  pastureland.  These  tributaries contribute about 24 km3  of water annually. The discharge in the tributaries, in recent  times,  has  been  suffering  increasing  variability  contributing  to  more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. This is because there were no dams constructed outside Iraq previously. For an appropriate appreciation,  Soil  Water  Assessment Tool  (SWAT)  model  was used  to evaluate  the  impact  of  climate  change  on  their  discharge  for  a  half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated  to  evaluate  the  impacts  of  climate  change  on  water  resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed that wa-ter resources are expected to decrease with time.

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  • 2.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater Zab River, Iraq2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 1384-1402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greater Zab is the largest tributary of the Tigris River in Iraq where the catchment area is currently being plagued by water scarcity and pollution problems. Contemporary studies have revealed that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, orecasts from six GCMs (general circulation models) with about half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and

    B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

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    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater
  • 3.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Diyala River Basin, Iraq2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 1059-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diyala River is the third largest tributary of the Tigris River running 445 km length and draining an area of 32,600 km2. The river is the major source of water supply for Diyala City for municipal, domestic, agriculture and other purposes. Diyala River Basin currently is suffering from water scarcity and contamination problems. Up-to-date studies have shown that blue and green waters of a basin have been demonstrating increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods seemingly due to climate change. To obtain better understanding of the impacts of climate change on water resources in Diyala River Basin in near 2046~2064 and distant future 2080~2100, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) was used. The model is first examined for its capability of capturing the basin characteristics, and then, projections from six GCMs (general circulation models) are incorporated  to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed deteriorating water resources regime into the future.

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  • 4.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Model-Based Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Isaac River Catchment, Queensland2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 460-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isaac River catchment, which is located within Fitzroy basin in Central Queensland, Australia is mostly a semi-arid region, sparsely populated, but rife with economic activities such as mining, grazing, cropping and production forestry. Hydro-meteorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and streamflow contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. The exposure of the economic activities in the catchment to the vagaries of nature and the possible impacts of climate change on the stream flow regime are to be analyzed. For the purpose, SWAT model was adopted to capture the dynamics of the catchment. During calibration of the model 12parameters were found to be significant which yielded a R2 value of 0.73 for calibration and 0.66 for validation. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDLCM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the Fitzroy basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario(A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. Precipitation predictions were mixed-reductions in A2 and increases in A1B and B1, and more variations in distant future compared to near future. When the projected temperaturesand precipitation were inputted into the SWAT model, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted worsening water resources variability.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Bhattarai, Surya
    School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Centra l Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Impacts of Climate Change on Fitzroy River Basin, Queensland, Australia: The Impacts of Climate Change on Fitzroy River Basin, Queensland, Australia2017In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 38-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of historical data of Fitzroy River, which lies in the east coast of Australia, reveals that there is an increasing

    trend in extreme floods and droughts apparently attributable to increased variability of blue and green waters which could be due to

    climate change. In order to get a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on the water resources of the study area for near

    future as well as distant future, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was applied. The model is first tested for its suitability in

    capturing the basin characteristics with available data, and then, forecasts from six GCMs (general circulation model) with about

    half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and about one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of

    climate change under three marker emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the

    future.

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    fulltext
  • 6.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sultana, Nasrin
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Water resources problems of Iraq: Climate change adaptation and mitigation2018In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 26, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is suffering from water scarcity, and future predictions indicate that it could get worse due to changing climate. Arguably, climate change is one of the greatest challenges onfronting this region it could have significant adverse effects on water resources and hence the environment and economy, particularly in the agricultural sector. This study considers possible adaptation and mitigation measures that could be undertaken in response to climate change. To overcome this problem,adaptation measures at farm and government level were conferred. Farm-level adaptation comprises adopting crop modification, soil conservation, irrigation, changing crop calendar and planting of trees. The government role is to ensure success of these adaptation measures. The government should get involved and support the farmers financially and technologically.

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  • 7.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model2017In: International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, ISSN 2010-376X, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 823-829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Zab and Lesser Zab are the major tributaries of Tigris River contributing the largest flow volumes into the river. The impacts of climate change on water resources in these basins have not been well addressed. To gain a better understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources of the study area in near future (2049-2069) as well as in distant future (2080-2099), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1979 to 2004 to test its suitability in describing the hydrological processes in the basins. The SWAT model showed a good performance in simulating streamflow. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. Six general circulation models (GCMs) from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 for periods of 2049-2069 and 2080-2099 were used to project the climate change impacts on these basins. The results demonstrated a significant decline in water resources availability in the future.

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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    Department of Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Recent Trends and Long-Range Forecasts of Water Resources of Northeast Iraq and Climate Change Adaptation Measures2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 1-19, article id 1562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been experiencing water resources scarcity, and is vulnerable to climate change. Analysis of historical data revealed that the region is experiencing climate change to a degree higher than generally reported elsewhere. The relationship between climate change and its effect on water resources of a region has been sparsely addressed in published literature. To fill that gap this research work first investigates if there has been a significant change in climate in the region, which has been found to be true. In the next stage, the research projects future climatic scenarios of the region based on six oft-used General CirculationModel (GCM) ensembles, namely CCSM4, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0, GFDL-ESM2M, MEROC5, HadGEM2-ES, and IPSL-CM5A-LR. The relationship between climate change and its impact on water resources is explored through the application of the popular, widely used SWAT model. The model depicts the availability of water resources, classified separately as blue and green waters, for near and distant futures for the region. Some of the findings are foreboding and warrants urgent attention of planners and decision makers. According to model outputs, the region may experience precipitation reduction of about 12.6% and 21% in near (2049–2069) and distant (2080–2099) futures, respectively under RCP8.5. Those figures under RCP4.5 are 15% and 23.4%, respectively and under RCP2.6 are 12.2% and 18.4%, respectively. As a consequence, the blue water may experience decreases of about 22.6% and 40% under RCP8.5, 25.8% and 46% under RCP4.5, and 34.4% and 31% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. Green water, by contrast, may reduce by about 10.6% and 19.6% under RCP8.5, by about 14.8% and 19.4% under RCP4.5, and by about 15.8% and 14.2% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. The research further investigates how the population are adapting to already changed climates and how they are expected to cope in the future when the shift in climate is expected to be much greater.

