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  • 1. Boart, Patrik
    et al.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Multidisciplinary design tool for conceptual design and evaluation2005Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The actual product ownership often remains with the manufacturer as functional (total care) products emerge in aerospace business agreements. The business risk is then transferred to the manufacturer why downstream knowledge needs to be available in the concept phase to consider all product life cycle aspects. The aim of this work is to study how a multidisciplinary design tool can be used to embed downstream processes for conceptual design and evaluation allowing simulation of life cycle properties. A knowledge enabled engineering approach was used to capture the engineering activities for design and evaluation of jet engine component flanges. For every design change, cost of manufacturing operations, maintenance and performance aspects can be directly assessed. The design tool assures that the engineering activities are performed accordingly to company design specification which creates a better control over the process quality. It also creates a better understanding enabling the engineers to optimize the concept in real time from an overall product life cycle view. The new tool will be the base for optimize the total product system and will be used not only between companies but also between product development departments in large global companies.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building: A Case Study2019Ingår i: 2019 Proceedings of the 36th ISARC, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 2019, s. 340-347Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing digital information in construction is commonly described through Building Information Modelling (BIM), which advocates seamless chains of information, increased coordination between different actors and a life-cycle perspective on information management. However, low adoption outside the design phase entails that handling information in production is in many cases manual and paper-based, which increases vulnerability for upstream errors materialising downstream in production. Furthermore, issues with interoperability surround many areas when managing digital information. For industrialised house-builders, the transmitter and receiver of information are in many cases integrated within the same company or based on long-term collaboration. This affects their ability to manage information and utilise design information, which implies that their strategy for digital information management (DIM) might benefit from being addressed differently compared to more traditional BIM-based approaches. In this paper, we describe and discuss an implemented DIM-solution at an industrialised house-builder in order to address the benefits and challenges with DIM when managing information from design to production. The results imply that in order for several different functions within the company to reap benefits, a customised DIM-solution adapted after the company’s specific needs is a well-suited approach forward to avoid sacrificing functionality when utilising design information.

  • 3.
    Jensen, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Malmgren, Linus
    Lund University.
    Reducing complexity of customized prefabricated buildings through modularization and IT support2008Ingår i: CIB-W78: International Conference on Information Technology in Construction, Universidad de Talca , 2008, s. 429-437Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies in Sweden using prefabricating strategies, are currently meeting the ever increasing customer requirements with ad-hoc solutions that do not fit their production system causing bottlenecks and lower profit margins as a consequence. One solution to the problem has been to re-engineer their building systems according to modularization principles used in the manufacturing industries that have adapted their production to mass-customization. This paper describes the first part in study of modularization of building systems and if methods used in the manufacturing industry can be adapted to the building industry. Today the Swedish Construction Industries are mainly project oriented, and needs to go to a more product oriented development to benefit from the values that modularization can give. It is also obvious that it is impossible to introduce modularization methods used in manufacturing industries if design requirements are incomplete or changing from project to project. It is therefore essential that the product owner owns the whole process as well. Varying customers' demands can to some extent be handled using modularization principles. However, we don't believe that one solution fit's all; therefore it is essential to target a specific segment of the market. The cost for the development of such modularized building system for the targeted segment of customer must be evaluated against the possible market share.

  • 4.
    Kubicki, Sebastian
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology, TH Köln, Germany.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A master model approach for design and analysis of roof trusses2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, 2018, Vol. 35, s. 325-331Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Apartment housebuilding takes too long time and optimal solutions are seldom found. In housebuilding projects, there is an increased popularity of using virtual models for analyses of structural integrity and floor layout. However, these analyses are seldom coordinated since the models rarely are linked and the designers are not working close enough. As such, optimal designs are hard to find and time flies since even small changes turn into many iterations between design and structural analysis. General building information modeling and virtual design and construction methodologies suggest the use of interoperability and automation to bridge these gaps. There are examples of design tools that link different models using off-the-shelf tools or programming. However, most of the housebuilding companies seldom have these advanced tools or have the competence to do advanced programming. In this paper, we suggest an approach of using visual programming in a common BIM-software to explore the linking of different models. As an example, we study design of roof trusses since for many different roof shapes the same rules usually apply to the design of the truss. This project connects a BIM-software and a FEM-program with a master model. The model automatically generates a roof with the designed truss, draws the representation in a BIM-software and analyze it in a FEM-program. The early evaluations of this visual programming based approach are promising as there are possibilities to connect other domain models and create an even richer evaluation bases for early apartment housebuilding design.

  • 5. Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Volvo Aero.
    Project: Design for Fabrication2006Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptual design phase is the perhaps most important phase, determining most functions and cost of the forthcoming product. Knowing that the concepts to a large extend also sets the manufacturing conditions; it is critical to take manufacturing process information into account in earliest possible stages.

  • 6. Larsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Projekt: Regelbaserad projektering för trävolymbyggande2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte  Byggföretag inom industriellt trävolymbyggande behöver effektivisera sitt projekteringsarbete för att öka sin konkurrenskraft på byggmarknaden. Idag sker projekteringen ofta ostrukturerat och byggsystemet utvecklas på ett sätt som försvårar återanvändning och kontroll, vilket leder till onödiga produktionskostnader. För att kunna återanvända information från tidigare projekt krävs en strukturerad informationshantering så att informationen blir tillgänglig för alla samtidigt som personberoendet minskas. I detta projekt studeras hur knowledge-based engineering (KBE) och liknande kunskapsintensiva metoder (t ex Case-based reasoning) kan bidra till nya arbetssätt och ny informationsstruktur för trävolymbyggnad som ett alternativ till att införa nya programvaror. 

