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  • 1. Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Backe, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet.
    Byström, Arne
    Uppsala University, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computing Science.
    Liljedahl, Bengt
    Bosch Rexroth Mellansel AB.
    Comparing a knowledge-based and a data-driven method in querying data streams for system fault detection: A hydraulic drive system application2014In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1126-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of considerable interest in industry. Fault detection may increase the availability of products, thereby improving their quality. Fault detection and diagnosis methods can be classified in three categories: data-driven, analytically based, and knowledge-based methods. In this work, we investigated the ability and the performance of applying two fault detection methods to query data streams produced from hydraulic drive systems. A knowledge-based method was compared to a data-driven method. A fault detection system based on a data stream management system (DSMS) was developed in order to test and compare the two methods using data from real hydraulic drive systems. The knowledge-based method was based on causal models (fault trees), and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to build the data-driven model. The performance of the methods in terms of accuracy and speed, was examined using normal and physically simulated fault data. The results show that both methods generate queries fast enough to query the data streams online, with a similar level of fault detection accuracy. The industrial applications of both methods include monitoring of individual industrial mechanical systems as well as fleets of such systems. One can conclude that both methods may be used to increase industrial system availability

  • 2.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Increasing availability of industrial systems through data stream mining2011In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial product reliability, maintainability and thus availability is a challenging task for many industrial companies. In industry, there is a growing need to process data in real time, since the generated data volume exceeds the available storage capacity. This paper consists of a review of data stream mining and data stream management systems aimed at improving product availability. Further, a newly developed and validated grid-based classifier method is presented and compared to one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) and a polygon-based classifier.The results showed that, using 10% of the total data set to train the algorithm, all three methods achieved good (>95% correct) overall classification accuracy. In addition, all three methods can be applied on both offline and online data.The speed of the resultant function from the OCSVM method was, not surprisingly, higher than the other two methods, but in industrial applications the OCSVMs' comparatively long time needed for training is a possible challenge. The main advantage of the grid-based classification method is that it allows for calculation of the probability (%) that a data point belongs to a specific class, and the method can be easily modified to be incremental.The high classification accuracy can be utilized to detect the failures at an early stage, thereby increasing the reliability and thus the availability of the product (since availability is a function of maintainability and reliability). In addition, the consequences of equipment failures in terms of time and cost can be mitigated.

  • 3.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Backe, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Data stream forecasting for system fault prediction2012In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 972-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition among today’s industrial companies is very high. Therefore, system availability plays an important role and is a critical point for most companies. Detecting failures at an early stage or foreseeing them before they occur is crucial for machinery availability. Data analysis is the most common method for machine health condition monitoring. In this paper we propose a fault-detection system based on data stream prediction, data stream mining, and data stream management system (DSMS). Companies that are able to predict and avoid the occurrence of failures have an advantage over their competitors. The literature has shown that data prediction can also reduce the consumption of communication resources in distributed data stream processing.In this paper different data-stream-based linear regression prediction methods have been tested and compared within a newly developed fault detection system. Based on the fault detection system, three DSM algorithms outputs are compared to each other and to real data. The three applied and evaluated data stream mining algorithms were: Grid-based classifier, polygon-based method, and one-class support vector machines (OCSVM).The results showed that the linear regression method generally achieved good performance in predicting short-term data. (The best achieved performance was with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) around 0.4, representing prediction accuracy of 87.5%). Not surprisingly, results showed that the classification accuracy was reduced when using the predicted data. However, the fault-detection system was able to attain an acceptable performance of around 89% classification accuracy when using predicted data.

  • 4.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Data stream mining for increased functional product availability awareness2011In: Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011 / [ed] Jürgen Hesselbach; Christoph Herrmann, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2011, p. 237-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Products (FP) and Product Service Systems (PSS) may be seen as integrated systems comprising hardware and support services. For such offerings, availability is key. Little research has been done on integrating Data Stream Management Systems (DSMS) for monitoring (parts of) a FP to improve system availability. This paper introduces an approach for how data stream mining may be applied to monitor hardware being part of a Functional Product. The result shows that DSMS have the potential to significantly support continuous availability awareness of industrial systems, especially important when the supplier is to supply a function with certain availability.

