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  • 1.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund University.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Picture-elicited written narratives, process and product, in 18 children with cochlear implants2010In: Communication Disorders Quarterly, ISSN 1525-7401, E-ISSN 1538-4837, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 195-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the narrative writing of 18 children, ages 11 to 19, with severe and profound hearing impairment who had cochlear implants (CI), compared with the performance of hearing children. Nine of the 18 children had prelingual deafness and 9 children had postlingual deafness. The hearing impairment was progressive in 11 children. The participants thus formed a heterogeneous group, which was split in two ways: according to age at testing and age at implantation. The narratives were collected by means of keystroke logging. The difference between the children with CI and the hearing children was most prominent for two measures: the percentage of pause time (in the group of children older than 13 years) and lexical density. Furthermore, the children implanted after 5 years of age performed more like the hearing children. This group consisted of children with postlingual deafness and also of children who were deafened progressively. Our interpretation is that these children benefited from the early linguistic input. Taking the whole group of participants into consideration, the results reflect linguistic and cognitive processing limitations in complex linguistic tasks like narration for the children with CI in comparison with their hearing peers.

  • 2.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Alviksskolan.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Reading comprehension and working memory capacity in children with hearing loss and cochlear implants or hearing aids2015In: The Volta review, ISSN 0042-8639, E-ISSN 2162-5158, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 35-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading comprehension and three aspects of working memory—general, visuospatial and phonological—was assessed in 41 children with hearing loss: 23 with cochlear implants and 18 with hearing aids. Performance on these tests was compared between the two groups of children with hearing loss and also related to that of 55 children with typical hearing. All children were between 6 and 14 years of age. The children with hearing aids performed significantly more poorly on the reading comprehension test than the children with typical hearing but this difference was not significant between the children with cochlear implants and the children with typical hearing. In the group of children with cochlear implants, the results from the reading test and the results from all three working memory tests correlated significantly, whereas in the group of children with hearing aids there was no correlation between the reading test and the visual working memory test. The reading test results from the children with typical hearing correlated significantly with the results from the phonological working memory test but not with the other working memory tests. The authors concluded that the children with cochlear implants might have developed orthographic decoding earlier than the children with hearing aids due to their more profound hearing loss.

  • 3.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    et al.
    Lund University, Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Wass, Malin
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    The relationship between reading Comprehension, Working memory and language in children with cochlear implants2007In: Acta Neuropsychologica, ISSN 1730-7503, E-ISSN 2084-4298, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 163-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory, language, and reading comprehension are strongly associated in children with severe and profound hearing impairment treated by cochlear implants (CI). In this study we explore this relationship in sixteen Swedish children with CI. We found that over 60% of the children with CI performed at the level of their hearing peers in a reading comprehension test. Demographic factors were not predictive of reading comprehension, but a complex working memory task was. Reading percentile was significantly correlated to the working memory test, but no other correlations between reading and cognitive/linguistic factors remained significant after age was factored out. Individual results from a comparison of the two best and the two poorest readers corroborate group results, confirming the important role of working memory for reading as measured by comprehension of words and sentences in this group of children.

  • 4.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Wass, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre for Research on Hearing and Deafness (HEAD).
    Möller, Claes G.
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Cognitive skills in children with Usher syndrome type 1 and cochlear implants2012In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 76, no 10, p. 1449-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Linneaus Centre; Cognition, Communication and Learning, Lund University.
    Möller, Claes G.
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Wass, Malin
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Hearing and cognitive development in deaf and hearing-impaired children: effects of intervention2013In: Disorders of Peripheral and Central Auditory Processing, Amsterdam: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, p. 71-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Wass, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University.
    Cognitive development in children with cochlear implants: Relations to reading and communication2008In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 47, no Suppl. 2, p. S47-S52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present article is to present an overview of a set of studies conducted in our own laboratory on cognitive and communicative development in children with cochlear implants (CI). The results demonstrate that children with CIs perform at significantly lower levels on the majority of the cognitive tasks. The exceptions to this trend are tasks with relatively lower demands on phonological processing. A fairly high proportion of the children can reach a level of reading comprehension that matches hearing children, despite the fact that they have relatively poor phonological skills. General working memory capacity is further correlated with the type of questions asked in a referential communication task. The results are discussed with respect to issues related to education and rehabilitation.