  • 7.
    Lundkvist, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Meiling, John
    John Meiling AB.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    A proactive plan-do-check-act approach to defect management based on a Swedish construction project2014Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, nr 11, s. 1051-1065Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to continuously improve quality and avoid reoccurrence of defects, defect management (DM) in construction needs to take a more proactive approach. The classification of construction information is important for the efficient exchange and integration of data between the many roles and phases of construction and facility management, but it also provides a framework for standardization, which in turn is paramount for improvement. In order to better understand how defects can be managed proactively we conducted a case study on inspection practices at a large construction project in Sweden, using observation and analysis of inspection reports. We identified opportunities and obstacles in the classification of defect data. The project’s defect descriptions were often ambiguous and the records lacked important contextual information. We believe that this was because current practice is not designed with proactivity in mind, and there are only regulatory requirements on the data, making classification difficult. In addition, by viewing the project’s practices through the lenses of continuous improvement and plan-do-check-act theory to identify missing or inadequate steps, we propose a framework for a proactive version of the current defect management process that could potentially help to prioritize improvement work and reduce the incidence of defects

  • 8.
    Meiling, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Towards a feedback model for off-site construction2009Ingår i: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, Vol. 1, s. 291-300Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for efficient experience feedback in the construction industry, which encompasses companies that use a wide spectrum of on- and off-site production methods to produce (inter alia) roads, bridges and railways, as well as low- and highrise buildings. The rationale for developing and implementing methods for experience feedback is well documented, and regardless of the choice of production strategy common denominators are needs to recognise defects and to apply a continuous quality improvement program that incorporates learning from mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to present ongoing work regarding experience feedback, with the ultimate aim to close the feedback loops in off-site housing sales, design and production. An indoor production process at a Swedish housing company is probed.The investigated company utilises off-site module manufacturing, a production form with a 15 % market share among professional clients in Sweden (recurrent clients purchasing commercial and multi-storey buildings). This production form appears to be well-suited for implementing experience feedback, since control is already required in the production process. Based on a literature review and case examples a model for experience feedback is proposed. The feedback model is executed in a logical control structure with four levels: (1) plan and learn, (2) capture and assign to targets, (3) analyse and prioritise, solve and assess, (4) implement and use feedback. Theoretical considerations and empirical data show how analysis of error-detection can enhance possibilities for prioritising improvement actions as well as identifying feedback targets.

  • 9.
    Meiling, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    A study of a plan-do-check-act method used in less industrialized activities: two cases from industrialized housebuilding2014Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, nr 1-2, s. 109-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In construction projects, a large number of deviations are usually found during inspections and adjusted in a reactive manner. For projects to become proactive, root causes need to be identified and eliminated as a part of a process of continuous improvement (CI). Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) methods are part of CI and have been used with success within the manufacturing industry for decades. Research studies of PDCA in construction are less common, which could be explained by the past dominance of the project-based nature of construction compared to the process-based nature of manufacture. Industrialized construction, however, has changed this picture somewhat, and it is of interest to find out how well it works for less industrialized activities in construction. A PDCA method was tested in two cases selected from one medium-sized Swedish industrialized housebuilder, which uses a building system based on offsite manufactured modules. Empirical results are based on systematic data gathered through interviews and participant observations. Results from the two cases show that the PDCA method worked even when processes were divided into industrialized parts within a factory and non-industrial parts at the construction site although this might lead to temporary corrective actions rather than permanent process actions

  • 10.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Holmberg, Anton
    Veidekke Entreprenad AB.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Approach for Automated Planning Using 5D-BIM2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st-Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Early planning decisions are usually dependent on time-demanding, manually produced cost estimations and schedules. There is a trend in the construction industry to use 5D-BIM to speed up these processes and automated approaches can be used to further improve effectiveness. This research aims to investigate how to create an automated 5D-BIM planning process when using industrialized building systems. We propose an approach that combines a BIM manual with predefined databases based on the building system and its properties. A case study at one of Scandinavia’s largest construction and property development companies was conducted where the presented approach was tested. The findings show that planning using 5D-BIM is possible to partially automate through our approach but that there are challenges for a fully automated process in the standardization required and assuring that the quality of data in each step is adequate.

  • 11. Nergård, Henrik
    et al.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Towards life-cycle awareness in decision support tools for engineering design2009Ingår i: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2009, s. 23-30Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a decision support tool with the focus on how to generate and visualize decision base coupled to the business agreement is outlined and discussed. Decision support tools for the early design phases are few and especially tools that visualize the readiness level of activities throughout the product life-cycle. Aiming for the sustainable society there is an indication that business-to-business manufacturers move toward providing a function rather than selling off the hardware and providing separate services. This increased responsibility for the function provider implies that early phase development needs intensified life-cycle awareness to minimize cost and maximize customer satisfaction. The main contributions from this paper are the outline of the decision support tool, the presented example scenario and aspects to consider when developing a multi-disciplinary decision support tool for the early design phases

  • 12.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Food on the Roof: Developing an IT platform to visualize and identify suitable locations for roof farming in cold climates2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to explore the possibility to smartly integrate food production in cold urban environments. The main objective was to sketch an intelligent platform to guide a comprehensive, city-wide approach to urban farming in winter cities and assist city stakeholder.