  • 5.
    Johanson, Mathias
    et al.
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Johansson, Lars-Åke
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Turning an hourglass into a diamond: inter-organizational collaborative work in the enterprise of the future2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Johanson, Mathias
    et al.
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Collaborative innovation through distributed engineering services2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid advancement in information and communication technology in recent decades has presented new opportunities for carrying out sophisticated engineering work in distributed teams, using tools and techniques collectively referred to as Distributed Collaborative Engineering (DCE). This kind of on-line collaboration not only cuts costs due to reduced travel, but also fosters innovation in product development, by bringing together groups of people in collaborative teams with complementary competences, that would otherwise be difficult to realize. Moreover, the convergence of technologies for telecommunication and information technology now makes it possible for companies specialized in collaboration technology to deliver sophisticated services for DCE, which can be purchased by engineering companies on a pay-per-use basis. By outsourcing the installation, management and support of the collaboration tools, the engineering companies can focus on their product development projects while harnessing the full potential of DCE to become more efficient and competitive. We believe that this new way of conducting engineering work will be an important key to innovation in the future. In this paper, we analyze the requirements for delivering DCE as a service and describe the implications this has in terms of systems design, business models and competence requirements. Furthermore, in addition to the primary return on investment in DCE services, we cite cost reductions and reduced CO2 emissions as further benefits.

  • 7.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Marjavaara, Daniel
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Simulation driven processing function development, offering and operation2012In: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition IMECE2012: November 9-15, 2012, Houston, Texas, USA, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2012, Vol. 3, p. 1561-1572Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s industry, functional provision is becoming more and more important, necessitating increased simulation support. In this paper, the objective is to present a modeling and simulation approach for simulation-driven design (SDD) to support function development. The scope of this paper is simulation support for developing hardware equipment used in processing industry. The research is founded on industrial needs identified through two parallel interview-based studies in the Swedish process industry. Both companies explore doing business with functional products rather than hardware, in scenarios where the responsibility for and availability of the functions may remain with the service provider. One as-is and one future (to-be) scenario are presented. A decomposition of a general processing function (applicable to both companies) describes how the companies transfer machine input to output specifications. The decomposition includes customer and provider value and the paper demonstrates, as part of the results and based on the SDD approach, how that value may be increased through evaluation and prioritization. Additionally, the SDD approach shows that it is possible to identify a set of solutions which meet the specified requirements, supporting evaluation and prioritization of business offers and activities.

  • 8.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sandberg, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundin, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    State of the art in simulation driven design2013In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 68-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few decades, and in order to increase product development efficiency, simulations strategies have been developed to guide designers towards better solutions rather than to verify suggested and basically unevaluated solutions. Such approaches are often called Simulation Driven Design (SDD), which is of interest in this review. The objective of this paper is to show the research evolution of SDD and identify the state of the art in SDD methodology. The literature review comprises several hundred references, of which 79 are included in this paper. The results comprise the state of the art in simulation driven design including the history, various definitions, criteria and effects of using SDD approaches.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Editorial2013In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Functional Products - Goodbye to the industrial age2012In: Ericsson Business Review, ISSN 1653-9486, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 21-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Larsson, Andreas
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Elfström, Bengt-Olof
    Isaksson, Ola
    Information driven collaborative engineering: enabling functional product innovation2005In: Challenges in Collaborative Engineering: CCE '05 ; the knowledge perspective in collabotative engineering ; proceedings of the international workshop, 14th - 15th April 2005, Sopron, Hungary in conjunction with DDECS '05 / [ed] Gianni Jacucci, Interprint , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Pahkamaa, Andreas
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Goldak, John
    Carleton University & Goldak Technologies Inc., Ottawa.
    Pavasson, Jonas
    Mechanics of materials and structures: a simulation-driven design approach2011In: Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, ISSN 1559-3959, E-ISSN 2157-5428, Vol. 6, no 1-4, p. 277-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering product development has developed considerably over the past decade. In order for industry to keep up with continuously changing requirements, it is necessary to develop new and innovative simulation methods. However, few tools and methods for simulation-driven design have been applied in industrial settings and proven to actually drive the development and selection of the ideal solution. Such tools, based on fundamental equations, are the focus of this paper. In this paper the work is based on two cases of mechanics of materials and structures: welding and rotor dynamical simulations. These two examples of simulation-driven design indicate that a larger design space can be explored and that more possible solutions can be evaluated. Therefore, the approach improves the probability of innovations and finding optimal solutions. A calibrated block dumping approach can be used to increase the efficiency of welding simulations when many simulations are required.

