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  • 1.
    Abdelaziz, Ahmed
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Ang, Tanfong
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Sookhak, Mehdi
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Khan, Suleman
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Liew, Cheesun
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Akhunzada, Adnan
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Survey on network virtualization using openflow: Taxonomy, opportunities, and open issues2016In: KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, ISSN 1976-7277, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 4902-4932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of network virtualization has recently regained considerable momentum because of the emergence of OpenFlow technology. It is essentially decouples a data plane from a control plane and promotes hardware programmability. Subsequently, OpenFlow facilitates the implementation of network virtualization. This study aims to provide an overview of different approaches to create a virtual network using OpenFlow technology. The paper also presents the OpenFlow components to compare conventional network architecture with OpenFlow network architecture, particularly in terms of the virtualization. A thematic OpenFlow network virtualization taxonomy is devised to categorize network virtualization approaches. Several testbeds that support OpenFlow network virtualization are discussed with case studies to show the capabilities of OpenFlow virtualization. Moreover, the advantages of popular OpenFlow controllers that are designed to enhance network virtualization is compared and analyzed. Finally, we present key research challenges that mainly focus on security, scalability, reliability, isolation, and monitoring in the OpenFlow virtual environment. Numerous potential directions to tackle the problems related to OpenFlow network virtualization are likewise discussed

  • 2.
    Acampora, Giovanni
    et al.
    Department of Physics “Ettore Pancini”, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Pedrycz, WitoldDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.Vasilakos, AthanasiosLuleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.Vitiello, AutiliaDepartment of Physics “Ettore Pancini”, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Computational Intelligence for Semantic Knowledge Management: New Perspectives for Designing and Organizing Information Systems2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of computational intelligence methods for semantic knowledge management. Contrary to popular belief, the methods for semantic management of information were created several decades ago, long before the birth of the Internet. In fact, it was back in 1945 when Vannevar Bush introduced the idea for the first protohypertext: the MEMEX (MEMory + indEX) machine. In the years that followed, Bush’s idea influenced the development of early hypertext systems until, in the 1980s, Tim Berners Lee developed the idea of the World Wide Web (WWW) as it is known today. From then on, there was an exponential growth in research and industrial activities related to the semantic management of the information and its exploitation in different application domains, such as healthcare, e-learning and energy management. 

    However, semantics methods are not yet able to address some of the problems that naturally characterize knowledge management, such as the vagueness and uncertainty of information. This book reveals how computational intelligence methodologies, due to their natural inclination to deal with imprecision and partial truth, are opening new positive scenarios for designing innovative semantic knowledge management architectures.

  • 3.
    Acampora, Giovanni
    et al.
    Department of Physics “Ettore Pancini”, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Pedrycz, Witold
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vitiello, Autilia
    Department of Physics “Ettore Pancini”, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Preface2020In: Computational Intelligence for Semantic Knowledge Management: New Perspectives for Designing and Organizing Information Systems / [ed] Giovanni Acampora; Witold Pedrycz; Athanasios V. Vasilakos; Autilia Vitiello, Springer Nature, 2020, Vol. 837, p. vii-xChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Adalat, Mohsin
    et al.
    COSMOSE Research Group, Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Niazi, Muaz A.
    COSMOSE Research Group, Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Variations in power of opinion leaders in online communication networks2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 10, article id 180642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online social media has completely transformed how we communicate with each other. While online discussion platforms are available in the form of applications and websites, an emergent outcome of this transformation is the phenomenon of ‘opinion leaders’. A number of previous studies have been presented to identify opinion leaders in online discussion networks. In particular, Feng (2016 Comput. Hum. Behav. 54, 43–53. (doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.052)) has identified five different types of central users besides outlining their communication patterns in an online communication network. However, the presented work focuses on a limited time span. The question remains as to whether similar communication patterns exist that will stand the test of time over longer periods. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Feng framework both for short-term as well as for longer periods. Additionally, for validation, we take another case study presented by Udanor et al. (2016 Program 50, 481–507. (doi:10.1108/PROG-02-2016-0011)) to further understand these dynamics. Results indicate that not all Feng-based central users may be identifiable in the longer term. Conversation starter and influencers were noted as opinion leaders in the network. These users play an important role as information sources in long-term discussions. Whereas network builder and active engager help in connecting otherwise sparse communities. Furthermore, we discuss the changing positions of opinion leaders and their power to keep isolates interested in an online discussion network.

  • 5.
    Agreste, Santa
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina.
    De Meo, Pasquale
    of Ancient and Modern Civilizations, University of Messina.
    Fiumara, Giacomo
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina.
    Piccione, Giuseppe
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina.
    Piccolo, Sebastiano
    Department of Management Engineering - Engineering Systems Division at the Technical University of Denmark.
    Rosaci, Domenico
    DIIES Department, University of Reggio Calabria Via Graziella.
    Sarné, Giuseppe M. L.
    DICEAM Department, University of Reggio Calabria Via Graziella.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    An empirical comparison of algorithms to find communities in directed graphs and their application in Web Data Analytics2017In: IEEE Transactions on Big Data, E-ISSN 2332-7790, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 289-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting communities in graphs is a fundamental tool to understand the structure of Web-based systems and predict their evolution. Many community detection algorithms are designed to process undirected graphs (i.e., graphs with bidirectional edges) but many graphs on the Web - e.g. microblogging Web sites, trust networks or the Web graph itself - are often directed. Few community detection algorithms deal with directed graphs but we lack their experimental comparison. In this paper we evaluated some community detection algorithms across accuracy and scalability. A first group of algorithms (Label Propagation and Infomap) are explicitly designed to manage directed graphs while a second group (e.g., WalkTrap) simply ignores edge directionality; finally, a third group of algorithms (e.g., Eigenvector) maps input graphs onto undirected ones and extracts communities from the symmetrized version of the input graph. We ran our tests on both artificial and real graphs and, on artificial graphs, WalkTrap achieved the highest accuracy, closely followed by other algorithms; Label Propagation has outstanding performance in scalability on both artificial and real graphs. The Infomap algorithm showcased the best trade-off between accuracy and computational performance and, therefore, it has to be considered as a promising tool for Web Data Analytics purposes.

  • 6.
    Ahmad, Iftikhar
    et al.
    Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Noor, Rafidah Md
    Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Ali, Ihsan
    Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
    Imran, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Characterizing the role of vehicular cloud computing in road traffic management2017In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 13, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular cloud computing is envisioned to deliver services that provide traffic safety and efficiency to vehicles. Vehicular cloud computing has great potential to change the contemporary vehicular communication paradigm. Explicitly, the underutilized resources of vehicles can be shared with other vehicles to manage traffic during congestion. These resources include but are not limited to storage, computing power, and Internet connectivity. This study reviews current traffic management systems to analyze the role and significance of vehicular cloud computing in road traffic management. First, an abstraction of the vehicular cloud infrastructure in an urban scenario is presented to explore the vehicular cloud computing process. A taxonomy of vehicular clouds that defines the cloud formation, integration types, and services is presented. A taxonomy of vehicular cloud services is also provided to explore the object types involved and their positions within the vehicular cloud. A comparison of the current state-of-the-art traffic management systems is performed in terms of parameters, such as vehicular ad hoc network infrastructure, Internet dependency, cloud management, scalability, traffic flow control, and emerging services. Potential future challenges and emerging technologies, such as the Internet of vehicles and its incorporation in traffic congestion control, are also discussed. Vehicular cloud computing is envisioned to have a substantial role in the development of smart traffic management solutions and in emerging Internet of vehicles

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ejaz
    et al.
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Yaqoob, Ibrar
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Khan, Imran
    Schneider Electric Industries, Grenoble.
    Ahmed, Abdelmuttlib Ibrahim Abdalla
    The Centre for Mobile Cloud Computing Research, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya.
    Imran, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    The role of big data analytics in Internet of Things2017In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 459-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The explosive growth in the number of devices connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) and the exponential increase in data consumption only reflect how the growth of big data perfectly overlaps with that of IoT. The management of big data in a continuously expanding network gives rise to non-trivial concerns regarding data collection efficiency, data processing, analytics, and security. To address these concerns, researchers have examined the challenges associated with the successful deployment of IoT. Despite the large number of studies on big data, analytics, and IoT, the convergence of these areas creates several opportunities for flourishing big data and analytics for IoT systems. In this paper, we explore the recent advances in big data analytics for IoT systems as well as the key requirements for managing big data and for enabling analytics in an IoT environment. We taxonomized the literature based on important parameters. We identify the opportunities resulting from the convergence of big data, analytics, and IoT as well as discuss the role of big data analytics in IoT applications. Finally, several open challenges are presented as future research directions.