    We have worked with large databases related to energy consumptions, performances, building stock and size, solar radiation, and so forth. The challenge for us was to integrate big data in a manner that is easy to understand and visualize for all audiences while matching the ambitions of local stakeholders for urban farming.

    Urban farming (UF) has social, economic, and environmental benefits: socially UF will bring people closer to nature and it can become a source of education for local schools and community; economically, UF targets the rapidly growing market of premium, fresh, biological food that is proudly produced locally and can be sold to local restaurants and other customers; environmentally, UF will decrease our reliance from far away and poorly controlled food chains, while decreasing environmental costs for transportation.

  • 13.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader: Case Ripan i Kiruna2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet innefattar flera parametrar och dessa kan mätas och värderas på många olika sätt. Att väga ihop de olika delarna för att uppnå hållbarhet genom att minimera förbrukad energi för uppvärmning och energi för att producera material till bygget samt investeringskostnader för material och kostnader för uppvärmning är fokus i denna rapport. Detta vägs samman med miljöpåverkan. En inledande studie för hållbarhetsoptimering av en mindre byggnad är genomförd med målet är att utveckla en övergripande metod för att ge bredare beslutsunderlag vid nybyggnad.

    Beräkningar av inbyggd energi, driftsenergi, investerings- och uppvärmningskostnader har genomförts för ett planerat hus på Camp Ripan i Kiruna. I beräkningen av byggnaden inkluderades klimatskärm (ytterväggar, stomstabiliserande element och grund) för två olika stommar av trä (träregelstomme och KL-trä). För miljöberäkningarna användes främst indata från EPDer och resultatet redovisas i form av klimatpåverkan, CO2-ekvivalenter.

    Den utvecklade metoden ger potential för bättre ekologisk och ekonomisk hållbarhet genom ett optimerat val av byggnadsmaterial för byggnader. Optimeringsalgoritmen ger förslag på byggnadsmaterial med minst energiåtgång vid produktion, den sk inbyggda energin, samt vid uppvärmning under driftsfasen samt lägst kostnader. Miljöaspekten vägs också in i bedömningen för att få ett mer heltäckande beslutsunderlag för beställare och projektörer. Metoden är tänkt att i fortsatta studier vidareutvecklas för användning på mer komplexa byggnader som till exempel flerbostadshus.

    Resultatet från Case Ripan visar att regelkonstruktionen har lägst inbyggd energi, driftsenergi, investeringskostnad samt kostnad för uppvärmning under driftsfasen. Även miljöpåverkan från regelkonstruktionen var låg.

  • 14.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A knowledge-based master-model approach for mechanical whole jet engine optimization2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Design for manufacturing: methods and applications using knowledge engineering2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag strävar efter utveckling av fysiska produkter som kan säljas som tjänster istället för på traditionellt sätt då kunden betalar för produkten och därmed blir ägare. Därför uppstår nya utmaningar för produktutvecklande företag som vill behålla en stark marknadsställning. Eftersom denna tjänsteprodukt, här benämnd funktionell produkt, innebär ett åtagande för företaget under hela livscykeln, där företaget ansvarar för produkten ifrån utvecklandet av den tills att den skrotas och återvinns, skapas fokus på hur den fysiska produkten ska utvecklas för företagets och kundens bästa under produktens livscykel. Därför behöver utveckling av funktionella produkter ett livscykelperspektiv, dvs. att livscykeln beaktas vid konstruktion. En del av livscykeln är tillverkningen varför företag letar efter nya sätt att utvärdera hur tillverkbar produkten är redan vid tidig konstruktion, eftersom tidig konstruktion bestämmer begränsningar och möjligheter för tillverkning. Metoder och handböcker för att konstruera för tillverkbarhet har därför tagits fram för att underlätta anpassningen av konstruktionen till produktionsanläggning.Ett ytterligare steg mot förbättrade arbetssätt med livscykelperspektiv vid tidig konstruktion är att återanvända resultat och använda erfarenhet från tidigare projekt. Men eftersom resultat och erfarenheter från projekt sällan dokumenteras på ett sätt som underlättar återanvändning eller stannar i huvudena på produktutvecklare, t ex konstruktörer och tillverkningsingenjörer, finns ett behov för hjälpmedel för återanvändning. Kunskapsdrivet ingenjörsarbete (KI) är en metodik för att återanvända tidigare resultat och göra erfarenheter tillgängliga genom att möjliggöra arbetssätt för automatiserad produktdefinition och utvärdering vid tidig konstruktion. Det finns möjligheter för forskning där KI används på flera sätt och där dessa sätts kopplingar undersöks för att ge en klar bild om hur KI kan stödja konstruktion. Därför är målet med denna avhandling att använda KI för att skapa metoder för att konstruera för tillverkbarhet och utvärdera fördelaktiga och mindre fördelaktiga egenskaper med dessa metoder jämfört med varandra och tidigare forskning. I denna avhandling presenteras metoder och applikationer för konstruktion för tillverkbarhet baserade på KI. Metoderna är baserade på KI på följande sätt: regelbaserat, regel-, programmerings- och finit element analys (FEA)-baserat, och regel- och planbaserat. Resultatet visar att KI kan användas för att generera information om tillverkning på flera sätt. Det regelbaserade sättet är lämpligt för att stödja åtagande, där hela livscykeln ansvaras för, eftersom konstruktion och tillverkningsutvärdering kan integreras med utvärdering av underhåll och prestanda, även om detta sätt begränsas av reglernas omfattning. Det sätt som baseras på regler, programmering, och FEA kan användas för att integrera program för datorstödd konstruktion med program för simulering av spänning och töjningar i produkten som orsakas av tillverkningsoperationer. Detta sätt kräver dock en mer omfattande programmeringsinsats jämfört med det regelbaserade sättet. Det regel- och planbaserade sättet kan möjliggöra konstruktion för tillverkbarhet på två olika sätt, dels baserat på tidigare tillverkningsplaner och dels baserat på regler. Eftersom tidigare tillverkningsplaner tillsammans med programmeringsalgoritmer kan hantera kunskaper som kan vara svårare att definiera som regler, än det tidskrävande rutinarbetet som oftast automatiseras med regler, finns det flera möjligheter att förbättra konstruktionen för tillverkbarhet.