  • 7.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Wass, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Cognitive development, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implants2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes some of the results of studies in our laboratory exploring the development of cognitive, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implantation (CI). The children with CI performed at significantly lower levels than the hearing comparison group on the majority of cognitive tests, despite showing levels of nonverbal ability. The differences between children with CI and hearing children were most pronounced on tasks with relatively high phonological processing demands, but they were not limited to phonological processing. Impairment of receptive and productive prosody was also evident in children with CI. Despite these difficulties, 75% of the children with CI reached a level of reading skill comparable to that of hearing children. The results are discussed with respect to compensation strategies in reading.

  • 8.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Wass, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    Lund University, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Development of cognitive and reading skills in deaf children with CIs.2011In: Cochlear Implants International, ISSN 1467-0100, E-ISSN 1754-7628, Vol. 12, no Suppl. 1, p. S98-S100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Mentzer, Cecilia von
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Linneaus Centre; Cognition, Communication and Learning, Lund University.
    Wass, Malin
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Linneaus Centre; Cognition, Communication and Learning, Lund University.
    Ors, Marianne
    Linneaus Centre; Cognition, Communication and Learning, Lund University.
    Kallionen, Petter
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet.
    Computer-assisted training of phoneme-grapheme correspondence for children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Effects on phonological processing skills2013In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 77, no 12, p. 2049-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Examine deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children's phonological processing skills in relation to a reference group of children with normal hearing (NH) at two baselines pre intervention. Study the effects of computer-assisted phoneme-grapheme correspondence training in the children. Specifically analyze possible effects on DHH children's phonological processing skills. Methods: The study included 48 children who participated in a computer-assisted intervention study, which focuses on phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Children were 5, 6, and 7 years of age. There were 32 DHH children using cochlear implants (CI) or hearing aids (HA), or both in combination, and 16 children with NH. The study had a quasi-experimental design with three test occasions separated in time by four weeks; baseline 1 and 2 pre intervention, and 3 post intervention. Children performed tasks measuring lexical access, phonological processing, and letter knowledge. All children were asked to practice ten minutes per day at home supported by their parents. Results: NH children outperformed DHH children on the majority of tasks. All children improved their accuracy in phoneme-grapheme correspondence and output phonology as a function of the computer-assisted intervention. For the whole group of children, and specifically for children with CI, a lower initial phonological composite score was associated with a larger phonological change between baseline 2 and post intervention. Finally, 18 DHH children, whereof 11 children with CI, showed specific intervention effects on their phonological processing skills, and strong effect sizes for their improved accuracy of phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Conclusion: For some DHH children phonological processing skills are boosted relatively more by phoneme-grapheme correspondence training. This reflects the reciprocal relationship between phonological change and exposure to and manipulations of letters

  • 10.
    Socher, Michaela
    et al.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden; iCARE: improving Children's Auditory Rehabilitation.
    Larsson, Elias
    iCARE: improving Children's Auditory Rehabilitation.
    Wass, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden ; iCARE: improving Children's Auditory Rehabilitation .
    Language, Cognition and Hearing: Cognitive intervention in children with a cochlear implant2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A relatively high proportion of children with a cochlear implant (CI) show a delay in their language and cognitive development. Recent studies suggest a connectionbetween the developments of specific cognitive and language skills. Inductive reasoning(the skill used to detect rules, generalizations and regularities) is connectedto those cognitive skills, as well as to abilities necessary to acquire language.Training of inductive reasoning may improve language and cognitive skills and helpchildren with a CI to catch up with their peers.In this study, a well-established inductive reasoning training is used. Cognitive andlanguage skills are tested before, immediately after and some months after training.Preliminary results of a group of hearing children show an improvement in syntaxrecognition, syntax production, non-verbal reasoning skills, as well as phonologicallybased word fluency. Furthermore, the inhibition skills of those children performingvery low on inhibition tasks before training improved significantly.A control group is needed to ensure those results are connected to the training andnot to the two-time use of the language and cognitive tests. In addition, a follow-upmeasurement to test the durability of the effects is still remaining to be done.

  • 11.
    Socher, Michaela
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Swedish Institute of Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Ellis, Rachel
    Swedish Institute of Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gärskog, Malin
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedström, Ingrid
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wass, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Pragmatic Language Skills: A Comparison of Children With Cochlear Implants and Children Without Hearing Loss2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pragmatic language ability refers to the ability to use language in a social context. It has been found to be correlated with success in general education for deaf and hard of hearing children. It is therefore of great importance to study why deaf and hard of hearing children often perform more poorly than their hearing peers on tests measuring pragmatic language ability. In the current study the Pragmatics Profile questionnaire from the CELF-IV battery was used to measure pragmatic language ability in children using cochlear implants (N = 14) and children without a hearing loss (N = 34). No significant difference was found between the children with cochlear implants (CI) and the children without hearing loss (HL) for the sum score of the pragmatics language measure. However, 35.71% of the children with CI performed below age norm, while only 5.89% of the children without HL performed below age norm. In addition, when dividing the sum score into three sub-measures: Rituals and Conversational skills (RCS), Asking for, Giving, and Responding to Information (AGRI), and Nonverbal Communication skills (NCS), significant differences between the groups were found for the NCS measure and a tendency for a difference was found for the RCS measure. In addition, all three sub-measures (NCS, AGRI, RCS) were correlated to verbal fluency in the children with CI, but not the children without HL.

