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  • 1.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Current and future trends in the European forest resource market: trade and competition issues2005Ingår i: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005 / [ed] L. Sjunnesson, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Increasing the use of forest resources: a result of a political mass psychosis?2005Ingår i: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    European trade of forest products in the presence of EU policy2009Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, nr Suppl. 1, s. 18-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the share of renewable energy is of principal concern for the EU energy policy. A number of policies have been adopted, and, in part, been implemented by the EU member countries. An increasing share of renewable energy implies an increasing utilisation of biofuels in general and of forest-based biomass in particular. However, in the EU, the endowment and uses of forest-base biomass are diverse suggesting that an increasing trade would become necessary in order to cost effectively increase the utilisation of forest-based biomass. The purpose of this study is to, in the presence of EU energy policy, quantify and analyse possible trade levels for forest fuels in the EU. Particularly, the consequences on trade after implementing the White Paper and the RES-E Directive are analysed. Investigating the European trade in forest fuels is important for understanding how industry sectors in the EU will be affected by the policies. The results suggest that the implementation of the White Paper and the RES-E Directive will increase the trade in forest fuels, resulting in total trade increases of up to 67 percent. Furthermore, the national net trading levels are possible to derive. Depending on policy implementation the results differ - a country that was net importing given the White Paper implementation can instead be net exporting when applying the RES-E Directive. The fact that the policy implementations will increase the trade may mitigate potential industry problems to secure the needed inputs. On the other hand, the integration of countries increases the possibility for some industries to increase their production even more, possibly strengthening any input scarcity problems. It is therefore not possible to generally conclude if a more integrated European forest fuel market, and hence an increased European forest fuel trade, will mitigate industry problems to secure their needed inputs or not.

  • 4.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Changes in European forest raw material trade: Consequences of implementing the RES2020 Directive2012Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 37, s. 150-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to assess possible changes in the European trade patterns of forest raw material arising from the implementation of the RES2020 Directive. The analysis is done by developing a partial general equilibrium model of the European trade in forest raw materials. The results suggest that the ambitious EU energy policy goal, stimulating the use of forest raw materials, will boost its trade. In the RES2020 scenario the total trade in by-products will increase with 61 percent – from 38 million to 61 million cubic metres solid volume compared to the baseline scenario. For logging residues the amount increases from 50 million to 104 million cubic metres solid volume – or by 110 percent in the RES2020 scenario compared to the baseline. Since the national goals in the RES2020 Directive are mandatory in contrast to the indicative recommendations stated in previous EU energy policies on renewables this study concludes that a more ambitious goal will inevitably affect the input competing industries. This stresses the need to thoroughly account for different aspects when evaluating the consequences of different policies.

  • 5.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Greening Industry: Essays on industrial energy use and markets for forest raw materials2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate market developments and policy issues that influence the environmental performance of the industry sector. The analysis concentrates mainly on the industry’s input use in the form of energy and forest raw materials. The thesis consists of an introductory part, and five self-contained papers. Paper I addresses important market signals and firm specific management practices that may explain differences in observed energy intensities across industrial firms. The paper combines interview statistics with secondary data on energy prices, output etc., that are used in a simple econometric model in which the energy intensities of 89 process firms over the time period 2004-2010 are analyzed. The descriptive results show a significant increase in firm and top management energy efficiency awareness. The respondents stress that increased awareness is due to rising energy costs. In line with this, the model estimations show that awareness will not have an effect on firm’s energy intensity. Instead, rising energy prices will significantly reduce the energy intensity. Paper II addresses the role of voluntary energy efficiency programs in the industrial sector. We expand on earlier work by explicitly considering the self-selection mechanism in these programs as well as the role of different management and decisionmaking practices for understanding program outcomes. The results show that the probability for choosing to participate in PFE as well as the level of self-reported energy savings for those who participate tend to increase with increased electricity intensity and electricity use. Different management practices also affect the probability of participation; firms in which the energy manager has fewer responsibilities and works closer to the CEO have been more likely to participate in the program. The above suggests that PFE may primarily have attracted firms that already have had plenty of experience with energy efficiency issues. Increasing the use of renewable energy is of principal EU energy policy concern. In this respect, investigating European trade in forest raw materials is important for understanding how industry sectors in the EU will be affected by these policies. Papers III and IV therefore, quantify and analyze possible trade patterns in forest raw materials in the presence of EU energy policy. Specifically, in Paper III the White Paper and the RES-E Directive are analyzed whilst the RES2020 Directive is of focus in Paper IV. The analysis builds on developing and employing a partial equilibrium model of trade in selected forest raw materials in Europe. In Papers III and Paper IV, the results suggest that the policy implementations will increase the trade in forest raw materials by up to 67 and 110 percent, respectively. Since the national goals in the RES2020 Directive are mandatory in contrast to the indicative recommendations stated in previous EU energy policies on renewables, Paper IV concludes that more ambitious goals will inevitably affect the input competing industries. Finally, Paper V provides a critical survey of previous econometric analyzes of supply and demand elasticities in wastepaper markets. A key finding is that the own-price elasticity of wastepaper supply is overall low (around 0.20-0.30). This adds to our understanding of the price volatility in wastepaper markets, and carries important implications for the impacts of – and the efficient choice between – price- and quantity-based waste management policies.