  • 13.
    Kyösti, Petter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Reed, Sean
    University of Notttingham.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Andrews, John
    University of Notttingham.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Loughborough University.
    Simulation of industrial support systems in the context of functional products2011In: Proceedings of the 19th AR2TS Advances in Risk and Reliability Technology Symposium: 12 - 14 April 2011, [Swan's Nest Hotel, Stratford-upon-Avon, Nottigham: University of Nottingham , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Design for versatility: the changing face of workspaces for collaborative design2005In: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a fiercely competitive business climate, which is increasingly characterized by global alliances, partnerships and outsourcing agreements, companies struggle to decrease the negative impact of geographic distance on development efforts. The role of workspaces for collaborative design is gaining considerable attention, and there is currently an increasing interest in moving from individual tools or technologies to a more inclusive view of collaborative workspaces. This paper reports on the underlying motivation and justification for a new collaborative design studio at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. The studio provides a rapid-response environment, in which the significance of issues raised through ethnographic observations of engineering work can be evaluated and solutions offered.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Åkerström, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Computer visualisations in design for maintainability2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of research at the Polhem Laboratory is to develop technologies for product development and manufacturing through integration of design, development, manufacturing, materials engineering and maintenance in Swedish industry. Concurrent engineering, which is a central theme of this research, is instrumental for developing products with shorter lead times at lower cost and for adapting products for manufacturing and maintenance. One purpose of the work presented was to show its applications in the field of Design For Maintainability where computer visualisations might improve the early design process. Another purpose of this work was to use modern information technology, and especially computer graphics, to develop a method to visualize the disassembly / assembly of a mechanical product. An important feature of this work was that 'visualizations,' rather then plain animations, were to be developed; the difference being that visualizations includes information about tools, times and explanations as well as images of the moving parts. Integrating the use of conventional CAD-programmes with the use of animation programmes also makes it easier to use older models in new projects and thereby shortening lead times.

  • 16. Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Larsson, Andreas
    Project: Service Concept Design - NFFP2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The project aim at strengthen the aerospace industry competence within Functional Product Development. The approach is activity based modelling, simulation and visualization of hardware based services in the cocnept phase of the product development process.

  • 17.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Uppsala University.
    Kalhori, Vahid
    AB Sandvik Coromant, Sandviken.
    Helgoson, Martin
    AB Sandvik Coromant, Sandviken.
    Nyström, Mattias
    Masticon AB.
    Liljedahl, Bengt
    Bosch Rexroth Mellansel AB.
    Mäki, Rikard
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Uppsala University.
    A function innovation model for the manufacturing industry2016In: Journal of Multi Business Model Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2245-456X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-28, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the need for innovation in order to achieve sustainable growth and business development within the manufacturing industry, and further how that can be enabled by striving towards functions. Adopting an open perspective, the paper proposes a function innovation model involving academia, potential function providers and customers in order to create a long-term win-win situation between function providers and their customers.

  • 18.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A development process for Functional Products: hardware, software, service support system and management of operation2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 3/4, p. 284-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development process for a Functional Product (FP) is complex and there is a need to coordinate, monitor, control and share information as well as to communicate properly among the parties involved in the process. This paper proposes a conceptual development process to manage the FP development, including development of hardware, software, service support system, and how to manage the operation of an FP. Further, challenges related to the integrated development of FPs are also discussed.

  • 19.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Functional product development: what information should be shared during the development process?2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development process for a Functional Product (FP) is complex and there is a need to share information as well as to communicate it among the parties involved in the process. The paper concerns shared information that is of specific interest when developing FPs, in contrast to information that must be shared during a general product or service development process. The findings are compiled in a conceptual table comprising such specific information items pertaining to both the initial development as well as post development parts of an FPs lifecycle. This table can be used as an aid to any development process or method, as it points out information items that must necessarily be shared, but not how they to be shared.