  • 8.
    Akbar, Mariam
    et al.
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Javaid, Nadeem
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Kahn, Ayesha Hussain
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Imran, Muhammad Al
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, Almuzahmiyah, King Saud University.
    Shoaib, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, Almuzahmiyah, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Efficient Data Gathering in 3D Linear Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sink Mobility2016In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the unpleasant and unpredictable underwater environment, designing an energy-efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demands more accuracy and extra computations. In the proposed scheme, we introduce a mobile sink (MS), i.e., an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and also courier nodes (CNs), to minimize the energy consumption of nodes. MS and CNs stop at specific stops for data gathering; later on, CNs forward the received data to the MS for further transmission. By the mobility of CNs and MS, the overall energy consumption of nodes is minimized. We perform simulations to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it to preexisting techniques. Simulation results are compared in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss, transmission loss and packet drop ratio. The results show that the proposed technique performs better in terms of network lifetime, throughput, path loss and scalability

  • 9.
    Akram, Waseem
    et al.
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Computer Science Department, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Niazi, Muaz A.
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Computer Science Department, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Iantovics, Laszlo Barna
    Petru Maior University of Tirgu Mures, Informatics Department, Tirgu Mures, Romania.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Towards agent-based model specification of smart grid: a cognitive agent-based computing approach2019In: Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, ISSN 1334-4684, E-ISSN 1334-4676, Vol. 17, no 3B, p. 546-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A smart grid can be considered as a complex network where each node represents a generation unit or a consumer, whereas links can be used to represent transmission lines. One way to study complex systems is by using the agent-based modeling paradigm. The agent-based modeling is a way of representing a complex system of autonomous agents interacting with each other. Previously, a number of studies have been presented in the smart grid domain making use of the agent-based modeling paradigm. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of these studies have focused on the specification aspect of the model. The model specification is important not only for understanding but also for replication of the model. To fill this gap, this study focuses on specification methods for smart grid modeling. We adopt two specification methods named as Overview, design concept, and details and Descriptive agent-based modeling. By using specification methods, we provide tutorials and guidelines for model developing of smart grid starting from conceptual modeling to validated agent-based model through simulation. The specification study is exemplified through a case study from the smart grid domain. In the case study, we consider a large set of network, in which different consumers and power generation units are connected with each other through different configuration. In such a network, communication takes place between consumers and generating units for energy transmission and data routing. We demonstrate how to effectively model a complex system such as a smart grid using specification methods. We analyze these two specification approaches qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Extensive experiments demonstrate that Descriptive agent-based modeling is a more useful approach as compared with Overview, design concept, and details method for modeling as well as for replication of models for the smart grid.

  • 10.
    Alam, Quratulain
    et al.
    Department of Computer Sciences, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar.
    Tabbasum, Saher
    Department of Computer Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Malik, Saif U.R.
    Department of Computer Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Alam, Masoom
    Department of Computer Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad.
    Ali, Tamleek
    Department of Computer Sciences, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar.
    Akhunzada, Adnan
    Center for Mobile Cloud Computing Research (C4MCCR), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur.
    Khan, Samee U.
    Department of electrical and computer engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Buyya, Rajkumar
    Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems, (CLOUDS) Laboratory, Department of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne.
    Formal Verification of the xDAuth Protocol2016In: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, ISSN 1556-6013, E-ISSN 1556-6021, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1956-1969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) offers a flexible paradigm for information flow among collaborating organizations. As information moves out of an organization boundary, various security concerns may arise, such as confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity that needs to be addressed. Moreover, verifying the correctness of the communication protocol is also an important factor. This paper focuses on the formal verification of the xDAuth protocol, which is one of the prominent protocols for identity management in cross domain scenarios. We have modeled the information flow of xDAuth protocol using High Level Petri Nets (HLPN) to understand protocol information flow in a distributed environment. We analyze the rules of information flow using Z language while Z3 SMT solver is used for verification of the model. Our formal analysis and verification results reveal the fact that the protocol fulfills its intended purpose and provides the security for the defined protocol specific properties, e.g. secure secret key authentication, Chinese wall security policy and secrecy specific properties, e.g. confidentiality, integrity, authenticity.

  • 11.
    Al-Dulaimi, Anwer
    et al.
    ECE, University of Toronto.
    Anpalagan, Alagan
    WINCORE Lab, Ryerson University, Toronto.
    Bennis, Mehdi
    University of Oulu, Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    5G Green Communications: C-RAN Provisioning of CoMP and Femtocells for Power Management2016In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB): Montreal, Canada, 4-7 October 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, article id 7324392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fifth generation (5G) wireless network is expected to have dense deployments of cells in order to provide efficient Internet and cellular connections. The cloud radio access network (C-RAN) emerges as one of the 5G solutions to steer the network architecture and control resources beyond the legacy radio access technologies. The C-RAN decouples the traffic management operations from the radio access technologies leading to a new combination of virtualized network core and fronthaul architecture. In this paper, we first investigate the power consumption impact due to the aggressive deployments of low-power neighborhood femtocell networks (NFNs) under the umbrella of a coordinated multipoint (CoMP) macrocell. We show that power savings obtained from employing low power NFN start to decline as the density of deployed femtocells exceed certain threshold. The analysis considers two CoMP sites at the cell-edge and intra-cell areas. Second, to restore the power efficiency and network stabilization, a C-RAN model is proposed to restructure the NFN into clusters to ease the energy burden in the evolving 5G systems. Tailoring this to traffic load, selected clusters will be switched off to save power when they operate with low traffic loads

  • 12.
    Al-Turjman, Fadi M.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus.
    Imran, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Value-Based Caching in Information-Centric Wireless Body Area Networks2017In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a resilient cache replacement approach based on a Value of sensed Information (VoI) policy. To resolve and fetch content when the origin is not available due to isolated in-network nodes (fragmentation) and harsh operational conditions, we exploit a content caching approach. Our approach depends on four functional parameters in sensory Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). These four parameters are: age of data based on periodic request, popularity of on-demand requests, communication interference cost, and the duration for which the sensor node is required to operate in active mode to capture the sensed readings. These parameters are considered together to assign a value to the cached data to retain the most valuable information in the cache for prolonged time periods. The higher the value, the longer the duration for which the data will be retained in the cache. This caching strategy provides significant availability for most valuable and difficult to retrieve data in the WBANs. Extensive simulations are performed to compare the proposed scheme against other significant caching schemes in the literature while varying critical aspects in WBANs (e.g., data popularity, cache size, publisher load, connectivity-degree, and severe probabilities of node failures). These simulation results indicate that the proposed VoI-based approach is a valid tool for the retrieval of cached content in disruptive and challenging scenarios, such as the one experienced in WBANs, since it allows the retrieval of content for a long period even while experiencing severe in-network node failures.

