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  • 1.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale, UNU-WIDER, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra.
    Abidoye, Babatunde
    CEEPA, University of Pretoria.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Simbanegavi, Witness
    African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi.
    Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment2017In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 548-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    linear public good experiment adopted from Holt and Laury [1997. Classroom games: Voluntary provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 209–215.] has been employed to investigate strategic behaviour in pollution abatement among African climate decision-makers. The experiment consisted of three groups, of which groups 2 and 3 received one and two treatments, respectively. The first treatment entailed publicly disclosing the pollution of each member of a group by placing a corresponding colour-coded card in front of each subject, while the second involved the withdrawal of the public disclosure. Group 2 received the first treatment; Group 3 received both the first and second treatments in succession. We found that the untreated group (baseline) polluted more than the two treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the pollution abatement of the two treated groups. These results suggest that public disclosure potentially drives pollution abatement and that its eventual withdrawal does not obliterate abatement behaviour. We did not observe conditional cooperation but average pollution declined over time. Furthermore, individuals who thought it was unfair for Africa to reduce emissions polluted more. We also found that pollution levels differ significantly between males and females.

  • 2.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Zikhali, Precious
    Centre for World Food Studies (SOW-VU), Vrije Universiteit.
    Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in southern Africa?: A bioeconomic modelling approach2009In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 587-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mopane worm, which is the caterpillar form of the Saturnid moth Imbrasia belina Westwood, is like other edible insects and caterpillars a vital source of protein in southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which have alternative uses. With increasing commercialization of the worm, its management, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has been degraded to almost open access. This paper uses a bioeconomic modelling approach to show that for some optimal allocation of the mopane forest stock, the restrictive harvest period policy advocated by community leaders may not lead to sustainable harvesting of the worm

  • 3.
    Bashagi, A.
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    What actions could boost international tourism demand for tanzania?2009In: Journal for Studies in Economics and Econometrics, ISSN 0379-6205, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania recognises the potential of international tourism in accelerating socio-economic development, particularly as a supplier of foreign exchange, investment and employment. This paper investigates the factors affecting international tourism demand for Tanzania. The autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration is applied. Local tourism prices, tourist addiction, tourist income and the 2001 terror attack in the United States have significant impacts on international tourism demand for Tanzania between 1996 and 2006. The government needs to maintain macroeconomic stability, especially low inflation, if the country is to reap full economic benefits from tourism. To reduce sensitivity to local tourism prices, the tourism providers should put more efforts in diversifying tourism products away from the universally available ones. There is also a need to improve customer satisfaction to enhance tourist addiction for the Tanzanian experience. In this regard, there is a need to further train staff in the tourism industry, improve tourism infrastructure such as roads and hotels and aggressively market Tanzanian tourism products to the world

  • 4.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Econometrics, Public and Environmental Economics Research Centre (PEERC), University of Johannesburg.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Local communities’ valuation of environmental amenities around the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in Southern Africa2017In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 168-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to examine how communities value a variety of drylandenvironmental amenities provided by the Kgalagadi Transfontier Parkwhere there is an interest in limiting their access, both in order to protectthe environment and in order to make it more attractive for tourists. Thisis done using a choice experiment, which targeted households in theKgalagadi area. The values placed on environmental amenities byindigenous communities are estimated using a conditional logit model, arandom parameter logit model and a random parameter logit model withinteractions. The results show that local communities would prefer gettingincreased grazing opportunities and bush food collection. This is animportant policy issue in itself, and it also ties in well with on-goingdiscussions on how to compensate (or at least attach reasonable costestimates to) losses to local communities linked to environmentalpreservation policies.

