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  • 1.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Actors’ Perceptions and Strategies: Forests and Pathways to Sustainability2015In: The Future Use of Nordic Forests: A Global Perspective, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 111-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how the future is handled by actors in the present. It investigates how actors’ perceptions of the future—its challenges and its opportunities—influence their strategies and actions. The chapter starts with a frame analysis exploring the visions of a range of actors relevant to Swedish forest sector development. It aims to describe major divisions in the debate on future forest use and on a variety of ways to deal with uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance. The analysis relates to international processes important to the Swedish forest sector and feeds into a discussion of competing pathways to “sustainability”.

  • 2.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Taiga Konsult AB.
    Coping strategies and regional policies: social capital in the Nordic peripheries : Country report Sweden2002Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Frame analysis, place perceptions and the politics of natural resource management: exploring a forest policy controversy in Sweden2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Institutet för Framtidsstudier.
    Politik och plats: om platsrelaterade föreställningar och deras betydelse i den svenska skogspolitiken2009In: Kunskap, föreställningar, natursyn, hållbar utveckling: om mötet mellan myndigheter, lokalsamhällen och traditionella värderingar, Uppsala: Naptek , 2009, p. 62-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Institutet för Framtidsstudier.
    Skogens kontroverser: en studie om plats och politik i norra Sverige2009Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Baker, Susan
    Sustainable Places Research Institute & Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University.
    Rist, Lucy
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Theorising pathways to sustainability2016In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 399-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Pathways approach, controversies over environmental and natural resource management are viewed as expressions of alternative, or competing, pathways to sustainability. This supports deeper understanding of the underlying causes of natural resource management controversies. The framework is composed of two elements: the STEPS (Social, Technological, and Environmental Pathways to Sustainability) Pathways approach and frame analysis. Many sustainable development dilemmas are played out in specific places and consequently, the Pathways approach is integrated with a place-based frame analysis. The resulting framework guides empirical investigation in place-based contexts. This theorising about sustainability science can be used to cast light on contested natural resource management issues, in this case mining in northern Sweden. By exposing the range of alternative Pathways to critical norms of sustainable development, we ascertain whether action alternatives are compatible with sustainable futures. The framework provides a way in which sustainability science can better understand the origins of natural resource management conflicts, characterise the positions of the actors involved, identify the potential for cooperation between stakeholders leading to policy resolution and judge what Pathways help or hinder the pursuit of sustainable development. In addition, it can enhance sustainability science by guiding integrative sustainability research at the project scale.

  • 7.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Competing pathways to sustainability?: Exploring conflicts over mine establishments in the Swedish mountain region2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 218, p. 402-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural resource (NR) exploitation often gives rise to conflict. While most actors intend to manage collectively used places and their NRs sustainably, they may disagree about what this entails. This article accordingly explores the origin of NR conflicts by analysing them in terms of competing pathways to sustainability. By comparing conflicts over mine establishments in three places in northern Sweden, we specifically explore the role of place-based perceptions and experiences.

    The results indicate that the investigated conflicts go far beyond the question of metals and mines. The differences between pathways supporting mine establishment and those opposing it refer to fundamental ideas about human–nature relationships and sustainable development (SD). The study suggests that place-related parameters affect local interpretations of SD and mobilisation in ways that explain why resistance and conflict exist in some places but not others. A broader understanding of a particular conflict and its specific place-based trajectory may help uncover complex underlying reasons. However, our comparative analysis also demonstrates that mining conflicts in different places share certain characteristics. Consequently, a site-specific focus ought to be combined with attempts to compare, or map, conflicts at a larger scale to improve our understanding of when and how conflicts evolve. By addressing the underlying causes and origins of contestation, this study generates knowledge needed to address NR management conflicts effectively and legitimately.

  • 8.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Sténs, Anna
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University.
    Alternative pathways to sustainability?: Comparing forest governance models2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sténs, Anna
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious studies, Umeå University.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)), Uppsala.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    SLU, Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå.
    The Swedish forestry model: More of everything?2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “The Swedish forestry model” refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

  • 10.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Institute for Futures Studies, Box 591, SE-101 31 Stockholm.
    Westerholm, Erik
    Institute for Futures Studies, Box 591, SE-101 31 Stockholm.
    Food, Paper, Wood, or Energy?: Global Trends and Future Swedish Forest Use2011In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a futures study of international forest trends. The study, produced as part of the Swedish Future Forest program, focuses on global changes of importance for future Swedish forest use. It is based on previous international research, policy documents, and 24 interviews with selected key experts and/or actors related to the forest sector, and its findings will provide a basis for future research priorities. The forest sector, here defined as the economic, social, and cultural contributions to life and human welfare derived from forest and forest-based activities, faces major change. Four areas stand out as particularly important: changing energy systems, emerging international climate policies, changing governance systems, and shifting global land use systems. We argue that global developments are, and will be, important for future Swedish forest use. The forest sector is in transition and forest-, energy, climate- and global land use issues are likely to become increasingly intertwined. Therefore, the “forest sector” must be disembedded and approached as an open system in interplay with other systems.