  • 16.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Knowledge based engineering: in product development2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives an introduction to Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) in product development. KBE can be seen as a tool for capturing knowledge and reusing it. The concept of KBE is therefore very broad. A spread sheet is a tool for capturing knowledge by implementing equations, or rules, which enables knowledge recycling. Thus, the focus in this report is firstly KBE tools where knowledge is stored as objects which belong to different classes in an object oriented way like Java, C++ among others. Secondly, it is KBE tools which often are coupled to a geometry engine to enable automatic generation of product concepts in terms of virtual prototyping KBE is a subset of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS) which is a spin off from artificial intelligence (AI). KBS is often referred to as "expert system" because they intend to capture expert knowledge and sometimes also generate creative solutions. KBE on the other hand is used to automate mundane time demanding tasks. By freeing people from this routine work more time could be used to come up with new innovative solutions. There are several methods to develop KBE systems among which MOKA represent one example. It is built up from six steps from the beginning to the end of the KBE development process with focus on how to capture and formalize knowledge. There are some commercial KBE-systems which can be bought "of the shelf". Among these ICAD is the first developed system. Benefits with KBE are that optimisation of product concepts is easier and product and process knowledge is stored. Drawbacks are that it is time demanding to develop KBE systems and it can sometimes be seen as a "black box" if the automated procedures are poorly explained to the user. Today's research is focused on improving the development methodologies to enable shorter development time and improve the quality of the systems. KBE is economically demanding to implement in a company structure why mostly large enterprises employ the tool. Therefore it is of interest to develop methods for KBE in Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME's). Initially KBE in product development meant generating a product concept. Now the capabilities of integrating aspects of other processes are explored. One of these is the manufacturing process and the possibility for concept evaluation in terms of manufacturability.

  • 17.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Knowledge enabled engineering design tools for manufacturability evaluation of jet engine components2005Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry of today is experiencing an increased competitive environment due to the effects of market globalisation. To be able to stay competitive and provide excellent goods, Swedish industry and academia have foreseen the need for new business scenarios, models and methods. A concept called functional products has arisen, called functional sales or total offer on a business level. Taking an increased responsibility to provide the offered function during the product life cycle increases business possibilities, since the actual ownership of the physical artefact remains with the producer, even though the business risk taken also increases due to uncertainty in the product development process. Why is this uncertainty a risk? By moving from selling traditional hardware to providing a function (the use of hardware, software and service), the entire product after market and the function, including hardware, software and service, are now the responsibility of the supplier. If something fails, it is the supplier’s responsibility. The risk can be lowered if the product and process uncertainty are decreased, i.e. if you have control in the conceptual phase of the product development process the risk can decrease because design decisions are made in this phase. Modelling and simulation of the product in the conceptual design phase gives a better understanding of how early decisions affect the product during its life cycle. Here, the use of Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) methods has proven useful to provide a formalized and automated approach to product development. However, a single company cannot be an expert in all areas of product development, meaning that external supplemental knowledge is needed where internal knowledge is lacking. This collaborative and knowledge sharing development process leads to questions regarding, what to share and what not to share, how to share it and with whom. These questions affect the product development process by leading to a need to find new methods and enabling technologies to support them. The purpose for this research is to examine how the design of Knowledge Enabled Engineering Systems is affected by the concept of Functional Product Development. Studies were performed at affiliated partners in the aerospace and machining/tooling industries to gain a more encompassing understanding of how functional product development processes may be supported with knowledge enabled engineering tools. Software demonstrators were used as both proactive teasers to visualise the possibilities and problems and virtual test beds to try out new thoughts, methods and approaches. This has given insights into the understanding of how functional product development in close business-to-business relationships may be supported by knowledge engineering tools and how it affects the internal and external product development processes.

  • 18.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Manufacturability evaluation in early design: on the dependency of business commitment2007Ingår i: Advances in manufacturing technology - XXI: proceedings of the 5th international conference on manufacturing research (ICMR 2007) / [ed] D.J. Stockton; R.A. Khalil; R.W. Baines, Leicester: De Montford University , 2007, s. 280-284Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As business-to-business manufacturers move towards higher business commitments, such as providing functions instead of transacting physical artefacts, new challenges arise when manufacturers strive to adapt and integrate the development of physical artefacts to the function to be provided. Since manufacturability evaluation is a part of development, it is feasible that it will also face new challenges. However, studies on the relationship between business commitment and manufacturability evaluation are lacking. In this paper the hypothesis “manufacturability evaluation depends on the business commitment” is initially tested, and results from studies at a manufacturer within the Swedish jet engine industry are presented. Business commitments rangefrom make-to-print through to the development of physical artefacts for transaction towards the development of function-focused total offers. Results indicate that some work methods for manufacturability evaluation are affected, since business commitments change, to ensure that design teams make right decisions, according to, for example, planned contractors and company capacity and capability during early development.