  • 13.
    Amadeo, Marcia
    et al.
    Universita Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria.
    Campolo, Claudia
    Universita Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria. Telecommunications.
    Quevedo, Jose
    Universidade de Aveiro, Inst Telecomunicacoes.
    Corujo, Daniel
    Universidade de Aveiro, Inst Telecomunicacoes.
    Molinaro, Antonella
    Universita Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria. Telecommunications.
    Iera, Antonio
    Universita Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria.
    Aguiar, Rui L.
    Universidade de Aveiro, Inst Telecomunicacoes.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Information-Centric Networking for the Internet of Things: Challenges and Opportunities2016In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 92-100, article id 7437030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In view of evolving the Internet infrastructure, ICN is promoting a communication model that is fundamentally different from the traditional IP address-centric model. The ICN approach consists of the retrieval of content by (unique) names, regardless of origin server location (i.e., IP address), application, and distribution channel, thus enabling in-network caching/replication and content-based security. The expected benefits in terms of improved data dissemination efficiency and robustness in challenging communication scenarios indicate the high potential of ICN as an innovative networking paradigm in the IoT domain. IoT is a challenging environment, mainly due to the high number of heterogeneous and potentially constrained networked devices, and unique and heavy traffic patterns. The application of ICN principles in such a context opens new opportunities, while requiring careful design choices. This article critically discusses potential ways toward this goal by surveying the current literature after presenting several possible motivations for the introduction of ICN in the context of IoT. Major challenges and opportunities are also highlighted, serving as guidelines for progress beyond the state of the art in this timely and increasingly relevant topic.

  • 14.
    Baqer Mollah, Muhammad
    et al.
    Jahangirnagar University.
    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam
    Jahangirnagar University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Secure Data Sharing and Searching at the Edge of Cloud-Assisted Internet of Things2017In: IEEE Cloud Computing, E-ISSN 2325-6095, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 34-42, article id 7879139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few years, smart devices are able to communicate with each other and with Internet/cloud from short to long range. As a consequence, a new paradigm is introduced called Internet of Things (IoT). However, by utilizing cloud computing, resource limited IoT smart devices can get various benefits like offload data storage and processing burden at cloud. To support latency sensitive, real-time data processing, mobility and high data rate IoT applications, working at the edge of the network offers more benefits than cloud. In this paper, we propose an efficient data sharing scheme that allows smart devices to securely share data with others at the edge of cloud-assisted IoT. In addition, we also propose a secure searching scheme to search desired data within own/shared data on storage. Finally, we analyze the performance based on processing time of our proposed scheme. The results demonstrate that our scheme has potential to be effectively used in IoT applications

  • 15.
    Baqer Mollah, Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka.
    Kalam Azad, Md. Abul
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Security and privacy challenges in mobile cloud computing: Survey and way ahead2017In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 84, p. 38-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of mobile computing is seriously challenged by the resource constrained mobile devices. However, the growth of mobile computing can be enhanced by integrating mobile computing into cloud computing, and hence a new paradigm of computing called mobile cloud computing emerges. In here, the data is stored in cloud infrastructure and the actual execution is shifted to cloud environment so that a mobile user is set free from resource constrained issue of existing mobile devices. Moreover, to avail the cloud services, the communications between mobile devices and clouds are held through wireless medium. Thus, some new classes of security and privacy challenges are introduced. The purpose of this survey is to present the main security and privacy challenges in this field which have grown much interest among the academia and research community. Although, there are many challenges, corresponding security solutions have been proposed and identified in literature by many researchers to counter the challenges. We also present these recent works in short. Furthermore, we compare these works based on different security and privacy requirements, and finally present open issues.

  • 16.
    Batalla, Jordi Mongay
    et al.
    National Institute of Telecommunications, Warsaw University of Technology.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Gajewski, Mariusz
    National Institute of Telecommunications, Poland..
    Secure Smart Homes: Opportunities and Challenges2017In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 50, no 5, p. p75:1-75:32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Smart Home concept integrates smart applications in the daily human life. In recent years, Smart Homes have increased security and management challenges due to the low capacity of small sensors, multiple connectivity to the Internet for efficient applications (use of big data and cloud computing) and heterogeneity of home systems, which require inexpert users to configure devices and micro-systems. This article presents current security and management approaches in Smart Homes and shows the good practices imposed on the market for developing secure systems in houses. At last, we propose future solutions for efficiently and securely managing the Smart Homes

  • 17.
    Bera, Basudeb
    et al.
    Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad 500 032, India.
    Saha, Sourav
    Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad 500 032, India.
    Das, Ashok Kumar
    Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad 500 032, India.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University Technology Sydney, Australia. Department of Computer Science and Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China.
    Designing Blockchain-Based Access Control Protocol in IoT-Enabled Smart-Grid System2021In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 5744-5761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We design a new blockchain-based access control protocol in IoT-enabled smart-grid system, called DBACP-IoTSG. Through the proposed DBACP-IoTSG, the data is securely brought to the service providers from their respective smart meters (SMs). The peer-to-peer (P2P) network is formed by the participating service providers, where the peer nodes are responsible for creating the blocks from the gathered data securely from their corresponding SMs and adding them into the blockchain after validation of the blocks using the voting-based consensus algorithm. In our work, the blockchain is considered as private because the data collected from the consumers of the SMs are private and confidential. By the formal security analysis under the random oracle model, nonmathematical security analysis and software-based formal security verification, DBACP-IoTSG is shown to be resistant against various attacks. We carry out the experimental results of various cryptographic primitives that are needed for comparative analysis using the widely used multiprecision integer and rational arithmetic cryptographic library (MIRACL). A detailed comparative study reveals that DBACP-IoTSG supports more functionality features and provides better security apart from its low communication and computation costs as compared to recently proposed relevant schemes. In addition, the blockchain implementation of DBACP-IoTSG has been performed to measure computational time needed for the varied number of blocks addition and also the varied number of transactions per block in the blockchain.

  • 18.
    Bera, Samaresh
    et al.
    Computer Science and Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302, India..
    Misra, Sudip
    Computer Science and Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302, India..
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Software-Defined Networking for Internet of Things: a Survey2017In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 1994-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) facilitates billions of devices to be enabled with network connectivity to collect and exchange real-time information for providing intelligent services. Thus, IoT allows connected devices to be controlled and accessed remotely in the presence of adequate network infrastructure. Unfortunately, traditional network technologies such as enterprise networks and classic timeout-based transport protocols are not capable of handling such requirements of IoT in an efficient, scalable, seamless, and cost-effective manner. Besides, the advent of software-defined networking (SDN) introduces features that allow the network operators and users to control and access the network devices remotely, while leveraging the global view of the network. In this respect, we provide a comprehensive survey of different SDN-based technologies, which are useful to fulfill the requirements of IoT, from different networking aspects – edge, access, core, and data center networking. In these areas, the utility of SDN-based technologies is discussed, while presenting different challenges and requirements of the same in the context of IoT applications. We present a synthesized overview of the current state of IoT development. We also highlight some of the future research directions and open research issues based on the limitations of the existing SDN-based technologies.

  • 19.
    Cai, H.
    et al.
    School of Software, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China.
    Gu, Y.
    School of Software, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Xu, B.
    College of Economics and Management, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhou, J.
    School of Software, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China.
    Model-Driven Development Patterns for Mobile Services in Cloud of Things2018In: IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, ISSN 2168-7161, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 771-784, article id 7399727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud of Things (CoT) is an integration of Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing for intelligent and smart application especially in mobile environment. Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is used to develop Software as a Service (SaaS) so as to facilitate mobile application development by relieving developers from technical details. However, traditional service composition or mashup are somewhat unavailable due to complex relations and heterogeneous deployed environments. For the purpose of building cloud-enabled mobile applications in a configurable and adaptive way, Model-Driven Development Patterns based on semantic reasoning mechanism are provided towards CoT application development. Firstly, a meta-model covering both multi-view business elements and service components are provided for model transformation. Then, based on formal representation of models, three patterns from different tiers of Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework are used to transform business models into service component system so as to configure cloud services rapidly. Lastly, a related software platform is also provided for verification. The result shows that the platform is applicable for rapid system development by means of various service integration patterns. 