  • 20.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet.
    Reed, Sean
    University of Notttingham.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    Use of Cloud Services in Functional Products: Availability Implications2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 16, p. 368-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the potential use of cloud services in Functional Products (FP) and its possible implications for availability. Further, how the implications for availability can be understood via modelling and simulation is addressed. The paper adds further specificity to literature by indicating the FP constituents for which cloud services are applicable and adequate.

  • 21.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Plankina, Daria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lideskog, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Functional product development: criteria for selection of design methods on strategic and operational levels2012In: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th-9th, 2012 / [ed] Yoshiki Shimomura; Koji Kimita, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, p. 25-30Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lindström, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Sas, Daria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lideskog, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Defining Functional Products through their constituents2015In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-24, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on empirical studies combined with a literature review, the paper proposes a comprehensive framework defining Functional Products (FP) through their constituents. The framework adds additional specificity to the literature by identifying and discussing existing and emerging constituents of FP, shedding further light on what is needed to create a long and trustful win-win situation between providers and customers in an FP context

  • 23.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A modelling and simulation approach for linking design activities to business decisions2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment of the manufacturing industry is changing from a hardware-based product focus to a process and function focus. A current industrial interest is the development and sale of functions. This function could be realised as a product based on hardware, software and services, and may be sold as a function rather than as hardware. This function view is referred to as Functional Products (FP). The new focus for the customer is on value rather than hardware. This presents new challenges for how engineering hardware design may best be carried out. Sale of functional products requires a changed business model in which the price of the functional product is related to the functionality of the product itself; hence the name functional product. The supplier can in such a scenario no longer sell maintenance and spare parts. Instead, these activities become a cost, thus motivating the supplier to increase process efficiency, decrease internal production cost by using less energy per produced unit and increase knowledge about use-cases. The researcher's challenge is how to create new knowledge regarding functional product development for academic as well as for industrial benefit. The research question was formulated as: How may methods or tools for design process modelling and simulation be developed to support functional product development? Four case studies were carried out in Swedish industry. Case study 1 was carried out in cooperation with Hägglunds Drives AB. Case study 2 was carried out in cooperation with companies Hägglunds Drives AB, Volvo Aero and Volvo Car Corporation. Case study 3 was carried out in cooperation Volvo Aero and Case study 4 was carried out in cooperation with nine industrial companies during the formation of the Faste Laboratory, Centre for Functional Product Innovation. Results include the need for integrating product development process and company strategy for functional product development and the identification of the need for new methods and tools to enable better understanding of technology and business processes. The research shows the possibility of evaluating cost and time of development before doing the actual product development work by modelling and simulating the design process. Thus, the knowledge that previously was implicit in the work process is made explicit and possible to manipulate for a desired outcome. Linking the future business cases to work processes by modelling and simulation enables knowledge re-use and work-process predictions concerning cost and time. Hence, modelling and simulation of work processes results in better knowledge of company development capacity earlier than before, thus allowing shorter reaction time to changes in the business domain.

  • 24.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Functional product development challenges collaborative work practices2008In: Virtual team leadership and collaborative engineering advancements: contemporary issues and implications, Hershey PA: Information Science Reference, 2008, p. 203-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing service-laden products in a virtual extended enterprise implies a wider distribution of resources and product development (PD) team members than what is the case today. In this setting, the challenge is getting a cross-disciplinary distributed team to collaborate effectively over distance using not only the tools available today, but also new tools and approaches. One such activity-based approach, based on an actual Volvo Aero service-provision process, is presented in this article. Supplying a physical product as part of a service contract within an extended enterprise demands increased speed and quality of the predictions the supplier wants to make in order to keep track of the product functionality, its cost effectiveness and lifecycle cost. One approach that has been proven in engineering is modeling and simulation, here implemented as activity-based simulation of an actual industrial work process that provides a maintenance service. The activity-based simulation approach is realized in the industry standard simulation environment MATLAB. It is created as a demonstrator of one of several future tools that may help a virtual extended enterprise to face the challenge of supplying function or services to the customer more effectively. Conclusions regarding Collaborative Working Environments include new requirements on quality of tools for supporting functional product development regarding knowledge availability, usability, security and interoperability. Conclusions also support the suggested approach concerning development of distributed, modular activity-based process simulation models as a suitable approach for supporting functional product development