  • 19.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Towards a knowledge-based engineering methodology for construction2015Ingår i: ICCREM 2015: Environment and the Sustainable Building : proceedings of the 2015 international conference on construction and real estate management : August 11-12, 2015 Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Yaowu Wang; Thomas Olofsson; Geoffrey Qiping Shen; Yong Bai, Reston, Va: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2015, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing industrialization and standardization of construction opens up for the field of design automation, and possibilities to work with several what-if-conditions and several product candidates instead of just one or two during design. Design automation applications for building component and infrastructural part design are starting to appear using software from the manufacturing industry. A challenge is however to develop such construction design automation applications since comprehensive methodologies are missing. MOKA is a methodology for developing knowledge-based engineering (KBE) applications originating from the aerospace and automotive industries. KBE is a label for computer-based automation of routine design tasks. This paper describes methodologies for developing design automation applications in construction, compares these with the MOKA methodology and discusses the opportunities and challenges of having a KBE methodology for construction.

  • 20. Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Boart, Patrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Functional product life-cycle simulation model for cost estimation in conceptual design of jet engine components2005Ingår i: Concurrent Engineering - Research and Applications, ISSN 1063-293X, E-ISSN 1531-2003, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 331-342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As functional (total care) products emerge in the jet engine industry, the need for product life-cycle models capable of definition and evaluation of life cycle properties increases, since functional products (FP) includes both hardware and service. Recent life-cycle models are intended for hardware products and mostly handle design and manufacturing knowledge. The aim of this article is to present a design approach that extends the evaluation capabilities beyond classical hardware design and manufacturing evaluation. The focus has been to introduce evaluation of manufacturing and post-manufacturing activities in evaluation of conceptual designs. For this purpose, a model has been proposed to handle the information flow between teams when developing structural jet engine components. A case study, in which the proposed model was used in cooperation with a jet engine component manufacturer, is presented. Aspects concerning design, manufacturing, performance, and maintenance of jet engine flanges were included in the example by means of a knowledge based engineering (KBE)-system coupled to databases and spreadsheets. The model is more suitable than recent work for the development of hardware parts of functional products (HFP), since knowledge from more product development disciplines is included. As the engineer changes the design and directly assesses the life-cycle cost (LCC) and how the changes impact the interface to other jet engine components, more knowledge on the impact of design decisions is available at hand for the engineering designer than without the model

  • 21.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Gerth, Robert
    Design Evolution Scandinavia AB.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Design automation in construction: An overview2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st – Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry continues its digital journey the applications within design automation is growing, making development processes less time-demanding and more organized. Design automation applications can show design impact on e.g. cost, equipment availability, staff capabilities and buildability. It can also facilitate reuse of successful solutions instead of reinventing the wheel for every project. Thanks to automation it becomes easier to generate several solutions and trying different what-if-conditions. The field has many different approaches but an overview for construction where the connections between the different approaches are indicated is needed. The purpose of this paper is to describe our view of how the design automation fields of building information modelling, master models,  nowledge-based engineering, configuration, modularization, platforms and simulation are  onnected and to provide input to the design automation discussion in construction. Each of  hese areas are introduced and then they are analyzed in relation to each other and presented as an overview. These results will serve as a base for future studies.

  • 22.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Gerth, Robert
    Design Evolution Scandinavia AB.
    Viklund, Emma
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A design automation development process for building and bridge design2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st – Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing industrialization and standardization of construction opens up for the field of design automation. Such applications, for buildings and infrastructural products, are starting to appear by using software from the manufacturing industry. A challenge is, however, to develop such design automation applications since approaches combining product analyses, requirements management, and development of product platforms and configurators are lacking for construction. Using a bottom up approach to study existing best practice and create more general approaches is one way. In this paper we study the design automation development process from three cases; 1) edge beams, focusing on requirements management, 2) outer non-bearing walls, considering configurator development, and 3) end frame bridge superstructures, featuring the development of generic analysis procedures. These three processes are analyzed and merged into a more generic process which can be used to guide future developments of design automation applications within construction.

  • 23.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jensen, Patrik
    Design Evolution AB.
    Ramic, Ida
    Skanska.
    Knowledge-based bridge design2016Ingår i: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, H - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, s. 328-336Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing industrialization and standardization of construction opens up for the field of design automation, and possibilities to work with several what-if-conditions and several product candidates instead of just one or two during design. Design automation applications for building component and infrastructural part design are starting to appear within construction, but methodologies for developing such applications are few. Knowledge-based engineering (KBE) is a label for automation of routine design and analysis tasks originating from the automotive and aerospace industries. Current KBE methodologies need to be adapted for construction in order to be effective. This paper presents a method for design automation of bridges and discusses similarities and strengths in comparison with current KBE methods. A case is presented where the bridge was divided into modules and the method was used to develop generic analysis procedures for the main beam of an end frame bridge. The biggest challenge was to define the dimensioning values. The study however indicated that the time for design and review of bridges can be reduced through design automation. This paper also stresses the importance of following and keeping a method updated, when developing design automation applications, to ensure future success.