  • 20.
    Cai, Hongming
    et al.
    School of Software, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Web of Things Data Storage2017In: Managing the Web of Things: Linking the Real World to the Web, Elsevier, 2017, p. 325-354Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the wide spread of Web of Things (WoT) technology, massive data are generated by huge amounts of distributed sensors and different applications. WoT related applications have emerged as an important area for both engineers and researchers. As a consequence, how to acquire, integrate, store, process and use these data has become an urgent and important problem for enterprises to achieve their business goals. Based on data processing functional analysis, a framework is provided to identify the representation, management, and disposing areas of WoT data. Several associated functional modules are defined and described in terms of their key characteristics and capabilities. Then, current researches in WoT applications are organized and compared to show the state-of-the-art achievements in literature from the view of data processing process. Next, some WoT storage techniques are discussed to enable WoT applications to move into cloud platforms. Lastly, based on application requirement analysis, some future technical tendencies are also proposed.

  • 21.
    Cai, Hongming
    et al.
    School of Software, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Xu, Boyi
    College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Jiang, Lihong
    School of Software, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    IoT-Based Big Data Storage Systems in Cloud Computing: Perspectives and Challenges2017In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 75-87, article id 7600359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) related applications have emerged as an important field for both engineers and researchers, reflecting the magnitude and impact of data-related problems to be solved in contemporary business organizations especially in cloud computing. This paper first provides a functional framework that identifies the acquisition, management, processing and mining areas of IoT big data, and several associated technical modules are defined and described in terms of their key characteristics and capabilities. Then current research in IoT application is analyzed, moreover, the challenges and opportunities associated with IoT big data research are identified. We also report a study of critical IoT application publications and research topics based on related academic and industry publications. Finally, some open issues and some typical examples are given under the proposed IoT-related research framework

  • 22.
    Cai, Shangming
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Wang, Dongsheng
    Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Cyberspace Security Research Center, Peng Cheng Laboratory, Shenzhen 518066, China.
    Wang, Haixia
    Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Lyu, Yongqiang
    Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Xu, Guangquan
    Big Data School, Qingdao Huanghai University, Qingdao 266427, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Networking (TANK), College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.
    Zheng, Xi
    Department of Computing, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China; School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    DynaComm: Accelerating Distributed CNN Training between Edges and Clouds through Dynamic Communication Scheduling2022In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 611-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce uploading bandwidth and address privacy concerns, deep learning at the network edge has been an emerging topic. Typically, edge devices collaboratively train a shared model using real-time generated data through the Parameter Server framework. Although all the edge devices can share the computing workloads, the distributed training processes over edge networks are still time-consuming due to the parameters and gradients transmission procedures between parameter servers and edge devices. Focusing on accelerating distributed Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) training at the network edge, we present DynaComm, a novel scheduler that dynamically decomposes each transmission procedure into several segments to achieve optimal layer-wise communications and computations overlapping during run-time. Through experiments, we verify that DynaComm manages to achieve optimal layer-wise scheduling for all cases compared to competing strategies while the model accuracy remains untouched.

  • 23.
    Cao, Liang
    et al.
    Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Wang, Yufeng
    Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Zhang, Bo
    Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Jin, Qun
    Waseda University, Japan.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    GCHAR: An efficient Group-based Context–aware human activity recognition on smartphone2018In: Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISSN 0743-7315, E-ISSN 1096-0848, Vol. 118, no part-1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With smartphones increasingly becoming ubiquitous and being equipped with various sensors, nowadays, there is a trend towards implementing HAR (Human Activity Recognition) algorithms and applications on smartphones, including health monitoring, self-managing system and fitness tracking. However, one of the main issues of the existing HAR schemes is that the classification accuracy is relatively low, and in order to improve the accuracy, high computation overhead is needed. In this paper, an efficient Group-based Context-aware classification method for human activity recognition on smartphones, GCHAR is proposed, which exploits hierarchical group-based scheme to improve the classification efficiency, and reduces the classification error through context awareness rather than the intensive computation. Specifically, GCHAR designs the two-level hierarchical classification structure, i.e., inter-group and inner-group, and utilizes the previous state and transition logic (so-called context awareness) to detect the transitions among activity groups. In comparison with other popular classifiers such as RandomTree, Bagging, J48, BayesNet, KNN and Decision Table, thorough experiments on the realistic dataset (UCI HAR repository) demonstrate that GCHAR achieves the best classification accuracy, reaching 94.1636%, and time consumption in training stage of GCHAR is four times shorter than the simple Decision Table and is decreased by 72.21% in classification stage in comparison with BayesNet.

  • 24.
    Chakraborty, Rajat Subhra
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India.
    Mathew, Jimson
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna, India.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Preface2019In: Internet of Things, ISSN 2199-1073, p. v-ixArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Challa, Srinavi
    et al.
    Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad .
    Kumar Das, Ashok
    Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad .
    Odelu, Vanga
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Information Technology Chittoor.
    Kumar, Neeraj
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala .
    Kumari, Sari
    Department of Mathematics, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut .
    Khan, Muhammad Khurram
    Center of Excellence in Information Assurance, King Saud University, Riyadh.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    An efficient ECC-based provably secure three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol for wireless healthcare sensor networks2017In: Computers & electrical engineering, ISSN 0045-7906, E-ISSN 1879-0755, Vol. 69, p. 534-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We first show the security limitations of a recent user authentication scheme proposed for wireless healthcare sensor networks. We then present a provably secure three-factor user authentication and key agreement protocol for wireless healthcare sensor networks. The proposed scheme supports functionality features, such as dynamic sensor node addition, password as well as biometrics update, smart card revocation along with other usual features required for user authentication in wireless sensor networks. Our scheme is shown to be secure through the rigorous formal security analysis under the Real-Or-Random (ROR) model and broadly-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. Furthermore, the simulation through the widely-known Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool shows that our scheme is also secure. High security, and low communication and computation costs make our scheme more suitable for practical application in healthcare applications as compared to other related existing schemes.

  • 26.
    Chang, Weng-Long
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, No. 415, Jiangong Road, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan 807-78, Republic of China.
    Chen, Ju-Chin
    Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, No. 415, Jiangong Road, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan 807-78, Republic of China.
    Chung, Wen-Yu
    Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, No. 415, Jiangong Road, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan 807-78, Republic of China.
    Hsiao, Chun-Yuan
    Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, No. 415, Jiangong Road, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan 807-78, Republic of China.
    Wong, Renata
    Department of Computer Science and Technology, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Road, 210023 Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China.
    Quantum Speedup and Mathematical Solutions from Implementing Bio-molecular Solutions for the Independent Set Problem on IBM’s Quantum Computers2021In: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, ISSN 1536-1241, E-ISSN 1558-2639, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 354-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a bio-molecular algorithm with O(n2 + m) biological operations, O(2n) DNA strands, O(n) tubes and the longest DNA strand, O(n), for solving the independent-set problem for any graph G with m edges and n vertices. Next, we show that a new kind of the straightforward Boolean circuit yielded from the bio-molecular solutions with m NAND gates, (m + n × (n +1)) AND gates and ((n × (n + 1)) / 2) NOT gates can find the maximal independent-set(s) to the independent-set problem for any graph G with m edges and n vertices. We show that a new kind of the proposed quantum-molecular algorithm can find the maximal independent set(s) with the lower bound O(2n/2) queries and the upper bound Ω(2n/2) queries. This work offers an obvious evidence that to solve the independent-set problem in any graph G with m edges and n vertices, bio-molecular computers are able to generate a new kind of the straightforward Boolean circuit such that by means of implementing it quantum computers can give a quadratic speed-up. This work also offers one obvious evidence that quantum computers can significantly accelerate the speed and enhance the scalability of bio-molecular computers. Furthermore, to justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum-molecular algorithm, we successfully solve a typical independent set problem for a graph G with three vertices and two edges by carrying out experiments on the backend ibmqx4 with five quantum bits and the backend simulator with 32 quantum bits on IBM’s quantum computer.