  • 25.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Functional product development challenges collaborative working environment practices2007In: International Journal of e-collaboration, ISSN 1548-3673, E-ISSN 1548-3681, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an activity-based modeling and simulation approach to functional product development (FPD) is suggested as part of a simulation-driven CWE approach to meet the new demands that are placed on tools and methods used in industrial product development due to companies' transformation from hardware providers to function providers. The rationale for a simulation approach is discussed as well as the usefulness when applied on a process of work. An iterative data gathering and analysis process based on interviews and field notes is presented challenges for distributed working environment practices posed by the introduction of functional product development have been identified. They include four different and interrelated issues pertaining to approach, methods and tools, tolerances for errors and the ability to distribute new tools with extensive demands on usability and interoperability

  • 26.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Hardware design as a basis for functional product development2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment in manufacturing industry is changing from a hardware based product focus to a process and function focus. A current industrial interest is the development and sale of functions. This function could be realised as a product based on hardware, software and services and may be sold as a function rather than as hardware. This function view is referred to as Functional Products (FP). The new focus is on value for the customer rather than on hardware for the customer. This change creates new challenges for how engineering design of the hardware may best be carried out. To develop a functional product, several parties need to be involved in the particular project. These parties are suggested to be supplier, seller, sub- contractor, customer and end user. Since the functional product is not only consisting of hardware but also of services the relations between manufacturers and customers will change. Product development will be carried out in networks to an increasing degree where assignments, activities of, and relations between involved parties will be continuously changing. This thesis introduces the area of functional products and related literature from a hardware engineering design perspective. It starts from a holistic approach and introduce the area of functional products in relation to traditional hardware design and development. Product and process issues considered to be important are raised and discussed; value of hardware product versus value of functions, increased need for integration, communication and collaboration over cross-disciplinary borders, increased need for simulation support to be able to increase the predictability of design concepts. Simulation as an activity to verify the capabilities of the hardware product must be taken for granted in functional product business negotiation. Elongated needs exploration and identification stage are likely early on in functional product development. The concept verification stage in product development of functional products is suggested to increase until such times when integrated simulation support has been developed to support system simulation of functional products. Additionally, issues brought forward in this thesis include: -Suggestions on processes necessary for functional product development -Changes in value for the customer and ownership of the hardware with the introduction of the FP concept - Questions have been raised for how the engineering design activities actually will be affected with the introduction of functional products The thesis is seen as exploratory rather than verifying and invites discussion of the issues raised here, in order for these issues to be developed further.

  • 27.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Linking design process activities to the business decisions of the firm: an example from the aerospace industry2010In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research concerns identification of parameters important for the studied organisation's success in service concept design and delivery. Knowledge was gathered through interviews and participation in daily industrial work activities. The gathered knowledge was used for developing a MATLAB-based simulation model, of which the purpose is to improve the studied company's ability to develop hardware-based services at an early concept stage, and to simulate, beforehand, the predicted performance of a given service scenario. This approach minimises the cost of each concept and allows simulation of several different concepts before the actual work is done.

  • 28.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Backe, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Lindström, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Reed, Sean
    Nottingham University, School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing.
    A model for predicting and monitoring industrial system availability2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 140-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the integration of a sensor data stream monitoring system into a proposed functional product model capable of predicting functional availability. Such monitoring systems enable predictive maintenance to be carried out pre-emptive maintenance that is scheduled in response to imminent hardware failure and are in widespread use in industry. The industrial motivation for this research is that agreed upon system availability is a critical element of any business-to-business agreement regarding functional sales. Such a model is important when making strategic choices regarding FPs and can be used to develop a high availability product design through simulation driven development, as well as to provide operational decision support that reflects the current reality to enable optimal availability to be achieved in practice. The proposed model integrates hardware, support system and monitoring system models, and is able to incorporate actual operational data. It has been partly verified based on previous research.