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  • 9.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources of Lesser Zab, Kurdistan, Iraq Using SWAT Model2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, p. 697-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kurdistan in northern Iraq, a semi-arid region, predominantly a pastureland, is nourished by Lesser Zab, which is the second major tributary of Tigris River. The discharge in the tributary, in recent times, has been experiencing increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. For a proper appreciation, SWAT model has been used to assess the impact of climate change on its hydrological components for a half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime.

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Techno logy, Central Queensland Univ ersity, Melbourne, Australia .
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Techno logy, Central Queensland Univ ersity, Melbourne, Australia .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Al-Adhaim, Iraq Using SWAT Model2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, p. 716-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SWAT model (Sediment and Water Assessment Tool) was used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources in Al-Adhaim Basin which is located in north east of Iraq. Al-Adhaim River is the main source of fresh water to Kirkuk City, one of the largest cities of Iraq. Recent studies have shown that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, forecasts from six GCMs with about half-a-century lead time to 2046-2064 and one-century lead time to 2080-2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

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    fulltext
  • 11.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of climate change impacts on water resources of Khabour in Kurdistan , Iraq using SWAT model2016In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, p. 1-21, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Khabour River is one of five tributaries of Tigris River and the first river flows into Tigris River contributing to Tigris Flow by about 2 BCM at Zakho Station. The area of this catchment is 6,143 km2, of which 57% are located in Turkey and 43% in Iraq with a total length of 181 km. Khabour River is the main source of fresh water to Duhok City, one of the major cities of Kurdistan Region. Hydrometeorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and stream flow contributing to more severe droughts and floods presumably due to climate change. SWAT model was applied to capture the dynamics of the basin. The model was calibrated at Zakho station. The performance of the model was rather satisfactory; R2 and ENC were 0.5 and 0.51, respectively in calibration period. In validation process R2 and ENC were nearly consistent. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDL-CM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario (A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. The projected temperatures and precipitation were input to the SWAT model to project water resources, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted deteriorating water resources variability.

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    Khabour
  • 12.
    Abbas, Zainab Dekan
    et al.
    Environmental Department, Urban Planning College, Kufa University, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jassim, Osama
    Environmental Department, Urban Planning College, Kufa University, Iraq.
    Locating Dam Sites For Water Harvesting: Case Study Of Najaf Province, Iraq2019In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, Vol. 27, p. 1-8, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle East is considered as an arid area. Iraq was an exception due to the presence of the Tigris  and  Euphrates  Rivers. After  1970,  the  flow  of  these  rivers  started  to  decrease  due  to  climate change  and  building  of  dams  in  the  upper  parts  of  the  catchments  of  the  rivers.  Now,  Iraq  is experiencing  water  shortage  problems.  Rain  water  harvesting  will  definitely  minimize  the  effect  of water shortage problems. In this research an arid area was selected (al Najaf) to find out the best sites for water harvesting using GIS techniques. The good agreement between the results from a simple GIS model  and  observations  in  cases  such  as  al  Najaf  Sea  is  indicating  a  promising  future  for  GIS application  in  hydrological  modeling.  The  present  study  proposed  a  function  formula  of  estimating suitable dam site using existing geographic information map such as the digital elevation maps. It is expected that it will save time, cost and work force. Finally, through the contour map of the study area, the lowest three elevation values at the governorate level were observed (20, 40, 60m). Based on these values, three possibilities were suggested to select the dam sites.

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  • 13.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Floods and Flood Protection in Mesopotamia2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 155-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesopotamia is a land where floods have occurred very frequently. Many destructive floods had been registered by historians, who noted also the food control schemes used in those times. Over history, many structures were built and managed, but this work was taken up again by the General Directorate of Irrigation which was formed in 1917 to manage floods and reduce as much as possible losses, in addition to the development of irrigation works. Plans were made to build a sophisticated flood control and protection system. Several projects were proposed, and since the 1950s they were successfully implemented. Many multipurpose dams were built to mitigate flood conditions in addition to their other functions, such as Mosul Dam, Dokan Dam, Derbendikhan Dam and Haditha Dam. Other projects which were solely planned for flood protection include developing and using natural depressions such as Habbaniyah Lake on the Euphrates River and Tharthar Lake on the Tigris River, to protect Mesopotamia from floods. Moreover, the southern marshes in lower Mesopotamia may be utilized for flood protection. This paper deals only with these natural depressions leaving the dams at the time being.

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  • 14.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Irrigation Major Systems on Euphrates River within Mesopotamia2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 199-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates River is one of the two rivers where the civilization and irrigation had started, many major irrigation systems are still operating for centuries. The most important advancement of irrigation within this area happened after 1920s, where new structures were constructed, new canals excavated, new pumps installed, and salt affected lands were reclaimed. The major irrigation projects in along the reach of Euphrates within Mesopotamia are, Great Abu Ghraib, Great Musayab, Hilla Branch projects, Kifl-Shiniafiyah, in addition to many other medium and small size projects. Besides, some important Barrages have been built for controlling water levels of the Euphrates for proper operation, such as Fallujah and Hindiya Barrages. There is a great need for more reclamation in the lower parts of this territory, as well alternatives are needed to avoid discharging saline drainage water to the Euphrates in some projects.