  • 27.
    Chatterjee, Santanu
    et al.
    Research Center Imarat, Defence Research and Development Organization, Hyderabad.
    Roy, Sandip
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Asansol Engineering College, Asansol.
    Kumar Das, Ashok
    Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad.
    Chattopadhyay, Samiran
    Department of Information Technology, Jadavpur University, Salt Lake City.
    Kumar, Neeraj
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Secure Biometric-Based Authentication Schemeusing Chebyshev Chaotic Map for Multi-Server Environment2018In: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, ISSN 1545-5971, E-ISSN 1941-0018, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 824-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Multi-server environment is the most common scenario for a large number of enterprise class applications. In this environment, user registration at each server is not recommended. Using multi-server authentication architecture, user can manage authentication to various servers using single identity and password. We introduce a new authentication scheme for multi-server environments using Chebyshev chaotic map. In our scheme, we use the Chebyshev chaotic map and biometric verification along with password verification for authorization and access to various application servers. The proposed scheme is light-weight compared to other related schemes. We only use the Chebyshev chaotic map, cryptographic hash function and symmetric key encryption-decryption in the proposed scheme. Our scheme provides strong authentication, and also supports biometrics & password change phase by a legitimate user at any time locally, and dynamic server addition phase. We perform the formal security verification using the broadly-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that the presented scheme is secure. In addition, we use the formal security analysis using the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic along with random oracle models and prove that our scheme is secure against different known attacks. High security and significantly low computation and communication costs make our scheme is very suitable for multi-server environments as compared to other existing related schemes.

  • 28.
    Chen, Feng
    et al.
    Parallel Computing Laboratory, Institute of Software Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Deng, Pan
    Parallel Computing Laboratory, Institute of Software Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.
    Wan, Jiafu
    School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou.
    Zhang, Daqiang
    School of Software Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Rong, Xiaohui
    Chinese Academy of Civil Aviation Science and Technology, Beijing.
    Data mining for the internet of things: Literature review and challenges2015In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 2015, article id 431047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive data generated by the Internet of Things (IoT) are considered of high business value, and data mining algorithms can be applied to IoT to extract hidden information from data. In this paper, we give a systematic way to review data mining in knowledge view, technique view, and application view, including classification, clustering, association analysis, time series analysis and outlier analysis. And the latest application cases are also surveyed. As more and more devices connected to IoT, large volume of data should be analyzed, the latest algorithms should be modified to apply to big data. We reviewed these algorithms and discussed challenges and open research issues. At last a suggested big data mining system is proposed

  • 29.
    Chen, Jialu
    et al.
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhou, Jun
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Cao, Zhenfu
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Computer Science and Technology, Fuzhou University, China.
    Dong, Xiaolei
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China..
    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond
    Department of Information Systems and Cyber Security, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.
    Lightweight Privacy-preserving Training and Evaluation for Discretized Neural Networks2020In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 2663-2678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning, particularly the neural network, is extensively exploited in dizzying applications. In order to reduce the burden of computing for resource-constrained clients, a large number of historical private datasets are required to be outsourced to the semi-trusted or malicious cloud for model training and evaluation. To achieve privacy preservation, most of the existing work either exploited the technique of public key fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) resulting in considerable computational cost and ciphertext expansion, or secure multiparty computation (SMC) requiring multiple rounds of interactions between user and cloud. To address these issues, in this paper, a lightweight privacy-preserving model training and evaluation scheme LPTE for discretized neural networks is proposed. Firstly, we put forward an efficient single key fully homomorphic data encapsulation mechanism (SFH-DEM) without exploiting public key FHE. Based on SFH-DEM, a series of atomic calculations over the encrypted domain including multivariate polynomial, nonlinear activation function, gradient function and maximum operations are devised as building blocks. Furthermore, a lightweight privacy-preserving model training and evaluation scheme LPTE for discretized neural networks is proposed, which can also be extended to convolutional neural network. Finally, we give the formal security proofs for dataset privacy, model training privacy and model evaluation privacy under the semi-honest environment and implement the experiment on real dataset MNIST for recognizing handwritten numbers in discretized neural network to demonstrate the high efficiency and accuracy of our proposed LPTE.

  • 30.
    Chen, Lin
    et al.
    Laboratorie Recherche Informatique (LRI-CNRS UMR 8623), Université Paris-Sud.
    Li, Yong
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Bejing.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Oblivious Neighbor Discovery for Wireless Devices with Directional Antennas2016In: IEEE INFOCOM 2016: The 35th Annual IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, San Francisco, 10-14 April 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, article id 7524570Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbor discovery, the process of discovering all neighbors in a device's communication range, is one of the bootstrapping networking primitives of paramount importance and is particularly challenging when devices have directional antennas instead of omni-directional ones. In this paper, we study the following fundamental problem which we term as oblivious neighbor discovery: How can neighbor nodes with heterogeneous antenna configurations and without clock synchronization discover each other within a bounded delay in a fully decentralised manner without any prior coordination? We first establish a theoretical framework on oblivious neighbor discovery and establish the performance bound of any neighbor discovery protocol achieving oblivious discovery. Guided by the theoretical results, we then design an oblivious neighbor discovery protocol and prove that it achieves guaranteed oblivious discovery with order-minimal worst-case discovery delay in the asynchronous and heterogeneous environment. We further demonstrate how our protocol can be configured to achieve a desired trade-off between average and worst-case performance

  • 31.
    Chen, Lin
    et al.
    Laboratory Recherche Informatique (LRI-CNRS UMR 8623), Université Paris-Sud.
    Li, Yong
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Bejing.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    On Oblivious Neighbor Discovery in Distributed Wireless Networks With Directional Antennas: Theoretical Foundation and Algorithm Design2017In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1982-1993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbor discovery, one of the most fundamental bootstrapping networking primitives, is particularly challenging in decentralized wireless networks where devices have directional antennas. In this paper, we study the following fundamental problem, which we term oblivious neighbor discovery: How can neighbor nodes with heterogeneous antenna configurations discover each other within a bounded delay in a fully decentralised manner without any prior coordination or synchronisation? We establish a theoretical framework on the oblivious neighbor discovery and the performance bound of any neighbor discovery algorithm achieving oblivious discovery. Guided by the theoretical results, we then devise an oblivious neighbor discovery algorithm, which achieves guaranteed oblivious discovery with order-minimal worst case discovery delay in the asynchronous and heterogeneous environment. We further demonstrate how our algorithm can be configured to achieve a desired tradeoff between average and worst case performance.

  • 32.
    Chen, Yifan
    et al.
    Southern University of Science and Technology.
    Nakano, Tadashi
    Osaka University.
    Kosmas, Panagiotis
    King’s College London.
    Yuen, Chau
    Singapore University of Technology and Design.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Asvial, Muhamad
    University of Indonesia.
    Green Touchable Nanorobotic Sensor Networks2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in biological nanomachineshave motivated the research on nanoroboticsensor networks (NSNs), where thenanorobots are green (i.e., biocompatible andbiodegradable) and touchable (i.e., externallycontrollable and continuously trackable). In theformer aspect, NSNs will dissolve in an aqueousenvironment after finishing designated tasksand are harmless to the environment. In the latteraspect, NSNs employ cross-scale interfacesto interconnect the in vivo environment and itsexternal environment. Specifically, the in-messagingand out-messaging interfaces for nanorobotsto interact with a macro-unit are defined.The propagation and transient characteristicsof nanorobots are described based on the existingexperimental results. Furthermore, planningof nanorobot paths is discussed by taking intoaccount the effectiveness of region-of-interestdetection and the period of surveillance. Finally,a case study on how NSNs may be applied tomicrowave breast cancer detection is presented

  • 33.
    Cheng, Jie
    et al.
    Shannon Cognitive Computing Laboratory, Huawei Technologies Company, China.
    Liu, Yaning
    Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, China.
    Ye, Qiang
    University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.
    Du, Hongwei
    Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    DISCS: A Distributed Coordinate System Based on Robust Nonnegative Matrix Completion2017In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 934-947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many distributed applications, such as BitTorrent, need to know the distance between each pair of network hosts in order to optimize their performance. For small-scale systems, explicit measurements can be carried out to collect the distance information. For large-scale applications, this approach does not work due to the tremendous amount of measurements that have to be completed. To tackle the scalability problem, network coordinate system (NCS) was proposed to solve the scalability problem by using partial measurements to predict the unknown distances. However, the existing NCS schemes suffer seriously from either low prediction precision or unsatisfactory convergence speed. In this paper, we present a novel distributed network coordinate system (DISCS) that utilizes a limited set of distance measurements to achieve high-precision distance prediction at a fast convergence speed. Technically, DISCS employs the innovative robust nonnegative matrix completion method to improve the prediction accuracy. Through extensive experiments based on various publicly-available data sets, we found that DISCS outperforms the state-of-the-art NCS schemes in terms of prediction precision and convergence speed, which clearly shows the high usability of DISCS in real-life Internet applications.