  • 6.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The European forest trade model: EU policy and the impact on forest raw material use2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a numerical simulation model of the European trade in forest fuels and analyse the possible trade levels for forest fuels in Europe following the implementation of EU energy policy. The White Paper and the RES-E Directive have been designed partly to support an increased use of forest fuels as sources for energy generation. An increased demand for forest fuels in Europe as a whole can imply higher forest fuel prices in some countries for which the aggregated demand curve shifts outward and the demanded quantity increases. An increase in European trade can both strengthen as well as mitigate national upward pressures on the forest fuel prices. Hence, investigating the European trade in forest fuels is important for understanding how industry sectors in the European economies will be affected by the EU policy. The analysis of policy consequences ex ante requires modelling. Since there are few existing models suitable for our purpose a new model needs to be developed. Besides outlining a new model, labelled the European Forest Trade Model (EFTM), as well as coding it using the GAMS software, substantial efforts were made to collect available European statistics on forest fuels. Since the available data generally were insufficient and the estimations made therefore were many, the results from the EFTM should only be discussed on a general level. Future research efforts should therefore aim not only at refining the model; it is equally important to provide the necessary statistical data and resolve any standardisation problems attached to this data. The simulations show that the implementation of the White Paper and the RES-E Directive will boost the trade in forest fuels, resulting in total trade increases of up to 67 percent. Furthermore, the simulation results show national net trading levels. Depending on policy implementation the results differ - one country that was net importing by- products given the White Paper implementation can instead be net exporting by-products when applying the RES-E Directive. The fact that the policy implementations will boost the trade may mitigate potential industry problems to secure the needed inputs. On the other hand, the integration of countries increases the possibility for some industries to increase their production even more, possibly strengthening any input scarcity problems. It is therefore not possible to generally conclude if a more integrated European forest fuel market, and hence an increased European forest fuel trade, will mitigate industry problems to secure their needed inputs or not.

  • 7. Mansikkasalo, Anna
    et al.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Market behavior and policy in the recycled paper industry: a critical survey of price elasticity research2014Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 38, s. 17-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this paper are to: (a) provide a critical survey of existing econometric analyses of supply and demand elasticities in recycled paper markets and (b) discuss a number of implications of the results from this work. Specifically, the survey adds to our understanding of the functioning of recycled paper markets, points towards some important policy lessons, and identifies gaps in the economic literature on recycled paper market behavior. The analysis builds on the scope, methodology and data used by 21 previous studies, which all estimate the own-price elasticities of recycled paper demand and/or supply. One key finding is that the own-price elasticity of recycled paper supply is positive but low (around 0.20–0.30). This helps explain the often high price volatility in recycled paper markets, and carries important implications for the impacts of, and the choice between, price- and quantity-based waste management policies. Finally, the analysis also suggests that future research should devote increased attention to different non-environmental market imperfections (e.g., market power, information asymmetries) that could discourage the uptake of recycled materials in the market place. A stronger research focus on recycled paper use in developing countries, not the least China, is also needed.

  • 8.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Uppsala universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Industrins energieffektivisering: styrmedlens effekter och interaktion2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energy efficient and low-carbon technology in process industries: Innovation, diffusion and the role of public policy2012Ingår i: 2012 9th International Conference on the European Energy Market, (EEM 2012): Florence 10-12 MAY 2012, Piscataway NJ, 2012, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the role of public policy in influencing technological innovation and diffusion in the energy-intensive process industries (e.g., pulp and paper, iron and steel etc.). We highlight in particular technologies that either reduce the industry's energy use or imply lower process emissions of carbon dioxide. This research scope is motivated due both to its societal relevance and the fact that it raises a number of important scientific challenges and controversies. Specifically, the paper discusses the role of two different theoretical perspectives for orienting the analysis of issues in technology policy: the neoclassical and the evolutionary approaches. The overall objectives of the paper are to: (a) provide a conceptual comparison of these theoretical approaches and their implications for the role and the design of policy intervention; and (b) discuss some relevant implications for spurring innovation processes by examining the experiences of two existing policies and one future technological challenge (CCS) in the Swedish process industries.

  • 10.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Mansikkasalo, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Energisystemets långsiktiga utveckling: En granskning av Energimyndighetens metodik för långsiktiga energiprognoser2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
1 - 10 av 10
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