  • 12.
    Van Dal, Victor H.P.
    et al.
    Edge Hill University.
    Wass, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    First- and Second-Language Learnability Explained by Orthographic Depth and Orthographic Learning: A 'Natural' Scandinavian Experiment2017In: Scientific Studies of Reading, ISSN 1088-8438, E-ISSN 1532-799X, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 46-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of orthographic depth on orthographic learning ability were examined in 10- to 13-year-old children who learnt to read in similar orthographies differing in orthographic depth, defined as consistency of grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences. Danish children who learnt to read a deep orthography underperformed their Swedish counterparts who acquired a shallow orthography on vocabulary, phonological working memory, orthographic learning ability, and a range of first-language (L1: Danish/Swedish) and second-language (L2: English as a foreign language) measures. Orthographic learning ability explained over and above vocabulary and phonological working memory the better performance of Swedish children in comparison with Danish children on L1 reading accuracy and fluency, spelling, and visual word familiarity. With respect to L2 learning, orthographic learning ability determined spelling and visual word familiarity over and above L2 vocabulary and phonological working memory. It is concluded that shallow orthographies promote orthographic learning ability more efficiently than deep orthographies.

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  • 13.
    Wang, Hua-Chen
    et al.
    Macquarie University.
    Wass, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Castles, Anne
    Macquarie University.
    Paired-Associate Learning Ability Accounts for Unique Variance in Orthographic Learning2017In: Scientific Studies of Reading, ISSN 1088-8438, E-ISSN 1532-799X, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paired-associate learning is a dynamic measure of the ability to form new linksbetween two items. This study aimed to investigate whether paired-associatelearning ability is associated with success in orthographic learning, and if so,whether it accounts for unique variance beyond phonological decoding abilityand orthographic knowledge. A group of 63 children ages 8–10 completed anorthographic learning task and three types of paired-associate learning task:visual–visual, visual–verbal, and verbal–verbal. The results showed that bothvisual–verbal and verbal–verbal (but not visual–visual) paired-associate learningability were associated with success in learning the spellings of novel words.Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses showed that visual–verbal pairedassociatelearning predicted orthographic learning even after phonologicaldecoding skill and existing orthographic knowledge had been accounted for.We propose that paired-associate learning abilitymay be one of the underlyingmechanisms of orthographic learning, facilitating the connection between thephonology and orthographic representation of a word. 

  • 14.
    Wass, Malin
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Children with cochlear implants: cognition and reading ability2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Anmyr, Lena
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Social Work in Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Östlund, Elisabet
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaltorp, Eva
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Predictors of Reading Comprehension in Children With Cochlear Implants2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with a profound hearing loss who have been implanted with cochlear implants (CI), vary in terms of their language and reading skills. Some of these children have strong language skills and are proficient readers whereas others struggle with language and both the decoding and comprehension aspects of reading. Reading comprehension is dependent on a number of skills where decoding, spoken language comprehension and receptive vocabulary have been found to be the strongest predictors of performance. Children with CI have generally been found to perform more poorly than typically hearing peers on most predictors of reading comprehension including word decoding, vocabulary and spoken language comprehension, as well as working memory. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationships between reading comprehension and a number of predictor variables in a sample of twenty-nine 11–12-year-old children with profound hearing loss, fitted with CI. We were particularly interested in the extent to which reading comprehension in children with CI at this age is dependent on decoding and receptive vocabulary. The predictor variables that we set out to study were word decoding, receptive vocabulary, phonological skills, and working memory. A second purpose was to explore the relationships between reading comprehension and demographic factors, i.e., parental education, speech perception and age of implantation. The results from these 29 children indicate that receptive vocabulary is the most influential predictor of reading comprehension in this group of children although phonological decoding is, of course, fundamental.