  • 11.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Westholm, Erik
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Future forests: Perceptions and strategies of key actors2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 154-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how key actors perceive the future of the forest sector: how they position themselves in relation to climate, energy and demography related trends. Actors’ perceptions of future challenges and opportunities influence their choice of strategy and action. Actors’ relative capacity to realise their visions, in turn, shape future forest use. Frame analysis is used to explore selected actor's perceptions and strategies and the existence of major divisions, i.e. frame conflicts. Empirically, the study is based on the case of Sweden as a typical boreal forest producing region. Actors’ perceptions of the challenges facing the forest sector diverge widely. Yet, most actors see the future of the forest sector as linked to broader issues of climate mitigation and energy transition. These issues trigger fundamental discussions about social change and the role of forests in future society. A major division separates actors who perceive biomass supply as unlimited, or at least not constraining, and those who stress scarcity and re-distribution of resources. This difference, or frame conflict, is reflected in actors’ forest related strategies and may fuel future forest debates and conflicts.

  • 12.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Westholm, Erik
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Transdisciplinarity in practice: aims, collaboration and integration in a Swedish research programme2014In: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, ISSN 1943-815X, E-ISSN 1943-8168, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 155-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Westholm, Erik
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kraxner, Florian
    Ecosystems Services and Management.
    Nordic Forest Futures: An Introduction2015In: The Future Use of Nordic Forests: A Global Perspective, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book focuses on how global trends are likely to affect the future use of Nordic forests. The aim is to contribute to a broad debate about future Nordic forest management. The book invites professionals in the forest sector, civil society organizations and decision makers to be part of a dialog about the opportunities, challenges, and trade-offs associated with future forest use. The book is produced within the Future Forests Research Program (www.futureforests.se), a major cross-disciplinary research effort to address future Swedish forest use in the light of climate change and an increasing demand for forest-related products and services

  • 14.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Fjellborg, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Fjällnära Gruvdrift?: Konflikter om vägar till hållbarhet2016Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Fjellborg, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Elenius, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Konflikter om gruvetablering: Lokalsamhällets aktöreroch vägar till hållbarhet : slutrapport2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvprospektering och gruvetablering kan ge upphov tilllokala konflikter. Syftet med den här studien är att undersökahur berörda aktörer och medborgare ser på fråganom framtida mineralutvinning och gruvetablering, vilketutrymme som finns för lokalt deltagande och inflytandei politik och regelverk, samt möjligheterna att hanteraeventuella konflikter med hjälp av dialog och samråd. Vihar analyserat tre gruvetableringsprocesser på tre olikaplatser i det fjällnära området: järnbrytning i Gállok/Kallak(Jokkmokks kommun), nickelutvinning i Rönnbäck/Rönnbäcken (Storumans kommun) samt guld, koppar ochjärnbrytning i Rakkuri (Kiruna kommun).

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download full text (pdf)
    Fjällnära gruvdrift
  • 16.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sonnek, Karin Mossberg
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mossing, Annika
    SLU, Umeå.
    Nordin, Annika
    SLU, Umeå.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Räty, Riita
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 2, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicting perspectives on forests has for a long time challenged forest policy development in Sweden. Disagreements about forest futures create intractable deadlocks when stakeholders talk past each other. The purpose of this study is to move beyond this situation through the application of participatory backcasting. By comparing visions of the future forest among stakeholder groups, we highlight contemporary trajectories and identify changes that were conceived as desirable. We worked with four groups: the Biomass and Bioenergy group, the Conservation group, the Sami Livelihood group and the Recreation and Rural Development group; in total representatives from 40 organizations participated in workshops articulating the groups’ visions. Our results show well-known tensions such as intrinsic versus instrumental values but also new ones concerning forests’ social values. Identified synergies include prioritization of rural development, new valued-added forest products and diversified forest management. The results may feed directly into forest policy processes facilitating the process and break current deadlocks.