  • 34.
    Chiaraviglio, Luca
    et al.
    EE Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Telecomunicazioni, Italy.
    D’Andreagiovanni, Fabio
    National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), France; Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, Heudiasyc UMR 7253, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne, France.
    Idzikowski, Filip
    Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications, Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Minimum Cost Design of 5G Networks with UAVs, Tree-based Optical Backhauling, Micro-generation and Batteries2019In: 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) / [ed] Marek Jaworski; Marian Marciniak, IEEE, 2019, article id We.D2.3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We target the minimum cost design of a 5G network exploiting Small Cells (SCs) carried by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In our architecture, UAV-SCs can be recharged by a set of ground sites, which provide energy capabilities thanks to the exploitation of micro-generation (i.e., locally produced energy) and batteries. In addition, the ground sites are connected by means of a set of optical fibers forming a tree-based topology. We then define an optimization problem to minimize the total installation costs of the ground sites, the optical network, the batteries, and the sources of micro-generation, while ensuring the coverage of the territory through the UAV-SCs. Results demonstrate that it is possible to notably reduce the total costs compared to a legacy solution, which assumes the installation of fixed Base Stations (BSs) to provide full territory coverage.

  • 35.
    Chiu, Wei-Yu
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
    Sun, Hongjian
    Department of Engineering Durham University Durham, U.K.
    Wang, Chao
    Department of Computer Science University of Exeter, Innovation Center, Exeter, U.K.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Computational Intelligence for Smart Energy Applications to Smart Cities2019In: IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence, E-ISSN 2471-285X, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 173-176Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this special section focus on computational intelligence for smart energy applications in smart cities. By 2050, more than half the world’s population is expected to live in urban regions. This rapid expansion of population in the cities of the future will lead to increasing demands on various infrastructures; the urban economics will play a major role in national economics. Cities must be competitive by providing smart functions to support high quality of life. There is thus an urgent need to develop smart cities that possess a number of smart components. Among them, smart energy is arguably the first infrastructure to be established because almost all systems require energy to operate. Smart energy refers to energy monitoring, prediction, use or management in a smart way. In smart cities, smart energy applications include smart grids, smart mobility, and smart communications. While realizing smart energy is promising to smart cities, it involves a number of challenges. The articles in this section aim to provide in-depth CI technologies that enable smart energy applications to smart cities.

  • 36.
    Chude-Okonkwo, U.A.K.
    et al.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Malekian, Reza
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Maharaj, Bodhaswar T.J.
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Simulation analysis of inter-symbol interference in diffusion-based molecular communication with non-absorbing receiver2017In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Conference on Nanoscale Computing and Communication, NanoCom 2017, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2017, article id 13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the analysis of inter-symbol interference (ISI) in a typical diffusion-based molecular communication system for a non-absorbing molecular receiver with no consideration to any artificially applied ISI mitigation technique. We employ stochastic simulation approach to analyze the influence of varied number of transmitted molecules, and molecules' degradation rates.

  • 37.
    Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.
    et al.
    University of Pretoria.
    Maharaj, B. T.
    University of Pretoria.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Malekian, Reza
    University of Pretoria.
    Exploring the Impact of Ligand Residence Time on Molecular Communication System Performance2019In: 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information reception in artificially synthesized molecular communication (MC) systems ideally follows the mechanisms employed by natural nanosystems to communicate. One of such reception mechanism is the so called ligand-receptor binding. Contemporary research in MC has considerably discussed this mechanism; however, the impact of a crucial parameter associated with the ligand-receptor binding action has not been given appropriate attention in the MC literature. This parameter is termed the residence time, and has played very crucial role in defining for instance, the efficacy of drugs in therapeutic processes; hence, it is critical in the performance of MC. In this paper, we employ biophysical approach to model and discuss the influence of the ligand residence time on the performance of MC systems. The performance metrics considered here are the receiver sensitivity and the intersymbol interference. Numerical results that expose the impact of the residence time on these metrics, and the interrelationships between these metrics in MC system, are discussed.

  • 38.
    Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. Institute of Intelligent Systems, University of Johannesburg, Gauteng 2006, South Africa.
    Maharaj, B. T.
    Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Malekian, Reza
    Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.
    Information-Theoretic Model and Analysis of Molecular Signaling in Targeted Drug Delivery2020In: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, ISSN 1536-1241, E-ISSN 1558-2639, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 270-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Targeted drug delivery (TDD) modality promises a smart localization of appropriate dose of therapeutic drugs to the targeted part of the body at reduced system toxicity. To achieve the desired goals of TDD, accurate analysis of the system is important. Recent advances in molecular communication (MC) present prospects to analyzing the TDD process using engineering concepts and tools. Specifically, the MC platform supports the abstraction of TDD process as a communication engineering problem in which the injection and transportation of drug particles in the human body and the delivery to a specific tissue or organ can be analyzed using communication engineering tools. In this paper we stand on the MC platform to present the information-theoretic model and analysis of the TDD systems. We present a modular structure of the TDD system and the probabilistic models of the MC-abstracted modules in an intuitive manner. Simulated results of information-theoretic measures such as the mutual information are employed to analyze the performance of the TDD system. Results indicate that uncertainties in drug injection/release systems, nanoparticles propagation channel and nanoreceiver systems influence the mutual information of the system, which is relative to the system’s bioequivalence measure.

  • 39.
    Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A.K.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria.
    Malekian, Reza
    Department of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria.
    Maharaj, B.T.
    Department of Electrical, Electronic & Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Molecular Communication and Nanonetwork for Targeted Drug Delivery: a survey2017In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 3046-3096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular communication (MC) and molecular network (MN) are communication paradigms that use biochemical signalling to achieve information exchange among naturally and artificially synthesized nanosystems. Among the envisaged application areas of MC and MN is the field of nanomedicine where the subject of targeted drug delivery (TDD) is at the forefront. Typically, when someone gets sick, therapeutic drugs are administered to the person for healing purpose. Since no therapeutic drug can be effective until it is delivered to the target site in the body, different modalities to improve the delivery of drugs to the targeted sites are being explored in contemporary research. The most promising of these modalities is TDD. TDD modality promises a smart localization of appropriate dose of therapeutic drugs to the targeted part of the body at reduced system toxicity. Research in TDD has been going on for many years in the field of medical science; however, the translation of expectations and promises to clinical reality has not been satisfactorily achieved because of several challenges. The exploration of TDD ideas under the MC and MN paradigms is considered as an option to addressing these challenges and to facilitate the translation of TDD from the bench to the patients’ bedsides. Over the past decade, there have been some research efforts made in exploring the ideas of TDD on the MC and MN platforms. While the number of research output in terms of scientific articles is few at the moment, the desire in the scientific community to participate in realizing the goal of TDD is quite high as is evidence from the rise in research output over the last few years. To increase awareness and provide the multidisciplinary research community with the necessary background information on TDD, this paper presents a visionary survey of this subject within the domain of MC and MN. We start by introducing in an elaborate manner, the motivation behind the application of MC and MN paradigms to the study and implementation of TDD. Specifically, an explanation on how MC-based TDD concepts differ from traditional TDD being explored under the field of medical science is provided. We also summarize the taxonomy of the different perspectives through which MC-based TDD research can be viewed. System models and design challenges/requirements for developing MC-based TDD are discussed. Various metrics that can be used to evaluate the performance of MC-based TDD systems are highlighted. We also provide a discussion on the envisaged path from contemporary research activities to clinical implementation of the MC-based TDD. Finally, we discuss issues such as informatics and software tools, as well as issues that border on the requirement for standards and regulatory policies in MC-based TDD research and practice.