  • 16.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ching, T.
    Wang, H-C
    Cupples, L.
    Lyxell, B.
    Castles, A.
    Reading strategies and orthographic learning in children with hearing impairments and children with dyslexia2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Ching, Teresa Y. C.
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Cupples, Linda
    Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Wang, Hua-Chen
    Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Martin, Louise
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Button, Laura
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Gunnourie, Miriam
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, NSW, Australia; The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Boisvert, Isabelle
    The HEARing Cooperative Research Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Centre for Implementation of Hearing Research, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    McMahon, Catherine
    Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Castles, Anne
    Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Orthographic Learning in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing2018In: Language, speech & hearing services in schools, ISSN 0161-1461, E-ISSN 1558-9129, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between orthographic learning and language, reading, and cognitive skills in 9-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and to compare their performance to age-matched typically hearing (TH) controls.

    Method Eighteen children diagnosed with moderate-to-profound hearing loss who use hearing aids and/or cochlear implants participated. Their performance was compared with 35 age-matched controls with typical hearing. Orthographic learning was evaluated using a spelling task and a recognition task. The children were assessed on measures of reading ability, language, working memory, and paired-associate learning.

    Results On average, the DHH group performed more poorly than the TH controls on the spelling measure of orthographic learning, but not on the recognition measure. For both groups of children, there were significant correlations between orthographic learning and phonological decoding and between visual–verbal paired-associate learning and orthographic learning.

    Conclusions Although the children who are DHH had lower scores in the spelling test of orthographic learning than their TH peers, measures of their reading ability revealed that they acquired orthographic representations successfully. The results are consistent with the self-teaching hypothesis in suggesting that phonological decoding is important for orthographic learning.

  • 18.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University, Department of Otolaryngology, Section of Audiology, Linköping University Hospital.
    Cognitive and linguistic skills in Swedish children with cochlear implants: Measures of accuracy and latency as indicators of development2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 559-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine working memory (WM) capacity, lexical access and phonological skills in 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) (5;7-13;4 years of age) attending grades 0-2, 4, 5 and 6 and to compare their performance with 56 children with normal hearing. Their performance was also studied in relation to demographic factors. The findings indicate that children with CI had visuospatial WM capacities equivalent to the comparison group. They had lower performance levels on most of the other cognitive tests. Significant differences between the groups were not found in all grades and a number of children with CI performed within 1 SD of the mean of their respective grade-matched comparison group on most of the cognitive measures. The differences between the groups were particularly prominent in tasks of phonological WM. The results are discussed with respect to the effects of cochlear implants on cognitive development.

  • 19.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    Lund University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Cognitive skills and reading ability in children with cochlear implants2010In: Cochlear Implants International, ISSN 1467-0100, E-ISSN 1754-7628, Vol. 11, no Suppl. 1, p. 395-398Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    Lund University, Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University, Department of Otolaryngology, Section of Audiology, Linköping University Hospital.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University.
    Reading strategies and cognitive skills in children with cochlear implants2010In: Acta Neuropsychologica, ISSN 1730-7503, E-ISSN 2084-4298, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 142-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study investigated working memory capacity, lexical access, phonological skills and reading ability in 6 children with cochlear implants (CI), attending grades 1-3. For each test measure, the individual performance of the children was compared to a grade-matched comparison group of children with normal hearing. Performance was also studied in relation to demographic factors. Material/Methods: Cognitive skills were assessed in a computer-based test battery. Different aspects of each of the component skills were tapped in various subtests. Reading comprehension was measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test and decoding was assessed in the Test of Word Reading (TOWRE). The children were also tested on orthographic learning. Results: These children with CI have specific difficulties in tasks of phonological skills and phonological working memory (WM) where nonwords are used as test stimuli. They do not seem to have problems with phonological processing of words for which they have a well defined phonological representation. They also experienced relatively more difficulties in tasks on lexical access without any contextual information. Conclusions: We suggest that children with CI are particularly efficient in using compensatory strategies in situations where their auditory perception does not provide sufficient information to correctly match the incoming speech signal to a corresponding representation in longterm phonological storage. The children with CI in this study were skilled readers, both for decoding of words and nonwords and for reading comprehension. They may use both orthographic and phonological reading strategies, although most of them seem to be dependent on phonological decoding to some extent.

  • 21.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Anmyr, Lena
    Karltorp, Eva
    Lyxell, Björn
    Learning to read when speech sounds different: Orthographic learning in children with cochlear implants2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate orthographic learning and reading skill in Swedish children with cochlear implants (CI) in comparison with normal hearing peers (NH), and to explore relationships between orthographic learning and cognitive skills in the CI group.

    MethodEighteen children with CI and 43 NH children, matched for age and nonverbal IQ, participated. They were 7;10 - 10;4 years of age. All children were tested on reading fluency (words and nonwords), orthographic learning, existing orthographic representations, working memory (WM), and expressive vocabulary. The children with CI were also assessed on verbal fluency, paired associate learning (visual-visual, verbal-verbal and visual-verbal) and phoneme deletion. Group differences were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U tests. Relationships between skills were analyzed in partial correlations with age controlled.