  • 17.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sténs, Anna
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University.
    Comparing forest governance models.2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Forest Unit, Swedish Forest Agency, Umeå, Sweden. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Löfmarck, Erik
    Environmental Sociology Section, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Felton, Adam
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rist, Lucy
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Johanna
    School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Urban
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    From ecological knowledge to conservation policy: a case study on green tree retention and continuous-cover forestry in Sweden2019In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, no 13, p. 3547-3574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which scientific knowledge translates into practice is a pervasive question. We analysed to what extent and how ecological scientists gave input to policy for two approaches advocated for promoting forest biodiversity in production forests in Sweden: green-tree retention (GTR) and continuous-cover forestry (CCF). GTR was introduced into forest policy in the 1970s and became widely implemented in the 1990s. Ecological scientists took part in the policy process by providing expert opinions, educational activities and as lobbyists, long before research confirming the positive effects of GTR on biodiversity was produced. In contrast, CCF was essentially banned in forest legislation in 1979. In the 1990s, policy implicitly opened up for CCF implementation, but CCF still remains largely a rare silvicultural outlier. Scientific publications addressing CCF appeared earlier than GTR studies, but with less focus on the effects on biodiversity. Ecological scientists promoted CCF in certain areas, but knowledge from other disciplines and other socio-political factors appear to have been more important than ecological arguments in the case of CCF. The wide uptake of GTR was enhanced by its consistency with the silvicultural knowledge and normative values that forest managers had adopted for almost a century, whereas CCF challenged those ideas. Public pressure and institutional requirements were also key to GTR implementation but were not in place for CCF. Thus, scientific ecological knowledge may play an important role for policy uptake and development, but knowledge from other research disciplines and socio-political factors are also important.

  • 19.
    Westholm, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala.
    The Nordic welfare model providing energy transition?: A political geography approach to the EU RES directive2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 50, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Renewable Energy Strategy (RES) Directive requires that each member state obtain 20% of its energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. If fully implemented, this implies major changes in institutions, infrastructure, land use, and natural resource flows. This study applies a political geography perspective to explore the transition to renewable energy use in the heating and cooling segment of the Swedish energy system, 1980–2010. The Nordic welfare model, which developed mainly after the Second World War, required relatively uniform, standardized local and regional authorities functioning as implementation agents for national politics. Since 1980, the welfare orientation has gradually been complemented by competition politics promoting technological change, innovation, and entrepreneurship. This combination of welfare state organization and competition politics provided the dynamics necessary for energy transition, which occurred in a semi-public sphere of actors at various geographical scales. However, our analysis, suggest that this was partly an unintended policy outcome, since it was based on a welfare model with no significant energy aims. Our case study suggests that state organization plays a significant role, and that the EU RES Directive implementation will be uneven across Europe, reflecting various welfare models with different institutional pre-requisites for energy transition.

  • 20.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Conflict resolution through collaboration: Preconditions and limitations in forest and nature conservation controversies2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing competition over the world's forest resources will likely aggravate conflict, though conflict should not be seen as bad per se. As the challenge is to develop institutions and practices capable of handling conflict constructively, various collaborative approaches involving disputing actors are evolving worldwide. In Sweden, most such approaches pertain to protected areas and few involve commercial forestry. The reasons for the rise of different approaches to collaboration in protected areas and commercially managed forest lands are explored through a comparison of two conflicts embedded in different management regimes. The study suggests that actor interdependence is critical to how collaboration evolves. Interdependence is in turn affected by the institutions, discourses, and economic context in which the process is embedded. When contextual factors are unfavourable, power relations too unequal, and interdependencies between dominant and subordinated actors weak, the prospects for collaboration are slim. In an enabling context, in contrast, mobilization may alter power relations and interdependencies, making collaboration possible. This study suggests that the low occurrence of collaborative land use planning in many parts of Sweden may be related to the presence of strong economic land use interests, un-successful mobilization of weaker parties, and absence of enabling institutional and discursive factors

  • 21.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Political opportunity and mobilization: The evolution of a Swedish mining-sceptical movement2019In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 64, article id 101477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As demand for minerals is expected to increase due to the energy transition needed to meet climate targets, mineral exploration will continue intensifying. Surveys find that public acceptance of the mining industry is low, particularly in the EU, suggesting that mining conflicts may increase in both number and intensity. Conflict usually occurs in places where a significant number of local actors mobilize resistance against a mining company. Their success is dependent on the emergence of a broader social movement that jumps to the relevant scale of regulation, often the national level. Despite this, very little attention is being paid to the emergence of such a movement, as well as to the state and its institutions, in studies on mining conflicts. Most research into mining conflicts examines developing countries, while mining resistance is an emerging issue also in developed nations, not least in the Arctic. Understanding mining resistance is important in avoiding or addressing conflicts that can be costly for companies, communities, and the state. This paper explores the relationship between state politics and mining resistance at the national level, drawing on social movement research and the concept of political opportunity structures. The results show that confrontational mining resistance will grow at the national level when the state offers little access nor influence to mining-sceptical actors in either policy formulation or implementation, and where there is a sufficient number of simultaneously ongoing contested licensing processes. In cases where indigenous people are involved, weak or contested indigenous rights may also spur resistance.

1 - 21 of 21
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