  • 40.
    Chude-Okonkwo, Uche K.
    et al.
    Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa..
    Paul, Babu S.
    Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa..
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China; Center for AI Research (CAIR), University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway.
    Enabling Precision Medicine via Contemporary and Future Communication Technologies: A Survey2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 21210-21240Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precision medicine (PM) is an innovative medical approach that considers differences in the individuals’ omics, medical histories, lifestyles, and environmental information in treating diseases. To fully achieve the envisaged gains of PM, various contemporary and future technologies have to be employed, among which are nanotechnology, sensor network, big data, and artificial intelligence. These technologies and other applications require a communication network that will enable them to work in tandem for the benefit of PM. Hence, communication technology serves as the nervous system of PM, without which the entire system collapses. Therefore, it is essential to explore and determine the candidate communication technology requirements that can guarantee the envisioned gains of PM. To the best of our knowledge, no work exploring how communication technology directly impacts the development and deployment of PM solutions exists. This survey paper is designed to stimulate discussions on PM from the communication engineering perspective. We introduce the fundamentals of PM and the demands in terms of quality of service that each of the enabling technologies of PM places on the communication network. We explore the information in the literature to suggest the ideal metric values of the key performance indicators for the implementation of the different components of PM. The comparative analysis of the suitability of the contemporary and future communication technologies for PM implementation is discussed. Finally, some open research challenges for the candidate communication technologies that will enable the full implementation of PM solutions are highlighted.

  • 41.
    Dai, Hong-Ning
    et al.
    Faculty of Information Technology, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, Macau.
    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Wang, Hao
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Zheng, Zibin
    School of Data and Computer Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Xiaoguwei Island, Guangzhou, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Big Data Analytics for Large-scale Wireless Networks: Challenges and Opportunities2019In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 52, no 5, article id 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide proliferation of various wireless communication systems and wireless devices has led to the arrival of big data era in large-scale wireless networks. Big data of large-scale wireless networks has the key features of wide variety, high volume, real-time velocity, and huge value leading to the unique research challenges that are different from existing computing systems. In this article, we present a survey of the state-of-art big data analytics (BDA) approaches for large-scale wireless networks. In particular, we categorize the life cycle of BDA into four consecutive stages: Data Acquisition, Data Preprocessing, Data Storage, and Data Analytics. We then present a detailed survey of the technical solutions to the challenges in BDA for large-scale wireless networks according to each stage in the life cycle of BDA. Moreover, we discuss the open research issues and outline the future directions in this promising area.

  • 42.
    Deng, Ruilong
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Xiao, Gaoxi
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Lu, Rongxing
    Faculty of Computer Science, University of New Brunswick, Canada.
    Liang, Hao
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    False Data Injection on State Estimation in Power Systems—Attacks, Impacts, and Defense: A Survey2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 411-423, article id 7579185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accurately estimated state is of great importance for maintaining a stable running condition of power systems. To maintain the accuracy of the estimated state, bad data detection (BDD) is utilized by power systems to get rid of erroneous measurements due to meter failures or outside attacks. However, false data injection (FDI) attacks, as recently revealed, can circumvent BDD and insert any bias into the value of the estimated state. Continuous works on constructing and/or protecting power systems from such attacks have been done in recent years. This survey comprehensively overviews three major aspects: constructing FDI attacks; impacts of FDI attacks on electricity market; and defending against FDI attacks. Specifically, we first explore the problem of constructing FDI attacks, and further show their associated impacts on electricity market operations, from the adversary's point of view. Then, from the perspective of the system operator, we present countermeasures against FDI attacks. We also outline the future research directions and potential challenges based on the above overview, in the context of FDI attacks, impacts, and defense.

  • 43.
    Ding, Guoru
    et al.
    National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Wu, Fan
    Shanghai Key Laboratory of Scalable Computing and Systems, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, Qihui
    Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.
    Tang, Shaojie
    Department of Information Systems, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA.
    Song, Fei
    College of Communications Engineering, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Tsiftsis, Theodoros A.
    School of Engineering, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan.
    Robust Online Spectrum Prediction With Incomplete and Corrupted Historical Observations2017In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 8022-8036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of emerging applications, from adaptive spectrum sensing to proactive spectrum mobility, depend on the ability to foresee spectrum state evolution. Despite a number of studies appearing about spectrum prediction, fundamental issues still remain unresolved: 1) The existing studies do not explicitly account for anomalies, which may incur serious performance degradation; 2) they focus on the design of batch spectrum prediction algorithms, which limit the scalability to analyze massive spectrum data in real time; 3) they assume the historical data are complete, which may not hold in reality. To address these issues, we develop a Robust Online Spectrum Prediction (ROSP) framework, with incomplete and corrupted observations, in this paper. We first present data analytics of real-world spectrum measurements to reveal the correlation structures of spectrum evolution and to analyze the impact of anomalies on the rank distribution of spectrum matrices. Then, from a spectral–temporal 2-D perspective, we formulate the ROSP as a joint optimization problem of matrix completion and recovery by effectively integrating the time series forecasting techniques and develop an alternating direction optimization method to efficiently solve it. We apply ROSP to a wide range of real-world spectrum matrices of popular wireless services. Experiment results show that ROSP outperforms state-of-the-art spectrum prediction schemes.

  • 44.
    Ding, Ming
    et al.
    Data 61, Australia.
    Lopez-Perez, David
    Bell Labs Alcatel-Lucent.
    Xue, Ruiqi
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Chen, Wen
    Shanghai Key Lab of Navigation and Location Based Services, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and School of Electronic Engineering and Automation, Guilin University of Electronic Technology.
    On Dynamic Time Division Duplex Transmissions for Small Cell Networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 8933-8951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    otivated by the promising benefits of dynamic Time Division Duplex (TDD), in this paper, we use a unified framework to investigate both the technical issues of applying dynamic TDD in homogeneous small cell networks (HomSCNs), and the feasibility of introducing dynamic TDD into heterogeneous networks (HetNets). First, HomSCNs are analyzed, and a small cell BS scheduler that dynamically and independently schedules DL and UL subframes is presented, such that load balancing between the DL and the UL traffic can be achieved. Moreover, the effectiveness of various inter-link interference mitigation (ILIM) schemes as well as their combinations, is systematically investigated and compared. Besides, the interesting possibility of partial interference cancellation (IC) is also explored. Second, based on the proposed schemes, the joint operation of dynamic TDD together with cell range expansion (CRE) and almost blank subframe (ABS) in HetNets is studied. In this regard, scheduling polices in small cells and an algorithm to derive the appropriate macrocell traffic off-load and ABS duty cycle under dynamic TDD operation are proposed. Moreover, the full IC and the partial IC schemes are investigated for dynamic TDD in HetNets. The user equipment (UE) packet throughput performance of the proposed/discussed schemes is benchmarked using system-level simulations.