    ResultsThe children with CI performed below the level of hearing peers on the measures of WM, and expressive vocabulary. They also performed below age-norms on the phoneme deletion task.

    On the other hand, the groups did not differ significantly on reading fluency, existing orthographic representations or orthographic learning. The group difference on orthographic learning approached significance (p=.07). In the CI group, orthographic learning was strongly correlated with reading fluency (words and nonwords respectively), visual-verbal and verbal-verbal paired associate learning, and verbal fluency.

    ConclusionsDespite having poorer language skills and lower WM capacity, children with CI may successfully learn new orthographic representations and develop fluent reading. In line with the self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1999), orthographic learning was strongly related to phonological decoding (nonword reading fluency) also in children with CI. In addition, paired associate learning, verbal fluency, and WM capacity were related to their orthographic learning skill.

  • 22.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Department of CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden ; Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Norway .
    Anmyr, Lena
    Department of CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden ; Function Area Social Work in Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Karltorp, Eva
    Department of CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Reading Fluency and Orthographic Learning in Swedish Children with CI2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined reading fluency and orthographic learning in 40 childrenwith cochlear implants. Their age range was 6;0-10;11.The children were implantedwith their (first) CI at 24 months on average and thirty-four of them werebilaterally implanted. Sixty to 70 percent of the children with CI had reading skillsat or above the 45th percentile on the measures of orthographic and phonologicalword reading fluency. Speech perception in silence was moderately associated withboth reading fluency and orthographic learning. Hierarchical regression analysesshowed that phonological decoding was a strong predictor of orthographic learningafter age and non-verbal skills were accounted for. Receptive vocabulary, verbalfluency and verbal-verbal paired-associate learning predicted additional variance inorthographic learning after phonological decoding was controlled for.Phoneme awareness was the strongest predictor of both orthographic- and phonological-and decoding fluency after age and nonverbal skills were controlled.Age at implantation was not a significant predictor of any of the measures of readingor orthographic learning.These results resemble the pattern typically found in normal hearing children andsuggests that phonemic awareness and phonological decoding are crucial for orthographiclearning and reading fluency in children with CI.

  • 23.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Norway. Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Anmyr, Lena
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Department of Social Work in Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Reading fluency and orthographic learning in Swedish children with CI2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined reading fluency and orthographic learning in 40 children with cochlear implants. Their age range was 6;0-10;11.The children were implanted with their (first) CI at 24 months on average and thirty-four of them were bilaterally implanted. Sixty to 70 percent of the children with CI had reading skills at or above the 45th percentile on the measures of orthographic and phonological word reading fluency. Speech perception in silence was moderately associated with both reading fluency and orthographic learning. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that phonological decoding was a strong predictor of orthographic learning after age and non-verbal skills were accounted for. Receptive vocabulary, verbal fluency and verbal-verbal paired-associate learning predicted additional variance in orthographic learning after phonological decoding was controlled for.

    Phoneme awareness was the strongest predictor of both orthographic- and phonological- and decoding fluency after age and nonverbal skills were controlled.

    Age at implantation was not a significant predictor of any of the measures of reading or orthographic learning.

    These results resemble the pattern typically found in normal hearing children and suggests that phonemic awareness and phonological decoding are crucial for orthographic learning and reading fluency in children with CI.

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  • 24.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Löfkvist, Ulrika
    Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Anmyr, Lena
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. Department of Social Work in Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Östlund, Eva
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Correlates of Orthographic Learning in Swedish Children With Cochlear Implants2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to explore the cognitive and linguistic correlates of orthographic learning in a group of 32 deaf and hard of hearing children with cochlear implants, to better understand the factors that affect the development of fluent reading in these children. To date, the research about the mechanisms of reading fluency and orthographic learning in this population is scarce. The children were between 6:0 and 10:11 years of age and used oral language as their primary mode of communication. They were assessed on orthographic learning, reading fluency and a range of cognitive and linguistic skills including working memory measures, word retrieval and paired associate learning. The results were analyzed in a set of correlation analyses. In line with previous findings from children with typical hearing, orthographic learning was strongly correlated with phonological decoding, receptive vocabulary, phonological skills, verbal-verbal paired-associate learning and word retrieval. The results of this study suggest that orthographic learning in children with CI is strongly dependent on similar cognitive and linguistic skills as in typically hearing peers. Efforts should thus be made to support phonological decoding skill, vocabulary, and phonological skills in this population.

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