  • 5.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Econometrics, Public and Environmental Economics Research Centre (PEERC), University of Johannesburg.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The determination of park fees in support of benefit sharing in Southern Africa2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1165-1183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sharing conservation revenue with communities surrounding parks could demonstrate the link between ecotourism and local communities' economic development, promote a positive view of land restitution involving parks, help address skewed distribution of income in the vicinity of parks and act as an incentive for local communities to participate in conservation even more. This article estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the appropriate conservation fee to charge visitors to maximize park revenue. The data were generated from contingent behaviour experiments on South African residents at KTP and three other parks deemed as either substitutes or complements for visitors to KTP. Our results suggest that there is sheer underselling of the recreational opportunity at KTP, which implies that there is room for generating extra revenue to support benefit sharing arrangements with the local communities. The conservation fees at KTP can increase by as much as 115%, thereby almost doubling current revenue after accounting for the drop in visitation which will be triggered by the increase

  • 6.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    The Effect of Land Restitution on Poverty Reduction among the Khomani San “Bushmen” in South Africa2016In: South African Journal of Economics, ISSN 0038-2280, E-ISSN 1813-6982, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the impact of land restitution involving the Khomani San “bushmen” in the Kgalagadi area of South Africa. It seeks to investigate the effect of land restitution on poverty reduction among the beneficiaries. We run two-stage least squares models of access to nature, per capita income and poverty status on the use of restituted land, among other variables. Our results suggest that the Khomani San beneficiaries have gotten more access to natural resources but that the use of restituted land has neither increased per capita income nor reduced poverty. In fact, the use of restituted land has contributed to increased poverty. Therefore, land restitution should become part of a broader, carefully crafted rural developmental strategy for it to be effective in reducing poverty. Otherwise, land restitution risks enabling indigenous communities to continue with their “traditional” way of life, and in fact thereby keep them poor.

  • 7.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Environmental-Economics Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Environmental-Economics Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    The valuation of biodiversity conservation by the South African Khomani San "bushmen" community2012In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 84, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restitution of parkland to the Khomani San "bushmen" and Mier "agricultural" communities in May 2002 marked a significant shift in conservation in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and environs in South Africa. Biodiversity conservation will benefit from this land restitution only if the Khomani San, who interact with nature more than do other groups, are good environmental stewards. To assess their attitude toward biodiversity conservation, this study used the contingent valuation method to investigate the economic values the communities assign to biodiversity conservation under three land tenure arrangements in the Kgalagadi area. For each community and land tenure arrangement, there are winners and losers, but the winners benefit by more than the cost that losers suffer. The net worth for biodiversity conservation under the various land tenure regimes ranged from R928 to R3456 to R4160 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Khomani San, compared to R25. 600 to R57. 600 to R64. 000 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Mier.

  • 8.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Securing benefits for local communities from international visitors to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1553-1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the scope for raising fees charged to international tourists in order to fund revenue-sharing schemes for local communities. International and Southern African Development Community tourists account for approximately 25% and 2% of the total number of visitors to South African national parks, with domestic visitors making up the remaining portion. Although small, the South African international tourism market is mature and accounts for a disproportionately large share (around 42%) of net revenue. To estimate visitation demand at the KTP and three other national parks, random effects Tobit Model was used. Using the estimated elasticities, the revenue-maximizing daily conservation fee was computed to be R1 131.94 (US$144.20) for KTP, which can be compared with the R180 (US$22.93) currently charged. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated that there is a possibility of raising fees at the other three parks. Sharing conservation revenue with communities surrounding parks could demonstrate the link between ecotourism and local communities’ economic development and promote a positive view of land restitution involving national parks.

  • 9.
    Fischer, Carolyn
    et al.
    Resources for the Future (RFF), 1616 P Street, NW, Washington, DC.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Sterner, Thomas
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    A bio-economic model of community incentives for wildlife management under CAMPFIRE2011In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper formulates a bio-economic model to analyze community incentives for wildlife management under benefit-sharing programs like the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in Zimbabwe. Three agents influence the wildlife stock: a parks agency determines hunting quotas, outside poachers hunt illegally, and a local community may choose to protect wildlife by discouraging poaching. Wildlife generates revenues from hunting licenses and tourism; it also intrudes on local agriculture. We consider two benefit-sharing regimes: shares of wildlife tourism rents and shares of hunting licenses. Resource sharing does not necessarily improve community welfare or incentives for wildlife conservation. Results depend on the exact design of the benefit shares, the size of the benefits compared with agricultural losses, and the way in which the parks agency manages hunting quotas