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  • 15.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Major Irrigation Systems on Tigris River within Mesopotamia2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 175-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several irrigation systems have been built at Tigris River basin within Mesopotamia plain. The upper part of Tigris at Mesopotamia is extensively exploited, and several major projects were constructed since the 1970s. These are Ishaqi, Khalis, Diyala Combined Reach, Nahrawan, Dujailya and Dalmaj. Other projects were partially developed, which are Middle-Tigris, Gharraf projects, Great Amarah and KutButaira. The important barrages in this part are Kut Barrage, as well, as the barrages in Amarah area which are of vital importance for irrigation and navigation. Shaat Al-Arab is one of the most important waterways in Iraq. This river has been suffered from water scarcity and riparian countries actions. Solutions for adaptation to adapt the situation were studied and planned carefully, but still there is need for more work to cope with the situation in Basra area.

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  • 16.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Soil Salinity of Mesopotamia and the Main Drains2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 221-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since early civilization and the farmers in Mesopotamia are suffering from the soil salinity. This problem had caused the transfer of power from the Sumerians to the Babylonians in ancient history. Great efforts and research have been made since the beginning of the 20th century to overcome this salinity problem. Experts have concluded that the main reason for salinity is the salt content of irrigation water and the shallow saline groundwater derived from the irrigation activities. General schemes were planned, which involve building a new system of drains in parallel to the irrigation network. The backbone of the drainage system in Mesopotamia is the Main Outfall Drain (MOD). Large works such as Musayab Main Drain, Main Outfall Drain, Great Gharraf Drain, East Euphrates Drain were implemented, but there are still large needs for much more work to be done.

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  • 17.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Harvesting in Iraq: Status and Opportunities2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 199-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water harvesting in Iraq is an old application with limited extent. Western Desert, Jazeera Desert and Eastern Valleys, are the zones were the water harvesting must be employed. Several water harvesting dams in Western Desert had built since 1970s, these dams are intended to provide habitat and recharge of groundwater resources. There is limited opportunity to recharge groundwater in Jazeera area due to existence of gypsum layers. Regarding Eastern Valleys, the experience of building water harvesting dams on the valleys manifested that sediments accumulation is the main obstacle to adapt this solution. Hemrin Hills considered as one of the most intensively eroded areas in Iraq, so, soil conservation and water harvesting development is important. Many small dams were built in mountainous zone in the last two decades, some are important for agriculture expansion, but there is need to evaluate the effects on large dams feeding. North-Eastern parts of Jordan, which has similar natural conditions of Northern Desert, had present a successful example of water harvesting development.  

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  • 18.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Barrages2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barrages are the early water resources structures that were built in the modern history in Iraq. The main function of the barrages to rise the water levels to feed the main canals of irrigation projects. Further, some barrages are functioning as a diversion structures during floods. The first built barrage and still in operation is Kut Barrage which opened in 1939, while the last one is Amarah Barrage that were opened in 2004. Some of the barrages are in good conditions, some are suffering from technical issues, and others especially at the lower reaches of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers getting insufficient maintenance. Generally, the upstream approaches need dredging of the sediments and small islands, and there is a need also for bathymetric survey of the rivers sections near barrages.  

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  • 19.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq, Irrigation2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 249-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along Tigris River reach inside Iraq, many large and small projects of irrigation were built. These projects depend on gravity flow or pumping. Starting from Jazeera project, then small projects downstream Fatah, where these feed by pumping. After Samarra scheme, the important Ishaqi project, then after Baghdad, the projects of Nahrawan, Middle-Tigris and Dalmaj. The most important branch from Tigris is Gharraf Canal which is not exploited yet, although plans were prepared decades ago. Downstream Kut Barrage, several projects are especially on the right side of Tigris. Finally, Shatt Al-Arab project which has a unique importance as it provides the solution for municipal need and save the orchards of dates in Basra.

  • 20.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Euphrates2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 169-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates River is distinguished with long existing irrigation projects, which had been developed in the 20th century after centuries of deterioration. One of the major projects a long Euphrates inside Iraq is Great Abu Ghraib Project, which is the largest reclaimed area. Also, Great Musayab Project, Kifl-Shinafiyah Project and Shinafiyah-Nasiriya Project are other major projects. The most important for which Hindiyah Barrage had been built is Hilla Branch that supply many projects on both sides of this branch. Euphrates irrigation projects need a lot of investments to develop the status of the projects and confront the continuous decrease in water quality of the river. 

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  • 21.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Tigris2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 201-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along Tigris River reach inside Iraq, many large and small projects of irrigation were built. These projects depend on gravity flow or pumping. Starting from Jazeera project then small projects downstream Fatah, where these feed by pumping. After Samarra scheme, the important Ishaqi project, then after Baghdad, the projects of Nahrawan, Middle-Tigris and Dalmaj. The most important branch from Tigris is Gharraf Canal, which is not exploited yet, although plans were prepared decades ago. Downstream Kut Barrage, several projects are especially on the right side of Tigris. Finally, Shatt Al-Arab project which has a unique importance as it provide the solution for municipal need and save the orchards of dates in Basra.  

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  • 22.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Tigris River Tributaries2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are five tributaries feeding Tigris River inside Iraq, on these many large and small projects were developed. Two kinds of projects can be distinguished, first the projects of complementary irrigation or semi-rain feed area for agriculture, and example of these projects is Kirkuk, Hawija, Eski-Kalak and small projects in mountainous area. The second group is the projects that depend mainly on irrigation, examples of that are the projects in lower Diyaa. Unfortunately, there was no exploitation of lands enough comparing with the available resources in Great Zab territories.