  • 24.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Knowledge-based engineering in construction: the prefabricated timber housing case2008Ingår i: Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), ISSN 1874-4753, E-ISSN 1874-4753, Vol. 13, s. 408-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish prefabricators of domestic buildings need to become more effective and efficient; the aim of this paper is to investigate the usefulness of rule-based IT support tools for this purpose. The current sales and design process at a Swedish timber volume element prefabricator is presented. The process was mapped and the early design phase was evaluated regarding information management and standardisation. It was found that information management during early design is often ad hoc and person dependent; therefore searching for information that could lead to reuse of past solutions is rather time demanding. There is a need for standardisation to promote reuse due to a mentality of designing one-of-a-kind buildings. Knowledge-based engineering is seen as an enabler to enhance the current situation and an IT support approach is suggested. A demonstrator stair tool is tested, which lets the seller discuss needs with the customer and then use the tool to assess cost and manufacturability. If design flaws can be found early on, waste activities downstream can be reduced. Standardisation could be realised through modularisation, which the implementation of an IT support tool could gain from.

  • 25.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Larsson, Tobias
    A master-model approach to whole jet engine analysis and design optimization2009Ingår i: WCSMO-8: 8th World Congress on Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Larsson, Tobias
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Boart, Patrik
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Sverige.
    Projekt: Strukturell konceptuell konstruktion och analys av helajetmotorer - en METodik för OPtimering, Integration och Automatisering (METOPIA)2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt är en fortsättning på förstudieprojektet NFFP4202 - Helmotormodell för systemanalys av mekaniska egenskaper där en plattform, samt en pilot som demonstrerade plattformens förmåga i ett industriellt sammanhang, utvecklades. Detta projekt fokuserar på vidareutveckling av den framtagna plattformen med optimeringsteknologi och simuleringsdriven produktutvecklingsmetodik för att via produktdefinitionen (jetmotorkomponenterna) balansera flera olika funktionsbehov (t ex strukturdynamiska, aerodynamiska, termodynamiska) och skapa möjligheter till effektivare analyser av helmotorkoncept. Resultatet är en metodik innefattande systemangreppssätt, modelluppbyggnad, modellarkitektur samt analys, som tillämpas på ett realistiskt scenario genom en pilot.

  • 27.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Larsson, Tobias
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Projekt: NFFP4 - Helmotormodellering2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nationella Flygtekniska Forskningsprogrammet NFFP Projekt: V4202 Helmotormodellering

  • 28.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tyapin, Ilya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    A knowledge-based master-model approach with application to rotating machinery design2011Ingår i: Concurrent Engineering - Research and Applications, ISSN 1063-293X, E-ISSN 1531-2003, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 295-305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel rotating machinery design concepts and architectures are being explored to reduce mass, energy consumption, manufacturing costs, and environmental impact while increasing performance. As component manufacturers supply parts to original equipment manufacturers, it is desirable to design the components using a systems approach so that they are optimized for system-level performance. To accomplish that, suppliers must be able to model and predict the behavior of the whole machinery. Traditional computer-aided design/computer-aided engineering master-modeling approaches enable manual changes to be propagated to linked models. Novel knowledge-based master-modeling approaches enable automated coordination of multidisciplinary analyses. In this article, we present a specific implementation of such a knowledge-based master-modeling approach that facilitates multidisciplinary design optimization of rotating machinery. The master-model (MM) approach promotes the existence of a single governing version of the product definition as well as operating scenarios. Rules, scripts, and macros link the MM to domain-specific models. A simple yet illustrative industry application is presented, where rotor-dynamics and displacement analyses are performed to evaluate relocation alternatives for the rear bearing position of a rotating machinery under a ‘fan-blade-off’ load case.

  • 29. Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Automating redesign of sheet-metal parts in automotive industry using KBE and CBR2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference - 2006: presented at 2006 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, September 10 - 13, 2006, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2006, Vol. 1, s. 349-357Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automating redesign is an approach for engineering designers to prevent design related manufacturability problems in early product development and thus reduce costly design iterations. A vast amount of work exists, with most research findings seemingly staying within the research community rather than finding its way into use in industrial settings where research issues have often evolved from the concerned applied research. The aim of this paper is to present an approach with industrial implementation potential regarding automating redesign of sheet-metal components in early product development to avoid manufacturing problems due to design flaws and non-optimal designs. Geometry, generated by a knowledge-based engineering (KBE) system, gives input to the case-based reasoning (CBR) governed manufacturing planning. If geometry is found non-manufacturable or enhancement of already manufacturable geometry is possible, the CBR system will suggest redesign actions to resolve the problem. CBR extends the capabilities of the rule-based KBE-system by enabling plan-based evaluation. The approach has the potential for industrial implementation, since KBE is often closely coupled to an industrial CAD-system, hence enabling technology is at the industry. Also, combining KBE and CBR reduces the coding effort compared to coding the whole design support with CBR, as feature recognition is simplified by means of KBE. A case study of development of sheet-metal manufactured parts at a Swedish automotive industry partner presents the method in use. As it is shown that redesign can be automated for sheet-metal parts there is a potential for reducing costly design and manufacturing iterations.