  • 10.
    Gelo, Dambala
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Koch, Steven F.
    Department of Economics, University of Pretoria.
    Decentralization, market integration and efficiency-equity trade-offs: Evidence from Joint Forest Management in Ethiopian villages2016In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 22, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant literature on Joint Forest Management (JFM) impact evaluation has concluded that it generally does not provide sufficient incentives to justify the costs that forest use restrictions impose on local people. However, there is a dearth of evidence concerning whether alternative JFM intervention with improved market linkages for non-timber forest products has similar implications. In this study, we evaluated the income and distributive effects of a JFM program in Ethiopia in which additional support was provided for improved market linkages for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Exploiting exogenous variation in customary rights across eligible groups of communities that participate in JFM programs, as well as using heteroskedasticity-based instrumentations, we identified the income and distributive effects of the program. Our analysis shows that the program has raised the income of the households who chose to participate by approximately 400 Ethiopian Birr or 26% of per capita expenditure; that result was robust to various specifications. We also found that this effect is largely driven by marketing incentives to use non-timber forest products. However, we found that the program's benefit is biased toward the upper end of the income distribution, a result that points to the inequality-reinforcing effects of the program.

  • 11.
    Karumba, Mary
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    The impact of microhydroelectricity on household welfare indicators2018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 663-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of small-scale off-grid renewable energy for rural electrification is now seen as part of the sustainable energy solutions. The expectation from such small-scale investment is that it can meet the basic energy needs of a household and subsequently improve some aspects of household welfare. However, these stated benefits remain largely hypothetical because there are data and methodological challenges in existing literature attempting to isolate such impact. This paper uses field data from microhydro schemes in Kenya, and propensity score matching technique to demonstrate such an impact. We find that on average, households connected to microhydroelectricity consume 1.5 l less of kerosene per month compared to households without any such electricity connection. In addition, non-connected households spend 0.92 USD more for recharging their cell phone batteries per month in comparison to those who were using microhydroelectricity service. Finally, school children from households that are connected to microhydroelectricity were found to devote 43 min less on evening studies compared to those without electricity. The findings provide interesting insights to some of the claims made for or against use of off grid renewable energy for rural electrification.

  • 12.
    Komba, Coretha
    et al.
    Economics Department, Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An analysis of factors affecting household willingness to participate in the REDD+ programme in Tanzania2017In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 244-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania has high rates of deforestation and forest degradation. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation is an important strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, asking households to reduce deforestation means asking them to sacrifice direct benefits from forests, such as energy resources. The REDD+ programme provides a way to compensate households. This study estimates households’ willingness to accept forest-use restrictions governing participation in the REDD+ programme and its determinants. The results show that households would participate in REDD+ if the programme were to compensate them with an average of USD 2072 per year. The determinants of willingness to participate are analysed using the Heckman sample selection model. The results reveal that awareness about REDD+ economic incentives, and that deforestation and forest degradation is not good for the environment, and the increased time spent collecting the most important forest products increased probability of household participation. Households that earned more from forest products demanded greater compensation to participate. The results further revealed that, once a household is aware of the programme and its incentives and decides to participate, it tended to demand less compensation. The Government of Tanzania is advised to (i) collect baseline data in order to differentiate incentives for households depending on their forest reliance, (ii) educate people about the relationship between REDD+ and climate change to increase the cooperation of the communities.

  • 13.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Wildlife management in zimbabwe: Evidence from a contingent valuation study2008In: South African Journal of Economics, ISSN 0038-2280, E-ISSN 1813-6982, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 685-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If communities living adjacent to the elephant see it as a burden, then they cannot be its stewards. To assess their valuation of it, a contingent valuation method study was conducted for one CAMPFIRE district in Zimbabwe. Respondents were classified according to their preferences over the elephant. The median willingness to pay for the preservation of 200 elephants is ZW$260 (US$4.73) for respondents who considered the elephant a public good and ZW$137 (US$2.49) for those favouring its translocation. The preservation of 200 elephants yields an annual net worth of ZW$10,828 (US$196) to CAMPFIRE households. However, the majority of households (62%) do not support elephant preservation. This is one argument against devolution of elephant conservation. External transfers constitute one way of providing additional economic incentives to local communities