  • 29.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Isaksson, Ove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    A process modelling and simulation approach for business decision support in pre-conceptual product design2010In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 158-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses creation of a support tool (SIMULINK model) for collaborative work process modelling and optimisation based on Simulation Driven Design (SDD). The purpose is to improve the studied company's ability to develop hardware-based services in an early concept stage, and to predict performance of a given service scenario before development. The approach is useful as a decision-support tool in evaluating and prioritising business offers and activities in the business offer process. The modelling and simulation approach minimises the cost of each concept and allows simulation of a number of different concepts before the actual work is carried out

  • 30.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Johansson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    User-driven design of a flexible distance education environment: rationale, lessons learned and future implications2008In: Proceedings: Sixth International Conference on Creating, Connecting and Collaborating through Computing, C5 2008 : 14 - 16 January 2008, Espace Mendes France, Poitiers, France / [ed] Kim Rose, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, p. 85-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the challenges inherent in distributed education and presents the development of a distance education environment to meet the needs of educators and geographically dispersed students at Luleå University of Technology in northern Sweden. The design rationale and experiences from teaching in the environment are discussed. During the course of the research, several prerequisites for quality distance education were identified, one of which is the main topic of this paper. Here, the needs identified by the educators who are to se the created environment are discussed. Those needs have led to the design of the environment, including physical spaces, tools and technologies. Our results indicate that it is now possible to design a highly useful environment for distributed education at a much lower cost-to-quality ratio than only a few years ago. Such a system may be created in a way that allows teachers to earn to use the environment selfsufficiently. Thereby, the need for support staff is greatly diminished. The results indicate that the use of appropriate methods and tools lets teachers work in a distributed environment in a way that closely resembles their normal way of work in a teaching situation. In addition, a strategy for future development of the environment, based on the results presented here and on previous research, is suggested.

  • 31.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Andrews, John
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Functional product system availability: simulation driven design and operation through coupled multi-objective optimisation2011In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes on a conceptual level how the availability of functional products (consisting of hardware (HW) and a support system) may be simulated. The main objective of this paper is to present a simulation-driven methodology for predicting and optimising the availability and cost of functional products in both development and operation. The proposed simulation and optimisation methodology includes both HW and support system models, which coupled form a simulation model of a system (functional product) delivering the function. Two different simulation-driven methodologies are suggested in the paper: one for development and another for operation of functional products

  • 32.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Reed, Sean
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Backe, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Evaluating availability of functional products through simulation2014In: Simulation (San Diego, Calif.), ISSN 1569-190X, E-ISSN 1878-1462, Vol. 47, p. 196-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional product is an integrated package consisting of hardware, software and a service support system that provides a customer with a certain function and is sold under a performance-based contract that includes a functional availability guarantee. For the availability performance, prediction, optimisation and management of risk are therefore important concerns during product development. This paper describes a software tool that can generate an integrated model of a functional product from its design details and analyse it through simulation to provide availability performance information. The model's application to the analysis of a real industrial system is demonstrated. Such tools are important for the development and widespread adoption of functional products. The resulting analysis gave an indication of a suitable guaranteed functional availability level for the product and could be used to compare the performance of different design options.

  • 33.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    An activity based simulation approach to functional product development2006In: Challenges in collaborative engineering: CCE '06 / [ed] Leandro Soares Indrusiak, Gliwice: Interprint , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Demands on engineering design culture for implementing functional products2005In: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial product development focused companies, such as car manufacturers, have traditionally developed and sold hardware products. In professional business-to-business relations, the integration of hardware and software with services has been identified as a shift in focus in the seller-buyer relationship from hardware development to function development and the way a sustainable economic performance could be achieved. Therefore, the common perception today of where the product is mainly hardware only, needs to be expanded to include a definition where it does not even have to have any hardware at all. Expanding the product definition therefore places additional demands on the design and development of hardware, software and services that may all be part of the functional product. Further, this article discusses how customer requirements need to be handled when developing a total offer in the form of a functional product. Finally, the traits needed in the engineer who is to develop it while being part of a multi-cultural team are discussed, possibly a geographically distributed team.