  • 45.
    Dinh, Thanh
    et al.
    School of Electronic Engineering, Soongsil University.
    Kim, Younghan
    School of Electronic Engineering, Soongsil University.
    Gu, Tao
    School of Computer Science, RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    L-MAC: A Wake-up Time Self-learning MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks2016In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 105, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the trade-off issue between energy efficiency and packet delivery latency among existing duty-cycling MAC protocols in wireless sensor networks for low data-rate periodic-reporting applications. We then propose a novel and practical wake-up time self-Learning MAC (L-MAC) protocol in which the key idea is to reuse beacon messages of receiver-initiated MAC protocols to enable nodes to coordinate their wakeup time with their parent nodes without incurring extra communication overhead. Based on the self-learning mechanism we propose, L-MAC builds an on-demand staggered scheduler to allow any node to forward packets continuously to the sink node. We present an analytical model, and conduct extensive simulations and experiments on Telosb sensors to show that L-MAC achieves significant higher energy efficiency compared to state-of-the-art asynchronous MAC protocols and a similar result of latency compared to synchronous MAC protocols. In particular, under QoS requirements with an upper bound value for one-hop packet delivery latency within 1 s and a lower bound value for packet delivery ratio within 95%, results show that the duty cycle of L-MAC is improved by more than 3.8 times and the end-to-end packet delivery latency of L-MAC is reduced by more than 7 times compared to those of AS-MAC and other state-of-the-art MAC protocols, respectively, in case of the packet generation interval of 1 minute. L-MAC hence achieves high performance in both energy efficiency and packet delivery latency.

  • 46.
    Dinh, Thanh
    et al.
    School of Electronic Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, South Korea.
    Kim, Younghan
    School of Electronic Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, South Korea.
    Gu, Tau
    School of Computer Science, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    An Adaptive Low-Power Listening Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks in Noisy Environments2018In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 2162-2173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the energy consumption minimizationproblem for wireless sensor networks running low-powerlistening (LPL) protocols in noisy environments. We observe thatthe energy consumption by false wakeups (i.e., wakeup without receivingany packet) of a node in noisy environments can be a dominantfactor in many cases while the false wakeup rate is spatiallyand temporarily dynamic. Based on this observation, without carefullyconsidering the impact of false wakeups, the energy efficientperformance of LPL nodes in noisy environments may significantlydeviate from the optimal performance. To address this problem,we propose a theoretical framework incorporating LPL temporalparameters with the false wakeup rate and the data rate. We thenformulate an energy consumption minimization problem of LPLin noisy environments and address the problem by a simplifiedand practical approach. Based on the theoretical framework, wedesign an efficient adaptive protocol for LPL (APL) in noisy environments.Through extensive experimental studies with Telosbnodes in real environments, we show that APL achieves 20%–40%energy efficient improvement compared to existing LPL protocolsunder various network conditions.

  • 47.
    Dong, Pingping
    et al.
    College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China. Hunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Language Information Processing, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Gao, Kai
    College of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, China. Hunan Key Laboratory of Smart Roadway and Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure Systems, Changsha, China.
    Xie, Jingyun
    College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China. Hunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Language Information Processing, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Tang, Wensheng
    College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China. Hunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Language Information Processing, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Xiong, Naixue
    College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Receiver-Side TCP Countermeasure in Cellular Networks2019In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 12, article id 2791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular-based networks keep large buffers at base stations to smooth out the bursty data traffic, which has a negative impact on the user’s Quality of Experience (QoE). With the boom of smart vehicles and phones, this has drawn growing attention. For this paper, we first conducted experiments to reveal the large delays, thus long flow completion time (FCT), caused by the large buffer in the cellular networks. Then, a receiver-side transmission control protocol (TCP) countermeasure named Delay-based Flow Control algorithm with Service Differentiation (DFCSD) was proposed to target interactive applications requiring high throughput and low delay in cellular networks by limiting the standing queue size and decreasing the amount of packets that are dropped in the eNodeB in Long Term Evolution (LTE). DFCSD stems from delay-based congestion control algorithms but works at the receiver side to avoid the performance degradation of the delay-based algorithms when competing with loss-based mechanisms. In addition, it is derived based on the TCP fluid model to maximize the network utility. Furthermore, DFCSD also takes service differentiation into consideration based on the size of competing flows to shorten their completion time, thus improving user QoE. Simulation results confirmed that DFCSD is compatible with existing TCP algorithms, significantly reduces the latency of TCP flows, and increases network throughput.

  • 48.
    Dong, Pingping
    et al.
    Hunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Language Information Processing, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Xie, Jingyun
    Hunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Language Information Processing, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Tang, Wensheng
    Hunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Language Information Processing, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Xiong, Naixue
    College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300350, China.
    Zhong, Hua
    Hunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Language Information Processing, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Performance Evaluation of Multipath TCP Scheduling Algorithms2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 29818-29825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the goals of 5G is to provide enhanced mobile broadband and enable low latency in some use cases. To achieve this aim, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed the Multipath TCP (MPTCP) by utilizing the feature of dual connectivity in 5G, where a 5G device can be served by two different base stations. However, the path heterogeneity between the 5G device to the server may cause packet out-of-order problem. The researchers proposed a number of scheduling algorithms to tackle this issue. This paper introduces the existing algorithms, and with the aim to make a thorough comparison between the existing scheduling algorithms and provide guidelines for designing new scheduling algorithms in 5G, we have conducted an extensive set of emulation studies based on the real Linux experimental platform. The evaluation covers a wide range of network scenarios to investigate the impact of different network metrics, namely, RTT, buffer size and file size on the performance of existing widely-deployed scheduling algorithms.

  • 49.
    D'Orazio, Christian Javier
    et al.
    School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, Australia.
    Rongxing, Lu
    Faculty of Computer Science, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada.
    Choo, Kim Kwang Raymond
    School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, University of South Australia, Australia.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A Markov adversary model to detect vulnerable iOS devices and vulnerabilities in iOS apps2017In: Applied Mathematics and Computation, ISSN 0096-3003, E-ISSN 1873-5649, Vol. 293, p. 523-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased convergence of technologies whereby a user can access, store and transmit data across different devices in real-time, risks will arise from factors such as lack of appropriate security measures in place and users not having requisite levels of security awareness and not fully understanding how security measures can be used to their advantage. In this paper, we adapt our previously published adversary model for digital rights management (DRM) apps and demonstrate how it can be used to detect vulnerable iOS devices and to analyse (non-DRM) apps for vulnerabilities that can potentially be exploited. Using our adversary model, we investigate several (jailbroken and non-jailbroken) iOS devices, Australian Government Medicare Expert Plus (MEP) app, Commonwealth Bank of Australia app, Western Union app, PayPal app, PocketCloud Remote Desktop app and Simple Transfer Pro app, and reveal previously unknown vulnerabilities. We then demonstrate how the identified vulnerabilities can be exploited to expose the user's sensitive data and personally identifiable information stored on or transmitted from the device. We conclude with several recommendations to enhance the security and privacy of user data stored on or transmitted from these devices.

  • 50.
    Du, Rong
    et al.
    Department of Network and Systems Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10044, Sweden.
    Santi, Paolo
    MIT Senseable City Laboratory, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA and also with the Istituto di Informatica e Telematica del CNR, 56124 Pisa, Italy.
    Xiao, Ming
    Department of Information Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10044, Sweden..
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Fischione, Carlo
    Department of Network and Systems Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10044, Sweden.
    The sensable city: A survey on the deployment and management for smart city monitoring2019In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 1533-1560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In last two decades, various monitoring systems have been designed and deployed in urban environments, toward the realization of the so called smart cities. Such systems are based on both dedicated sensor nodes, and ubiquitous but not dedicated devices such as smart phones and vehicles’ sensors. When we design sensor network monitoring systems for smart cities, we have two essential problems: node deployment and sensing management. These design problems are challenging, due to large urban areas to monitor, constrained locations for deployments, and heterogeneous type of sensing devices. There is a vast body of literature from different disciplines that have addressed these challenges. However, we do not have yet a comprehensive understanding and sound design guidelines. This article addresses such a research gap and provides an overview of the theoretical problems we face, and what possible approaches we may use to solve these problems. Specifically, this paper focuses on the problems on both the deployment of the devices (which is the system design/configuration part) and the sensing management of the devices (which is the system running part). We also discuss how to choose the existing algorithms in different type of monitoring applications in smart cities, such as structural health monitoring, water pipeline networks, traffic monitoring. We finally discuss future research opportunities and open challenges for smart city monitoring.

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