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  • 23.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Main Drains2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has a unique system of drainage. Soil texture, groundwater depth, water quality and other factors lead to the adaption of getting rid the drainage water away to the sea in order to control water quality. The system of drainage is not completed yet, however, the backbone of the system, which is Main Outfall Drain (MOD) was completed in 1992. Other main drains were completed and connected and others are still in progress of implementation where the most important drain after MOD is Eastern Euphrates Drain.

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  • 24.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Medium and Small Storage Dams2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 283-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many medium and small dams were built in Iraq. These dams are distributed in three major areas. First is the northern area where many dams built in the period after 2003, even there are some that built in 1980s. Second, is the dams built in the eastern valleys, but these prove to be inefficient due to high rate of sedimentation even in the live storage. Third, is the dams in the western desert. These dams were  highly exploited in 1970s and 1980s to harvest as much as possible in this large and promising area and providing the livelihood conditions to settle people. The area has no more projects due to security issues.

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  • 25.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Reservoirs in The Natural Depressions2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 137-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq had suffered for centuries from devastating floods, causing heavy life and property losses and for occasions it demolished the civilizations. Since 1950s, Iraq started to develop several natural depressions to function as escape to mitigate flood waves. The projects of this kind which had developed are: Habbaniyah project, Tharthar project, Schweicha depression and Southern Marshes. The exploitation of these projects comprises building barrages, regulators, and dykes. For Tharthar and Habbaniyah, the diverted water re-used during drought season. Although, these depressions which serve as reservoirs provide invaluable role in flood protection, the construction of the existing and future dams will reduce the feasibility of these projects.

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  • 26.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Resources Projects: Large Storage Dams2019In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 109-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several dams were built on Tigris, Euphrates, and Tigris tributaries in Iraq. The construction of dams had been done in the second half of 20th century. Of the most critical issues confronting the large storage dams in Iraq are the liquefactions in Mosul Dam foundations, land sliding and earthquake effects in Darbandikhan Dam, and the essential maintenance and rehabilitation requirements almost for all the dams. Absolutely, large storage dams made Iraq surviving from thirst in several occasions. Unfortunately, after 2003, the attention or will are not exist pertaining the building of new or partially built large dams.      

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  • 27.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Groundwater assessment of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan region, NE of Iraq using vulnerability mapping2016In: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin is located in the northeastern part of Iraq covering an area of about 1278 km2 with a population of about 190,727. Groundwater is the principal source of water in this area. Agricultural practices within the basin are widespread and located close to groundwater wells. This poses imminent threat to these resources. DRASTIC model integrated with GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of this area. In addition, theDRASTIC model was modified using nitrate concentrations and sensitivity analysis to modify the recommended weighting value to get accurate results. The modified rates were calculated using the relations between each parameterand the nitrate concentration in the groundwater based on the Wilcoxon rank-sum non-parametric statistical test. While, to calibrate all types of modifications, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied. The standard vulnerability map of the studied basin classified the basin into four zones ofvulnerability index including very low (34 %), low(13 %), moderate (48 %), and high (5 %) vulnerability index, while the combined modification classified the area into five classes: very low (7 %), low (35 %), moderate (19 %), high (35 %),and very high (4 %). The results demonstrate that both modified DRASTIC rate and weight were dramatically superior to the standard model; therefore, the most appropriate method to apply is the combination of modified rate-weight.

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  • 28.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq..
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2020In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, article id 100276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

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  • 29.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Classification of groundwater based on irrigation water quality index and GIS in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, NE Iraq2016In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of groundwater for irrigation purpose is proposed using the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) within the GIS environment. The model was applied to several aquifers in the study basin. Water samples were collected from thirty-nine sites from both water wells and springs from the dry season (September 2014) and the wet season (May 2015). Samples were tested chemically and physically for several variables: EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+ and HCO3- and SAR. The accuracy and precision methods were applied to find out the uncertainty of the chemical analysis results and its validity of application for the geochemical interpretations. Based on the spatial distribution of IWQI, the groundwater quality of HSB classified into several classes of both dry and wet seasons in terms of its restrictions on irrigation purposes. The classes include, Severe Restriction (SR), High Restriction (HR) and Moderate Restriction (MR). The coverage areas of all three classes are 1.4%, 52.4% and 46.2% for the dry season and 0.7%, 83.3% and16% for wet seasons respectively. The considerable variations in all these classes have been noted from dry to wet seasons, this might be related to increasing the aquifer recharges from precipitation and decreasing the aquifer discharges by the consumers in the wet season. Then the model was validated based on the relation between the aquifer recharge and spatial distribution of IWQI, the result of this validation confirmed the outcome of this study.

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  • 30.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Lineament Density on Standard DRASTIC Model: Case Study in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2015In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 644-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is the most important source of water in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin. In this study, to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied. Due to the close relation between lineament density and groundwater flow and yield, the lineament density map was applied to the standard DRASTIC model in order to ensure accuracy towards the consideration of the effects of potential vulnerability to contamination. A lineament map is extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) satellite imagery using different techniques in remote sensing and GIS. The lineament density map illustrates that only six classes of lineament density can be identified ranged from (0 - 2.4). The lineament density map was rated and weighted and then converted to lineament index map. This index map is an additional parameter which was added to the standard DRASTIC model so as to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in HSB. The standard vulnerability map, classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the modified model classified the area into four categories as well: very low (28.75%), low (14.31%), moderate (46.91%) and high (10.04%). The results demonstrate that there is no significant variation in the rate of vulnerability. Therefore, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it confirmed that the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant because of suitability in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this verification, it could be claimed that the effect of lineament density is weak on the vulnerability system in HSB, because of its low density value.