  • 30.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Åström, Peter
    Näsström, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    A design tool integrating CAD and virtual manufacturing for distortion assessment2005Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, Barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aero space industry, design for manufacturing promotes machining predictions using finite element analysis during design. Today design and computational engineers often are far from integrated. The design tool in this paper couples the simulation of distortion effects due to machining with CAD, where knowledge of how to perform a machining simulation is captured within the tool. The tool system is governed by a UNIX shell script and uses Python scripts for pre- and post-processing purposes coupled to the finite element software MSC.MarcTM. The tool allows an engineer to estimate the distortion effects due to machining and is believed to help bridge the gap between design and computational engineers in the manufacturing planning stages of engineering design. By using tools like the one presented here, both component quality and accuracy of machining operation cost estimation can be expected to increase, since distortion problems can be solved or prevented already in the manufacturing planning stages of engineering design. Thus design for manufacturing is enhanced since redesign due to inferior manufacturing can be reduced.

  • 31.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Marefat, Michael M.
    University of Arizona.
    Combining knowledge-based engineering and case-based reasoning for design and manufacturing iteration2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Manufacturing Research: ICMR06, 2006, s. 383-388Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Multidisciplinary Optimization of Life-Cycle Energy and Cost Using a BIM-Based Master Model2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual design tools and methods can aid in creating decision bases, but it is a challenge to balance all the trade-offs between different disciplines in building design. Optimization methods are at hand, but the question is how to connect and coordinate the updating of the domain models of each discipline and centralize the product definition into one source instead of having several unconnected product definitions. Building information modelling (BIM) features the idea of centralizing the product definition to a BIM-model and creating interoperability between models from different domains and previous research reports on different applications in a number of fields within construction. Recent research features BIM-based optimization, but there is still a question of knowing how to design a BIM-based process using neutral file formats to enable multidisciplinary optimization of life-cycle energy and cost. This paper proposes a framework for neutral BIM-based multidisciplinary optimization. The framework consists of (1) a centralized master model, from which different discipline-specific domain models are generated and evaluated; and (2) an optimization algorithm controlling the optimization loop. Based on the proposed framework, a prototype was developed and used in a case study of a Swedish multifamily residential building to test the framework’s applicability in generating and optimizing multiple models based on the BIM-model. The prototype was developed to enhance the building’s sustainability performance by optimizing the trade-off between the building’s life-cycle energy (LCE) and life-cycle cost (LCC) when choosing material for the envelope. The results of the case study demonstrated the applicability of the framework and prototype in optimizing the trade-off between conflicting objectives, such as LCE and LCC, during the design process.

  • 33.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    A product development approach to developing modularized and parametric building systems2013Ingår i: CIB W78: 30th International Conference on Applications of IT in the AEC Industry, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Risberg, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Xiong, Damiano
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    A modelling methodology for assessing use of datacenter waste heat in greenhouses2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the number of datacenters establishments are steadily increasing thanks to green, stable and affordable electricity, free air cooling, advantageous energy taxes and well-developed Internet fiber infrastructures. Even though datacenters use a lot of energy, the waste heat that they create is seldom reused. A possible cause is that this waste heat is often low grade and airborne: it is therefore hard to directly inject it into a district heating system without upgrades, which require additional energy and equipment that generate extra costs. One option for reusing this heat without needs for upgrades is to employ it for heating up greenhouses. But assessing the feasibility of this approach by building physical prototypes can be costly, therefore using computer models to simulate real world conditions is an opportunity. However, there is a lack of computer modelling methodologies that can assess the possibility of using waste heat from datacenters in greenhouses in cold climates.

    The objective of this paper is therefore to propose such a methodology and discuss its benefits and drawbacks in comparison with other research studies. This methodology combines computational fluid dynamics, process modelling and control engineering principles into a computer model that constitutes a decision support system to study different waste heat and greenhouse or mushroom house scenarios.

    The paper validates the strategy through a case study in northern Sweden, where we assess the amount of produced waste heat by collecting temperature, relative humidity, and fan speed data for the air discharged from the datacenter.

    The resulting methodology, composed by conducting measurements and computer models, calculations can then be used for other datacenter operators or greenhouse developers to judge whether it is possible or not to build greenhouses using datacenter waste heat.

  • 35.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Tyapin, Ilya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A knowledge-based master modeling approach to system analysis and design2011Ingår i: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark ; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve Culley; Ben Hicks; Tim McAloone; T.J. Howard, Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 4 : Product and systems design, s. 347-356Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The jet engine industry relies on product models for early design predictions of attributes such as structural behavior, mass and cost. When the required analysis models are not linked to the governing product model, effective coordination of design changes is a challenge, making design space exploration time-consuming. Master modeling (MM) approaches can help alleviate such analysis overhead; the MM concept has its origins in the computer-aided design (CAD) community, and mandates that manual changes in one model automatically propagate to assembly, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) models within the CAD platform. Knowledge-based master models can also be used to communicate changes in the product definition to models that are external to the CAD platform. This paper presents details of the knowledge-based master modeling approach as applied to mechanical jet engine analysis and design, where different fidelity models and analysis tools are supported in the early design stages.

  • 36.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Tyapin, Ilya
    University of Agder.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    McGill University.
    Lundbladh, Anders
    GKN Aerospace.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A knowledge-based master model approach exemplified with jet engine structural design2017Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 85, s. 31-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful product development requires the consideration of multiple engineering disciplines and the quantification of tradeoffs among conflicting objectives from the very early design phases. The single-largest challenge to do so is the lack of detailed design information. A possible remedy of this issue is knowledge-based engineering. This paper presents a knowledge-based master model approach that enables the management of concurrent design and analysis models within different engineering disciplines in relation to the same governing product definition. The approach is exemplified on an early phase structural design of a turbo-fan jet engine. The model allows geometric-, structural mechanics- and rotor-dynamic- models to be concurrently integrated into a multi-disciplinary design and optimization loop.