  • 14.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Nielson, Daniel
    Department of Political Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
    Parks, Bradley
    AidData Center for Development Policy, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
    Strange, Austin M.
    Zhejiang University.
    Tierney, Michael J.
    Government, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
    ‘Ground-Truthing’ Chinese Development Finance in Africa: Field Evidence from South Africa and Uganda2016In: Journal of Development Studies, ISSN 0022-0388, E-ISSN 1743-9140, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 780-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    new methodology, Tracking Underreported Financial Flows (TUFF), leverages open-source information on development finance by non-transparent, non-Western donors. If such open-source methods prove to be valid and reliable, they can enhance our understanding of the causes and consequences of development finance from non-transparent donors including, but not limited to, China. But open-source methods face charges of inaccuracy. In this study we create and field-test a replicable ‘ground-truthing’ methodology to verify, update, and improve open-source data with in-person interviews and site visits in Uganda and South Africa. Ground-truthing generally reveals close agreement between open-source data and answers to protocol questions from informants with official roles in the Chinese-funded projects. Our findings suggest that open-source data collection, while limited in knowable ways, can provide a stronger empirical foundation for research on development finance

  • 15.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?2013In: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 80-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism in southern Africa is based on the region’s wildlife and nature assets and is generally environmentally sustainable, but the extent to which it contributes to other aspects of sustainable development — overall income generation or poverty eradication — is less well explored. In this paper, we use social accounting matrices to compare the economic impacts of foreign tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Overall impacts on GDP range from 6% (South Africa) to 9% (Namibia). However, South Africa’s economy is more diversified than its neighbours’ and more of the goods and services used by tourists and by the tourism industry are supplied domestically. Consequently, the impact per Rand spent is considerably larger for South Africa than for Botswana or Namibia. The poorer segments of the population appear to receive shares of tourism income that are smaller than their share of overall income in all three countries.

  • 16.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in southern African wildlife conservation?2015In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 95013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

  • 17.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lee, Youngsoek
    United Nations Environment Programme.
    Chiramba, Thomas
    United Nations Environment Programme.
    Mungatana, Eric
    Department of Economics, University of Pretoria.
    Kumar, Pushpam
    United Nations Environment Programme.
    Use of Market-based Incentives in Watershed Management: Driving the Green Economy through involving Communities & the Private Sector2016Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mungatana, Eric
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.
    Kumar, Pushpam
    Ecosystems Division, United Nations Environment, Nairobi 0010, Kenya.
    Lessons from applying market-based incentives in watershed management2018In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 1850011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Watershed management is a complex activity with constraints on funding and human resources in many parts of the world, and there is a need for global effort to identify strategies that can work. To complement regulatory approaches, attention is now also being given to market-based incentives because of their potential cost-effectiveness. This study seeks to provide impetus to the use of the most successful market-based incentives to promote sustainable watershed practices through strengthening and increasing direct participation by local communities and the private sector. To identify proven market-based incentives for use to catalyze local community and private sector participation, a review of a sample of 26 purposively selected case studies from different contexts in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas is conducted. In reviewing those case studies, emphasis is placed on understanding the threats to specific watersheds, the market-based incentives used, the countrywide policy environment, the outcomes from the interventions, the factors for success and failure, and the pertinent policy issues in support of upscaling and the uptake of appropriate market-based approaches. The study identifies seven key policies that Governments should consider to upscale and facilitate the uptake of market-based incentives to promote participation by local communities and the private sector in watershed management.