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  • 31.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Using DRASTIC and COP Models: Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 741-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid groundwater from contamination, the groundwater vulnerability tool can be examined. In this study, two methods were applied, namely: DRASTIC (Groundwater depth, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil map, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and Hydraulic Conductivity) and COP (Concentration of flow, Overlying layer and Precipitation) to model groundwater vulnerability to pollution. The result illustrated that four vulnerability classes were recognized based on both models including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes. The coverage areas of each class are (34%, 13%, 48% and 5%) by DRASTIC model and (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) by COP model, respectively. The notable dissimilarity between these two models was recognized. For this reason, nitrate elements were selected as a pollution indicator to validate the result. The concentrations of nitrate were recorded in two following seasons in (30) watering wells; as a result, the substantial variation was noted. This indicates that contaminants can be easily reached the groundwater due to its suitability in geological and hydrogeological conditions in terms of contaminant transportation. Based on this confirmation, the standard DRASTIC method becomes more sensible than COP method.

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  • 32.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaiman.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP andTritium Isotopes2018In: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwatercontamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that are more vulnerable to pollution is incredibly vital.  The objectives of this paper are to reveal weight modified of DRASTIC model based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process to estimate the proportional likelihood of groundwater resources pollution. Tritium isotopes analysis was chosen and applied as a pollution marker to confirm the result of this adjustment. Based on this modification, vulnerability classes that were achieved for the studied basin were alienated into five classes, including very low, low, medium, high, and very high, with vulnerability index value of (<100, >100–125, >125–150,>150–200, and >200), respectively.

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  • 33.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models inHalabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017In: Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of European Water Resources Association ‘Panta Rhei’, 5-9 July 2017, Athens, Greece / [ed] George Tsakisis, Vassilakos A. Tsihrintzis, Harris Vangelis, Dimitris Tigkas, Athens: European Water Resources AssociationSSOCIATION , 2017, p. 1827-1834Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%).Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree

    and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

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  • 34.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using VLDA model in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq.2016In: IWA Specialist Groundwater Conference: Conference Proceedings & Book of Abstracts, 09-11 June 2016, Belgrade Serbia / [ed] Milan A. Dimkic, Belgrade: Jaroslav Cerni Institute for the Development of Water Resources , 2016, p. 72-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater considered being the most vital source of water in several regions in the world. Specifically in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, groundwater plays an important role as one of the essential source of water supplies. Therefore, it needs to be taken care of. In this study, VLDA method applied to model a map of groundwater vulnerability to contamination. The VLDA models classified the area into four categories with different coverage areas: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration on two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

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  • 35.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Assessing the Vulnerability of Groundwater to Pollution Using DRASTIC and VLDA Modelsin Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, NE, Iraq2016In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 1144-1159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater plays important roles as one of the essential source of water supplies of the studied area. Consequently, it needs to be prevented from contamination. In this study, two methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC (depth to groundwater, net recharge, aquifer media, soil map, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity) and VLDA (vadose zone lithology, land use patterns, depth to groundwater and aquifer media) to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination of the basin. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the VLDA model classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high(53%) and very high (1%). The results demonstrate that there is a significant dissimilarity in the rate of vulnerability. Validation of the constructed maps is required to confirm the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration of two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB (Halabja Saidsadiq Basin) is capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability level acquired using VLDA model is more sensible than that attained from the standard DRASTIC method .In addition, the DRASTIC models need to be modified based on the land use pattern, which clarifies the role of human activity on the vulnerability system.

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  • 36.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

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  • 37.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE..
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017In: European Water, ISSN 1105-7580, Vol. 57, p. 353-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

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  • 38.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Magnitude and Direction of Groundwater Seepage Velocity in Different Soil and Rock Materials2020In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 242-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand and anticipate flow in various groundwater media, the magnitude and direction of groundwater flow velocity must be deemed. The studied area which is called Halabja-Sadiq Basin is in the northeastern part of Iraq and covers an area of approximately 128,000 square hectometers. There are several groundwater aquifers in this region that supply nearly over 90% of all water needs. Subsequently, it is of highly requirement to identify various groundwater behaviors in the area. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and direction of the groundwater seepage velocity with the aid of groundwater tool in Geographic Information System technology. Refer to the results of this analysis, the magnitude value of groundwater flow velocity ranged from 0 to 51 m/d, whilst the general flow movement is from the eastern part to the western part of the study area. The factor governing the direction of flow and velocity magnitude indicates the direction of dipping of the geological formation strata, the high head of groundwater in the eastern part, and the low transmissivity properties of aquifer materials in the western part.

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  • 39.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Salahalddin, Ali
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of Agricultural activities on Groundwater Vulnerability: Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2015In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 23, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the main sources of water in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin of northeast Iraq. It covers an area of 1278 square kilometers with population of about 190,727.In this study, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin. In addition, two different scenes of landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were used with the aid of ERDAS IMAGINE software and the GIS technique to prepare digital image classification of the study basin. Supervised classification for level I of USGS was conducted with band combination RGB/742 to prepare The Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) map. The LULC map illustrates that only five classes of land use can be identified these are: barren, agricultural, vegetation, urban and wet land or water body. The LULC map converted to LULC index map. This index map has an additional parameter added to the standard DRASTIC model to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in the study basin. Nitrate concentration analysis was selected and added as a pollution indicator to validate this modification. In this study, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells. The standard vulnerability map of the studied basin classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the combined modification classified the area into five classes: very low (1.17%), low (36.82%), moderate (17.57%), high (43.42%) and very high (1.02%). The results s that the modified DRASTIC model was dramatically superior to the standard model; therefore, the most appropriate method to apply is the combination of standard DRASTIC model with LULC index map. This conclusion is based on the results of nitrate content, as its concentration in the dry season is much lower than in the wet season.