  • 37.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Trade-off optimization of embodied versus operational carbon impact for insulation and window to wall ratio design choices: A case study2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A BIM-Based Method for Analyzing the Trade-Off between Embodied and Operational Energy2017Ingår i: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, s. 59--70Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that the operational energy and the embodied energy caused by production of building materials off-site (i.e., "cradle-to-gate" embodied energy) contribute to the major part of a building's total energy use, with roughly equal proportions. In addition, it has been reported that there is a trade-off between embodied-and operational energy which is mainly due to the use of additional materials with higher embodied energy and utilization of new appliances for construction of the building (or building of interest). Hence, application of sustainable strategies in early stages of the design phase, which enables evaluation of different design scenarios in terms of materials and systems, can provide a great scope to launch an optimization in the trade-off between embodied-versus operational energy. With respect to early stages of the design phase, Building information modeling (BIM) has become an applicable platform where its recent developments can provide interoperability with energy performance simulation (EPS) tools that enable assessment of the operational energy. However, existing BIM software generally lacks interoperability with conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) tools that are the main means for assessment of the embodied energy. Consequently, embodied energy assessment is often performed when the design has either been accomplished or developed to a relatively detailed level where there is less scope to investigate different design decisions for analyzing the trade-off between embodied-and operational energy. To overcome this obstacle, this paper presents a BIM-based method which strives to reduce the building's life cycle energy (LCE) use by accounting the trade-off between embodied-and operational energy at early stages of the design phase. The method is then exemplified by using an energy-efficient building case, demonstrating the applicability of the method in reducing the building's total energy use and also highlighting the areas where further development is required to address in future research

  • 39.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    BIM-based environmental assessment in the building design process2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, climate change is an issue of great concern. In addition, the building sector is considered to be one of the major energy users causing considerable amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Although, energy-efficient buildings are built today that use low amount of energy during operation, the embedded energy from construction and production of building material can still be relatively high. This paper focuses on the application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) using Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) to assess the environmental impacts from building materials and production to enable the designers to make environmentally friendlier decisions. Toward this approach, we propose a model which is examined in a case study of a roof structure on a commercial building which was constructed by off-site prefabricated roof-elements. As a result, the feasibility of the proposed model is appreciated in the assessment of the carbon footprint and embodied energy of the building materials and components. The proposed model needs to be further developed regarding the specification of the materials and components to make the information exchange between the BIM model and EPD in the environmental assessment of the building design more practicable.

  • 40.
    Stehn, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Project: Lean Wood Engineering2007Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    LWE är ett kompetenscenter för forskning och utveckling inom - industriellt träbyggande, - trämanufaktur samt - interiöra lösningar. LWE är ett samarbete mellan Luleå tekniska universitet (koordinator), Linköpings tekniska högskola, Lunds tekniska högskola, VINNOVA och tolv företag inom bygg- och trämanufaktursektorn. Kompetenscentret involverar ett trettiotal seniora forskare och doktorander.

  • 41.
    Stehn, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Söderholm, Erik
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Moelven ByggModul, Sverige.
    Projekt: Standardiserad projekteringsprocess2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte  Moelven ByggModul AB har för avsikt att vara en av Nordens ledande producenter av industriframställda byggmoduler i trä, med hög färdigställandegrad från fabrik. För ett företag som strävar efter en industriell process är likformighet och standardisering nyckelord för att säkerställa kvalitet och kontroll på arbetet. En process som har olika utseende beroende på beställare är inte önskvärd. En möjlig väg att hantera problematiken är att arbeta med varianter på processen, analogt till metoden att arbeta med varianter på produkter (t.ex. SCANIA). För att komma dit måste dock den nuvarande processen standardiseras och återkommande moment rationaliseras och eventuellt automatiseras.  

  • 42.
    Tyapin, Ilya
    et al.
    University of Agder.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lundbladh, Anders
    Volvo Aero Corporation.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Jet engine design optimization using knowledge-based master models2012Ingår i: Proccedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012, American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2012, Vol. 7, A and B, s. 41-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a preliminary design optimization study of a jet engine structure using a knowledge-based master modeling approach. The objective function is derived based on input-output relationships of a cost-performance model, where specific fuel consumption, pressure loss and direct cost are considered. The advantage of this problem formulation is that it entails a single composite objective function that takes into account mass, structural characteristics, dynamic response and translates them to a direct operational cost function to be minimized. A fan-blade-off scenario is considered as the loading case in this paper. The loss of one fan blade during nominal operation causes a rotor imbalance and structural deformation.

  • 43.
    Viklund, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Modularization based on commonalities in house-building requirements2017Ingår i: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, s. 126-134Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the requirements governing the design of houses are common between projects. This opens up for using modularization based on product commonalities. Though modularization is well known in the manufacturing industry, its use in house-building contexts is less studied. Even more scarce is research focusing on how requirement commonalities between one-of-a-kind products are found and managed in a modularization process. In this research, modularization from a requirements management perspective is empirically explored using a case study approach. Though the studied modularization process can be described as sequential, the process steps are highly interrelated, with overlaps and iterations. Commonalities are found by functional decomposition of the customer's portfolio projects, tracing technical solutions back to their initial requirements. These are balanced with the customer's requirements on the product and on the design automation tool. The requirement list is continuously updated based on portfolio analysis and communication of modularization results to the customer

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