  • 19.
    Ntuli, Herbert
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Cape Town, South Africa. Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Jagers, Sverker C.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg. Centre for Collective Action Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Linell, Amanda
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg. Centre for Collective Action Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg. Centre for Collective Action Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Cape Town, South Africa. Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Factors influencing local communities’ perceptions towards conservation of transboundary wildlife resources: the case of the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area2019In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2977-3003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local communities’ perceptions of protected areas are important determinants of the success of conservation efforts in Southern Africa, as these perceptions affect people’s attitudes and behaviour with respect to conservation. As a result, the involvement of local communities in transboundary wildlife conservation is now viewed as an integral part of regional development initiatives. Building on unique survey data and applying regression analysis, this paper investigates the determinants of the perceptions of local communities around the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Our results illustrate that people perceiving the park as well-managed tend to have more positive perceptions regarding the benefits from the park, rules governing the park, and wildlife conservation in general. Household expertise on resource extraction, in turn, tends to make people more likely to perceive environmental crime as morally acceptable. Furthermore, the results indicate that if people perceive the rules of the park in a negative way, then they are less likely to conserve wildlife. Receiving benefits from the park has a positive impact on people’s perceptions of the rules governing the park, as well as on their perception of wildlife conservation in general, but not on perceptions about environmental crime. Surprisingly, perceived high levels of corruption is positively associated with people’s perception of wildlife benefits and with perceptions of that environmental crime is morally justified. There is also evidence of the role of socioeconomic variables on people’s perceptions towards wildlife. However, unobservable contextual factors could be responsible for explaining part of the variation in people’s perceptions. Our results speak to the literature on large-scale collective action since perceptions of wildlife benefits, corruption, environmental crime, park management and rules governing the parks, all affect local communities’ ability and willingness to self organize. These variables are interesting because they can be influenced by policy through training and awareness campaigns. 

  • 20.
    Ntuli, Herbert
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch .
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A Bioeconomic Analysis of Community Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe2017In: Journal for Nature Conservation, ISSN 1617-1381, E-ISSN 1618-1093, Vol. 37, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a bio-economic model to analyze wildlife conservation in two habitats adjacent to a national park by two types of communities in Zimbabwe. One community is made up of peasant farmers operating under a benefit-sharing scheme such as CAMPFIRE, while the other is made up of commercial farmers practicing game farming in a conservancy. Both communities exploit wildlife by selling hunting licenses to foreign hunters but with different levels of success. The park agency plays a central role by authorizing the harvest quota for each community. We formulate a bio-economic model for the three agents, optimize the market problem for each agent and compare the outcomes with the social planner’s solution. Our results show that the level of anti-poaching enforcement by the park agency is suboptimal, while anti-poaching effort exerted by the conservancy community achieves social optimality. CAMPFIRE communities exert more poaching effort than what the social planner would recommend. Our model shows that institutional reforms in benefit-sharing schemes could result in the decisions of CAMPFIRE communities gravitating towards the social optimum.

  • 21.
    Ntuli, Herbert
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch .
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Effects of wildlife resources on community welfare in Southern Africa2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 131, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the importance of wildlife in the portfolio of environmental income in the livelihoods of poor rural communities living adjacent to a national park. The results show that wealthier households use more wildlife resources in total than do relatively poor households. However, poorer households derive greater proportional benefit than wealthier households from the use of wildlife resources. Excluding wildlife understates the relative contribution of environmental resources while at the same time overstating the relative contribution of farm and wage income. Wildlife income alone accounts for about a 5.5% reduction in the proportion of people living below the poverty line. Furthermore, wildlife income has an equalizing effect, bringing about a 5.4% reduction in measured inequality. Regression analysis suggests that the likelihood of belonging to a wealthier category of income increases with an increase in environmental income. As expected, household wealth significantly and positively affects environmental income generated by households. This seems to suggest that wildlife-based land reform also needs to empower poor households in the area of capital accumulation while imposing restraints on the use of capital investments by well-off households to harvest wildlife.

  • 22.
    Ntuli, Herbert
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town .
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    The role of institutions in community wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe2018In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 134-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutions play a significant role in stabilising large-scale cooperationin common pool resource management. Without restrictions to govern humanbehaviour, most natural resources are vulnerable to overexploitation. This studyused a sample size of 336 households and community-level data from 30 communitiesaround Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe, to analyse the relationshipbetween institutions and biodiversity outcomes in community-based wildlifeconservation. Our results suggest a much stronger effect of institutions on biodiversityoutcomes via the intermediacy of cooperation. Overall, the performance ofmost communities was below the desired level of institutional attributes that matterfor conservation. Good institutions are an important ingredient for cooperationin the respective communities. Disaggregating the metric measure of institutionsinto its components shows that governance, monitoring and enforcement are moreimportant for increased cooperation, while fairness of institutions seems to workagainst cooperation. Cooperation increases with trust and group size, and is alsohigher in communities that have endogenised punishment as opposed to communitiesthat still rely on external enforcement of rules and regulations. Cooperationdeclines as we move from communal areas into the resettlement schemes and withincreasing size of the resource system. A very strong positive relationship existsbetween cooperation and biodiversity outcomes implying that communities withelevated levels of cooperation are associated with a healthy wildlife population.Biodiversity outcomes are more successful in communities that either receivedwildlife management training, share information or those that are located far away from urban areas and are not very close to the boundary of the game park. Erectingan electric fence, the household head’s age, the number of years in school andnumber of years living in the area negatively affect biodiversity outcomes. Onepolicy implication of this study is to increase autonomy in CAMPFIRE communitiesso that they are able to invest in good institutions, which allows them toself-organise and to manage wildlife sustainably.