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  • 40.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    et al.
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Evaluation of Water quality in the Tigris River within Baghdad, Iraq using Multivariate Statistical Techniques2019In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1294, article id 072025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concentrated on the Tigris River water quality monitoring information. Some multivariate statistical techniques were applied like basic Ingredient (PC) test, discriminant analysis (DA), multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) to evaluate important parameters affecting water quality during year 2017-2018. The study included 25 water quality parameters, viz., Temperature (T), Potential of Hydrogen (pH), Turbidity (Tur), Total Alkaline (TA), Full rigidity (TH), Calcium (Ca+2), Chloride (Cl-1), Magnesium (Mg+2), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sulfate (SO4-2), Total Solids (TS), Suspended Solids (SS), Iron (Fe+2), Fluoride (F-1), Aluminum (Al+3), Nitrite (NO2-1), Nitrate (NO3-1), Silica (SiO2), Phosphate (PO4-3), Ammonia (NH3), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Sodium (Na+1), and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Generally, all the parameters were within the standards except Tur, TA, Ca+2, EC, SO4-2. The levels of Tur and EC are of critical factors influence upon the Tigris water quality. The PCA identified six principal components responsible for 78.12% of the variation caused by the industrial, domestic, municipal and agricultural runoff pollution sources. DA results produced the eight parameters; T, BOD5, EC, Mg+2, DO, Tur, Na+1, and COD as the most significant parameters differentiating the two parts of the year (the cold and warm seasons). The result of MLRA showed that BOD5, Na+1, T, DO, and PO4-3 are the important dependable factors for predicting the COD value as an indicator of organic and nonorganic pollution. This research demonstrated success importance utilizing Multivariate statistical methods like valuable instrument of administration, control, and preserve the water of the river.

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  • 41.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    et al.
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Kadhum, Safaa A
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq .
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Bioaccumulation and health risk assessment of severe metal pollution of street dust from various urban regions in Baghdad, Iraq2020In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 158, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study sought to define the metals bioaccumulation from street dust in Baghdad, Iraq for the first time. The samples were collected that research the levels, sources, and health hazard model Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The geo accumulation Index (Igeo) found that the contamination level for Cd was moderately to strongly polluted in Karada, Jihad and Kinidi streets. Hence, it is important to measure the level of cadmium in the local environment. The relative bioaccumulation of chromium was high in Jadriyah Street (87.2%). The PCA showed two major sources of these minerals in Baghdad road dust that Cd, Zn are likely to originate from tire wear, brake wear and vehicular emissions as well as the fact that Cr and Cu originate from metal-processing industries. Assessing hazard to human health utilized measure population show suggested both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic hazards minerals Baghdad road dust harmless to human environment.

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  • 42.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Agriculture and Irrigation of Al-Sawad during the Early Islamic Period and Baghdad Irrigation: The Booming Period2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 159-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As time progressed Iraq witnessed the transfer of power from the hands of the Umayyad dynasty in Syria to the Abbasids who established their State in Iraq. The following developments are detailed. During these days very little had happened with respect to land ownership, the question of Kharaj tax and even the agrarian relations between property owners, private farmers and the general peasantry. It may be assumed therefore, that at the start of the Abbasids period all the irrigation networks and infra structures were in good working conditions, and that all the required work force was available as the case had been in the Sassanid and Umayyad periods. The Abbasids may be credited for keeping the vast canal network of al-Sawad in good working conditions and they knew well that the major source of their revenue came from agriculture. Full description of the major canals, which had supplied the lands between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The five  main canals or arteries were all fed from the Euphrates and flowed in south easterly direction towards the Tigris where they poured;  so naturally they were used for navigation between the two rivers in addition to irrigating all the lands  here by vast networks of distributaries and branch canals and watercourses. The major part of these systems was inherited from the Sassanids and the Babylonians but they were kept in good working conditions all these centuries by good management and maintenance. These five major canals according to their sequence from upstream to downstream were called during the Islamic era as, Nahr al-Dujail off taking from the Euphrates at a short distance above Anbar, followed by Nahr Isa, Nahr Sarsar, Nahr al- Malik, and finally Nahr Kutha. The Euphrates River itself bifurcated at its downstream reach to two branches whereby its eastern branch irrigated in its turn a very extensive tract of land in the southern part of al- Sawad with a complex system of branches and tributaries. In following each of these canals great deal of details are given on the agriculture of the various districts and the towns they had served, their  flourishing conditions and the prosperity they  had enjoyed. Khalifah al- Mansour built the new capital of the Abbasid State, Baghdad at the heart of the Sawad region. There was a vast system of watercourses which served Baghdad and its environ that had originated mostly from Nahr Isa is also treated not failing at the same time to describe even the minute details of the various quarters of the city and the markets they had served, which were all based on the writings of contemporary Scholars. The long and deep trench called as the Shabour Trench, which had extended from Hit on the Euphrates down to nearly the Persian Gulf was given its share of detailing as it stood some waterworks, which was meant for defense rather than irrigation. This stream was carrying the major share of flow of the Euphrates during the Abbasids period before it ended indirectly into the Batyiha. It gave however very large branch from its right hand side before reaching the site of Babylon which was called Nahr Nil. This important canal flowed in southeasterly direction and poured at the end in the Tigris in the same fashion as the previous canals did and similarly spreading irrigation watercourses all the way down.  