  • 35.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    López-Mesa, Belinda
    Thompson, Graham
    The use of product development process as a means of implementing company strategy2003In: 10th International Product Development Management Conference: Brussels, Belgium, June 10-11, 2003 / [ed] Thomas P. Hustad; Christer Karlsson, EASIM, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Reed, Sean
    University of Notttingham.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Andrews, John
    University of Notttingham.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Loughborough University.
    Modelling and simulation of functional product system availability and support costs2012In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 16, no 3-4, p. 304-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional products (FP), total offers or product service systems, that comprise of both hardware (HW) and support services (SS) sold as an integrated offering under an availability guarantee, are becoming increasing popular in industry. This paper addresses, through modelling and simulation, the challenge faced by suppliers in developing an integrated HW and SS design to produce an FP which meets contracted availability. A recently published framework specified how an integrated model hardware and service support system model could be used to obtain functional availability predictions and perform simulation driven functional product development. This paper presents the first example of an integrated functional product model. It uses fault tree, Petri net and discrete event simulation techniques to enable the prediction of functional product availability and support costs. Such predictions are used here to evaluate and compare different service support system designs.

  • 37.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Thompson, Graham
    Design management lessons learned from two studies in new product design2003In: Research for practice - innovation in products, processes and organisations: ICED 03, 14th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 19 - 21 August 2003, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm / organized by the Royal Institute of Technology / [ed] Anders Folkeson, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Andrews, John
    Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Modelling service support system reliability2011In: First IFAC Workshop on Advanced Maintenance Engineering, Services and Technology (2010): Lisbon, Portugal, 1 - 2 July 2010 / [ed] P. Leitao, Red Hook, NY: IFAC, International Federation of Automatic Control , 2011, p. 56-61Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    University of Notttingham.
    Andrews, John
    University of Notttingham.
    Dunnett, Sarah
    Loughborough University.
    Kyösti, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Backe, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A modelling language for maintenance task scheduling2012In: 11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference 2012: PSAM11, ESREL 2012, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 201-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a modelling language for representing the details necessary to analyse and model the implementation of maintenance strategies for generic hardware. The maintenance strategy determines which, and when, restorations and inspections should take place whilst the scheduling of maintenance tasks implements these goals. The manner of maintenance strategy implementation therefore has important implications for maintenance cost and other performance metrics. Despite this, maintenance strategy optimisation models found in the literature lack detailed maintenance implementation models, which may lead to inaccurate and misleading results. The presented modelling language permits the representation of all common constraints and outcomes between maintenance tasks that influence task schedules. In doing so, it provides a platform for the future development of maintenance task schedule modelling, planning and decision support tools. The modelling language is demonstrated through application to part of a car braking system

  • 40.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    University of Notttingham.
    Andrews, John
    University of Notttingham.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The design and modelling of maintenance during the development of functional products or product service systems2012In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Through-life Engineering Services: (TESConf 2012), 5 - 6 November 2012, Cranfield University Press , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Reed, Sean
    et al.
    University of Notttingham.
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Andrews, John
    University of Notttingham.
    Service support system modelling language for simulation-driven development of functional products2013In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 11, p. 420-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional product (FP) comprises of an integrated package of hardware and support services sold under a performance-based contract. A barrier to the adoption of FP is the lack of tools for obtaining predictions of availability and support costs during product development. A previous paper by the authors described a simulation-driven development strategy for designing FP that are optimised for functional availability and support costs. This iterative strategy involves representing the FP design in a modelling language; using a software code to automatically generate and analyse a simulation model from this representation to produce detailed performance predictions; and using these predictions as feedback to improve the design. The use of a modelling language facilitates the representation of the design details within the hardware and support system that influence availability and support costs. This includes the maintenance process design, maintenance strategy design and maintenance resource availability design. In this paper, an overview of a modelling language the authors have developed for this purpose is described.

  • 42.
    Törlind, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Löfstrand, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Karlsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Towards true collaboration in global design teams?2005In: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s collaboration tools can support formal meetings to a certain extent, though there is still an immense potential for improvement when it comes to designing virtual and physical places where global design teams can collaborate in more ‘natural’ ways than existing distributed environments allow. One challenge for global product development is to support true collaboration within global design teams, where diversity and competences of the whole team can be utilized and where team members can think together rather then merely exchange information, opinions and divide work. This paper summarizes the results of several case studies and development projects performed within the Polhem Laboratory over the last four years and proposes challenges for future research. From our findings some of the most important challenges are how to support users with communication tools for more natural formal and informal communication (i.e. as a co-located team communicates), while automatically storing information and context from the distributed meetings.

1 - 42 of 42
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