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  • 23.
    Okumu, Boscow
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa. EfD-Kenya/School of Economics, University of Nairobi Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya. The National Treasury and Planning, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Determinants of successful collective management of forest resources: Evidence from Kenyan Community Forest Associations2020In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 113, article id 102122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The collective participation of local communities in the management and utilization of forest resources is now widely accepted as a possible solution to the failure of centralized, top-down approaches to forest conservation. Under such initiatives, communities in Kenya have organized themselves into Community Forest Associations (CFAs). Despite the proliferation of CFAs, forest conservation outcomes have been mixed. Little is known about the factors that influence the success of collective action in forest conservation. Using data from 518 households and 22 CFAs within the Mau forest conservancy, this study employed regression techniques to analyze factors that influence household participation in CFA activities. Further, the study investigated the determinants of successful collective action, as measured by the percentage of forest cover and the number of reported cases of vandalism of forest resources. The relationship between household participation and success of collective action was also established. Collective action is more successful where household participation is high, the associations are initiated by the communities themselves, the associations interact frequently with government departments, and the forest cover is low, among other factors. The factors that influence the level of household participation are also identified.

  • 24.
    Okumu, Boscow
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, School of Economics, Private Bag Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa. EfD-Kenya, School of Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The National Treasury and Planning, Kenya.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. University of Cape Town, School of Economics, Private Bag Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Welfare and forest cover impacts of incentive based conservation: Evidence from Kenyan community forest associations2020In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 129, article id 104890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether offering landless forest-adjacent communities options to grow appropriate food crops inside forest reserves during early stages of reforestation programmes increases incomes of low-income households and conserve forests. We consider the forest cover and household welfare impacts of a unique incentive scheme in Kenya known as the Plantation Establishment and Livelihood Improvement Scheme (PELIS). PELIS seeks to deepen community participation in forestry, and improve the livelihoods of adjacent communities. Using cross sectional data collected from 22 Community Forest Associations and 406 households, we use propensity score matching methods to evaluate the mean impact of the scheme on forest cover and household welfare. We also assess the heterogeneous impacts of the scheme on household welfare using an endogenous quantile treatment effects model. The results show that on average, PELIS has a significant and positive impact on the welfare of participating households (estimated between 15.09% and 28.14%) and on forest cover (between 5.53% and 7.94%). However, the scheme cannot be defended on equity grounds as it has inequitable distributional impacts on household welfare. The scheme raises welfare of groups other than the poorest and marginalized sections of the community. Our observations from the field blame elite capture for this outcome.

  • 25.
    Thiam, Djiby Racine
    et al.
    Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Environmental Economics Policy Research Unit, School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Kirsten, Johann F.
    Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria.
    Bourblanc, Magalie
    Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria.
    Implications of water policy reforms for agricultural productivity in South Africa: Scenario analysis based on the Olifants river basin2015In: Water Resources and Economics, ISSN 2212-4284, E-ISSN 2212-3717, Vol. 9, p. 60-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the water-reallocation scheme created within the National Water Act (1998) to analyze the impacts of water policy on farm livelihoods in South Africa. Based on one of the most water stressed catchments in the country, the Olifants river basin, we provide an integrated modeling approach combining water and agricultural modules to investigate the impacts of compulsory licensing and water market on crop production and investment made to improve water use efficiency. The model maximizes net farm profits and takes into account the characteristics of the agricultural sector in the region in classifying farmers between large-scale (LSFs) and emerging (EFs) groups, according to their land acreage, irrigation efficiency and historical heritage. Compulsory licensing is analyzed through curtailment of water-use rights from large-scale to emerging farmers. The water market is investigated to provide conditions under which farms trade water to complete their irrigation schedules. Our results show that, though compulsory licensing might promote a rise in emerging farmers and a re-balance of past riparian-based water allocation schemes, care should be given to the level of that curtailment rate in order to balance equity measures with efficiency objectives. Indeed, we found that the losses associated with water curtailment for LSFs are not entirely captured by the EFs. Therefore, beyond water policy, there are other factors, which also influence farms' profits and water use efficiency. The results also demonstrate that a water market provides a good opportunity to increase water use efficiency. The introduction of water market induces LSFs with good water storage facilities a possibility to trade their remaining water-use rights. It also offers EFs an alternative to diversify their water supply sources when they encounter shortfalls in amount of water allocated