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  • 43.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Babylon in a New Era: The Chaldean and Achaemenid Empires (330-612 BC)2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 87-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new rise of Babylon is reported and its domination of the old world is described; when two dynasties ruled Neo- Babylonia from 612 BC to 330 BC.  First, the Chaldeans had taken over from the Assyrians whom they had defeated and established their empire, which lasted for 77 years followed by the Achaemenid dynasty, which was to rule Babylonia for the remaining period as part of their empire. Out of the 77 years of the Chaldean period king, Nebuchadnezzar II ruled for 43 years, which were full of military achievements and construction works and organization. Apart from extending the borders of the empire, he had managed to construct large-scale hydraulic works which were intended for irrigation, navigation and even for defensive purposes. He excavated, re-excavated, and maintained four large feeder canals taking off from the Euphrates, which served the agriculture in the whole area between the Euphrates and the Tigris in the middle and lower Euphrates regions. Moreover, he was concerned with flood protection and so he constructed one large reservoir near Sippar at 60 km north of Babylon to be filled by the Euphrates excess water during floods and to be returned back to the river during low flow season in summer. His works involved river training projects, so he trained the Euphrates by digging artificial meanders to reduce the velocity of the flow and improving navigation and allow the construction of the canal intakes in a less turbulent flows. It seems also that he had diverted the river during the building of Babylon Bridge and trained the Euphrates River penetrating Babylon by constructing riverside revetments. Nebuchadnezzar II had the foresight for building extensive defensive fortifications to secure the country against possible enemy attacks from the north and adding to the walls and fortifications deep moats filled with water for higher security. This was the case with the wall he built north of Sippar. It extended over the whole distance between the two rivers, and the wall around Sippar itself. Similarly, he had dug a great moat alongside the wall of Babylon, which he supplied with water from the Euphrates. Moreover, he had introduced improvements on the four large feeder canals and the extensive canal networks that belonged to them to be used as water barriers against the advance of any enemy troops. Building temples and grand royal palaces and the Babylon Bridge took part of Nebuchadnezzar’s attention and his name was linked with the “Babylon Hanging Gardens”, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, which he had built to please his wife. Description of the gardens according to historians is given in this book in addition to reporting the results of archeological digging of the supposed site, which can shed light on the irrigation method used to irrigate these elevated gardens. The flourishing agriculture and wealth and prosperity it had brought to Babylon during Nebuchadnezzar’s reign is described in details, and the active trading and commercial dealing it had generated is also treated. The first banking services in history related to this period, which was linked to one Jewish family known as “House of Êigibi” is described. This family continued to serve for very long time by collecting the land rents and water taxes for canals use for the government, in addition to concluding contracts and ratifying transactions for the public. As bankers, they gave farmers loans to invest in all types of agrarian operations and practiced money transfers between various cities which helped trading especially with large scale export and imports of the various crops. The Chaldeans rule of Babylon came to an end in 539 BC when Babylon fell to the Achaemenids attacks that were already established in Persia led by Cyrus II. Babylon, however, kept a special position between the various capitols of this empire due to its splendor and wealth. It served therefore as the economical capitol and the winter residence of the kings Achaemenid Empire for most of this period while its agriculture continued to generate a great portion of the empire’s revenue. The archive gave us information on the agrarian relations and the agricultural outputs in Babylonia at that period. During the Achaemenid times, as it was the case during the Chaldean times, irrigation systems in Babylonia were kept under close observation and good maintenance which kept agriculture at its best. The inevitable decline of this empire came in the end due to the rule of weak kings, conspiracies and palace intrigues, and finally the bitter defeat came on the hands of Alexander the Great who entered Babylon in 331 BC and kept it as the Jewel of his new empire.

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  • 44.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Epilogue2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 283-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In more than six centuries which followed the fall of Baghdad to the hands of Hulagu and his Mongol troops in 1258 until the establishment of the modern state of Iraq in 1920. The timeline of the country cannot be described but only as a sequence of tragic events in which this once most prosperous land sank into unending bloodsheds, destruction, constant retrogression and deep poverty. Calamities such as flooding, epidemics, locusts and famines did not spare millions of its population, and to speak of Baghdad only, the 1,000,000 who used to live there in the golden days of the Abbasids dwindled to merely few thousands at the turn of the twentieth century. The early stage of this severe collapse was due to the interference of the Mongols with the irrigation systems on which the life of people had depended. Admitting that the damage that was sustained during the Buwayhids and Seljuks times left these systems in dilapidated and bad conditions, but the Mongols managed to add more destruction so that agriculture diminished to small plots of lands, which could not keep up the large population anymore and made any effort of reform nearly impossible. Borrowing from the words of Stephen Hemsley longrigg in his book “Four Centuries of Modern Iraq” he says:

    “Most ruinous of Holagu’s acts had been the studied destruction of the dykes and head works, whose ancient and perfect system had been the sole source of the wealth. Disordered times, and the very silting and scouring of the rivers once let loose, soon made the restoration  of control the remote, perhaps hopeless problem today still unsolved”[1].

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  • 45.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    In Old Babylonia: Irrigation and Agriculture Flourished Under the Code of Hammurabi (2000-1600 BC)2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After two centuries after the fall of the last Sumerian dynasty of Ur in 2003BC, the first kingdom of Babylon did appear. The Amorites who were Semitic people who had lived in the west of middle Mesopotamia brought the collapse of Ur itself. They appeared as nomadic clans ruled by fierce tribal chiefs, who forced themselves into lands where they needed to graze their herds. There was no Amorite invasion of southern Mesopotamia as such, but the Amorites ascended smoothly to power in many places, especially during the reign of the last kings of the Ur III dynasty, and so the following Amorite dynasty took over the rule of long-extant city-states such as Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna, and Kish and also established new ones. After a brief periods of an Elamites and old Assyrian empire dominations that took place for only 46 years the Amorite kingdom was firmly established in 2004 BC in Babylon and continued until 1595 BC, known in Mesopotamia’s history as the "Amorite Period". Babylon became the major power in the ancient world during the reign of Hammurabi. It was from then that all parts of southern Mesopotamia came to be known as Babylonia. It was during the reign Babylonia witnessed the great care he had devoted to maintain and expand irrigation networks and keep the prosperity of the empire and even so successfully constructing new canals and dams. When Hammurabi established control over the whole region of Mesopotamia by 1760, and especially the city-states of Sumeria, he restored the irrigation canals there to their best conditions and brought water back to areas of the south that were previously deprived of it. His unification of the entire south and the lands north of Babylon allowed him to dig long canals to the various cities of these lands. The canal he called “Hammurabi-is-the-abundance-of-the-people”, for example, ran by Nippur, Isin, Uruk, Larsa, Ur, and Eridu, and covered a stretch of land extending for a distance of some 160 kilometers. These works brought economic development and increased the wealth of the population to unprecedented levels. Hammurabi’s achievement as a lawmaker is specifically highlighted; as he was famous for his “Legal Code” which he had promulgated.