  • 26.
    Thondhlana, Gladman
    et al.
    Rhodes University, Department of Environmental Science.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Dependence on environmental resources and implications for household welfare: Evidence from the Kalahari drylands, South Africa2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 108, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines dependence on environmental resources and impacts on household welfare among the indigenous San and Mier rural communities neighbouring Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa. Data on the various household income types, including environmental income, were collected through a structured survey of 200 households. Environmental income constituted 20% of the total income. The poorest income quintile showed the highest relative dependence on environmental income (31%), though absolute environmental income increased with total income.Poverty analyses showed that poverty incidence and poverty gap would increase by 13 and 7 percentage points respectively without environmental income. Gini-coefficient analyses revealed that income inequality would increase by 6 percentage points for all households if environmental income was excluded. The results generally suggest that environmental income is important for both the poor and the well-off, and wealth accumulation might be tied to resource use. There is a case for promoting sound environmental management, and sustainable and fair resource use in the Kalahari drylands in order to help pull more households out of poverty. Our findings also point to issues of heterogeneity in resource access even among indigenous communities previously thought to be homogenous. These should be key considerations for conservation interventions

  • 27.
    Thondhlana, Gladman
    et al.
    Rhodes University, Department of Environmental Science.
    Shackleton, Sheona E.
    Rhodes University, Department of Environmental Science.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Environmental Economics Policy Research Unit, School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: A pre-and post-land claim conservation and development history2011In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 24009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter-and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre-and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities

  • 28.
    Wheelan, Brendan
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Enhancing consumers' voluntary use of small-scale wind turbines to generate their own electricity in South Africa2011In: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, ISSN 1021-447X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether households and small businesses can voluntarily take advantage of the South Africa's substantial wind resources to produce their own power from small-scale wind turbines in a viable way. The viability of small-scale wind turbines used to displace electricity consumption from the grid is assessed by means of a financial analysis based on the internal rate of return method. The benefits of small-scale wind turbines output is valued at the grid power tariff which is saved rather than at the wind feed-in tariff rate. The analysis found the small-scale wind turbines to be robustly viable in locations with a mean annual wind speed of at least 8m/s, which is only a few of the windiest locations in South Africa. The competiveness of the wind turbines is seriously challenged by the relatively low coal-based electricity tariffs in South Africa. As such, the financial analysis also considers alternative scenarios where the turbines are supported by financial mechanisms, namely: a tariff subsidy; a capital subsidy and revenue from carbon credits. The analysis reveals that a tariff subsidy of between R1.00 and R1.60/kWh or a capital subsidy of between R25.95 and R32.330/kW or a carbon credit price of between R2.135 and R3.200 will be needed to boost the viability of consumer-based small-scale wind turbines in areas with a mean annual wind speed of at least 5m/s, which is considered to be above average. Thus, there is a need for subsidizing all producers of renewable energy including those who produce it for their own consumption as they equally contribute to renewable energy expansion in the country. A tariff subsidy is however likely to be met with both political and public resistance if it means that consumers have to cross-subsidize the tariff, while the significant funds required for capital subsidies might not be freely available. Carbon credit prices have yet to mature to the required high levels. Thus, the removal of distortionary support to coal-based electricity generation might be the only currently available alternative of enhancing viability of consumer-based small-scale wind turbines.

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