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  • 46.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Man’s First Strides (The Prehistoric Era)2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first steps taken by Man in the long journey towards the establishment of the first known settled society. From the end of the last ice age to this, point which had taken 12000 years. The book explains the changes in climate, which made the first appearance of agriculture and the domestication of animals possible after many thousands of years of food collection and hunting for food. The first attempts to build settled communities are explained, which finally were calumniated in the establishment of stable settlements at the south of modern-day Iraq, where irrigated agriculture was practiced for the first time in history on the edges of its southern marshes. The people known as the Ubaid who were attracted to this place by the temperate climate and the rich resources of the land found such settlement as Ur, Eridu and Uruk. These people, explains the book, practiced irrigated agriculture and pottery and it was from archaeological findings of such pottery and the symbols engraved on them that their history became known to us. However, not having any form of writing, explains the book, the reason why historians had placed al- Ubaid people in the prehistory period, as they have not passed to us any documented written history. The beginning of history as defined by historians and ascertained by the author begins only with the invention of writing which was accomplished by the next People to live in this area who were the Sumerians.

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  • 47.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mosul Dam Full Story: Safety Evaluations of Mosul Dam2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 185-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is the second biggest dam in the Middle East due to the capacity of its reservoir. Since the operation of this dam in 1986, it is suffering from seepage problems in the foundation of the dam due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite layers under the foundation. This phenomenon has raised concern about the safety of the dam. Studies done during the recent years showed that grouting works can only be considered as a temporary solution at its best. It is clear now that while grouting must be continued search for long term solution must be sought if dam failure consequences are to be avoided. This must be done as soon as possible as the dam is showing more and more signs of weakness. It is further considered that the suggestions and recommendations forwarded by the team of Lulea University of Technology and the Panel of Experts in the Stockholm Workshop 24-25 May, 2016 give the most practical and suitable solutions for this problem.

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  • 48.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mosul Dam Full Story: What If The Dam Fails?2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 245-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are very important infrastructure to any country where they serve for different purposes. Unfortunately, they represent risks to life and property due to their potential to fail and cause catastrophic flooding. Recent studies indicate the possibility of Mosul Dam failure. For this reason different failure models were used to estimate the consequences of such failure. Almost all models applied gave similar results. It is assumed that in case the water level in Mosul Dam reservoir is at its maximum operational level the effected population will reach 6,248,000 (about one million will lose their life) and the inundated area will be 7202 square kilometer. This catastrophe requires prudent emergency evacuation planning to minimize loses.

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  • 49.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mosul Dam the Full Story: Engineering Problems2016In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 213-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of building of Mosul Dam project started in 1950 and it was referred to as Aski Mosul Dam. Since that time, number of companies worked on the site selection and design of the dam. All the above companies suggested that the dam should be Earth-fill type with compressed clay core but there were different views about the exact location of the dam, spillway and electricity generating station. Grouting was suggested to be performed under the dam, spillway and the electricity generating station. In addition, they suggested that detailed geological investigation should be performed before any construction activities. In 1978, the Swiss Consultants Consortium was asked to be the consultants for Mosul Dam project. The consultants suggested that the operational water level at the dam to be 330 m (a.s.l.) while the flood and normal water levels to be 338 and 335 m (a.s.l.), respectively. The work started on 25th January, 1981 and finished 24th July, 1986. The foundation of the dam is built on alternating beds of limestone and gysum. Seepages due to the dissolution of gypsum were noticed and after impounding in 1986, new seepage locations were recognized. Grouting operations continued and various studies were conducted to find suitable grout or technique to overcome this problem. The seepage due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite beds raised a big concern about the safety of the dam and its possible failure. It is believed that grouting will not solve this problem permanently

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  • 50.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Prelude2020In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing history is not an easy or simple task. Even historians normally approach it with caution and care to put the events in the correct perspective in time and setting. Trying to read history of a particular historical event and drawing the right conclusions is, however, an even more difficult work. Different motives may lay behind writing the history of a particular event which necessitates looking into it from different angles and trying to reach an unbiased conclusion. When I decided to write on the history of “Irrigation and Agriculture of the Land between the two Rivers” as an engineer, I thought that the problems involved are insurmountable, and maybe I should leave it to others. The challenge was very strong, and finally I decided to take it. The real problem was not in the absence of references, but on the contrary, there were so many of them that they needed to be scrutinized carefully. Archeologists who had dug in hundreds of sites in Iraq were so many, and their writings were so bulky for their work spanned well over hundred and fifty years. Many historians have also produced thousands of pages on the subject. In selecting resources, much weight had to be placed on primary older references whenever available. In all cases, I have listed the websites in which these resources are found; which is in conformity with the present-day intensive use of the internet to allow readers and researchers to refer back to these original sources for more details.

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