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  • 1.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Arrigucci, Fredrik
    Midroc Electro AB, Malmö.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Nappey, Philippe
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Bony, Bernard
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP Research, Karlsruhe.
    Nessaether, Johan
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Migration of SCADA/DCS Systems to the SOA Cloud2014Ingår i: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, s. 111-135Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As process control and monitoring systems based on a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) are maturing, the need increases for a systematic approach to migrate systems. The legacy systems are traditionally based on a strict hierarchy and in order to gradually allow additional cross-layer interaction, the migration procedure needs to consider both—functionality and architecture of the legacy system. The migration procedure proposed here aims to preserve the functional integration, organize the SOA cloud through grouping of devices, and maintain the performance aspects such as real-time control throughout the whole migration procedure.

  • 2.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mcload, Stuart
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Harrison, Robert
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Mendes, J Marco
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Building System of Systems with SOA Technology: A Smart House Use Case2014Ingår i: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, s. 219-230Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IMC-AESOP architecture has been used to implemente a smart house demonstration. Six different systems has been integrated with local (802.11, 802.15.4) and global (telecom) communication. The six systems integrated are: Car arrival detection system, Garage door opening system, House security system, External house lightning system, External electrical outlet system, House energy control system. The SOA technologies used are CoAP and EXI using SenML to encode the services. Engineering tools have been used to simulate the usage scenario and provide prediction of system behaviour.

  • 3.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    University of Applied Sciences, Emden and Schneider Electric.
    Jammes, Francois
    Schneider Electric.
    Nessaether, Johan
    Midroc.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP Research.
    Diedrich, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    A migration approach towards a SOA-based next generation process control and monitoring2012Ingår i: IECON 2011: 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : Melbourne, VIC; 7 November 2011 - 10 November 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 4319-4324Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) in the automation domain has seen a rapid increase both from the academia as well as the industry recent years. Since green field plants today are not common, the partial migration of plant automation to SOA design is needed to introduce new functionalities. Thus strategies and approaches for migration from legacy to SOA architectures becomes of vital interest. This paper discusses different views on partial migration of a process monitoring and control system from legacy to SOA. The discussion includes a global top down view, a bottom up view, hardware/software considerations and a hint on training of personnel.

  • 4.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Larsmark, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Project: Arrowhead2014Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Project: Architecture for Service-Oriented Process – Monitoring and Control2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Raayatinezhad, Asma
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A SOA-based framework for integration of intelligent rock bolts with internet of things2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology: ICIT 2013, Cape Town, South Africa 25 February 2013 - 28 February 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 1962-1967Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry is seeing a bright future with a high demand for minerals and relatively high material prices. Much of this is driven by the rapid industrial expansion in countries such as China and others. However, even though the mining business seems promising, there are some important issues that must be addressed in order to maintain a cost-effective and competitive edge. Worker and environment safety, working conditions, are very important issues. Another issue is attracting skilled personal to work in the deep mines of the future.Today, the mining industry has problems hiring personnel, due to hazardous working environments and re-locating to the distant regions. If the workers’ safety could be increased, attracting skilled personnel would become one less problem. Rock bolts and shot-crete are in use today to reinforce tunnel walls, and expensive measurement devices are used in order to monitor seismic activity and rock stress. However, by not having real-time monitoring of rock bolts makes it difficult to monitor them. A better approach would be to make rock bolts intelligent and have them measure stress and seismic activity. Furthermore, by connecting the rock bolts to a network, real-time monitoring of them is made feasible. In this paper, we propose the merger of the Internet of Things (IoT) approach with traditional rock bolts, thereby allowing online monitoring of rock bolt status. This enables an increased possibility to enhance work safety by being able to detect anomalies on the rock earlier, thereby giving workers and machinery an earlier alarm to evacuate hazardous locations in the mine.

  • 7.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Martinsson, Pär-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    An internet of things approach for intelligent monitoring of conveyor belt rollers2013Ingår i: 10th International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies 2013, CM 2013 and MFPT 2013, 2013, Vol. 2, s. 1096-1104Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations2014Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 15553-15572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today’s district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation.

  • 9.
    Jammes, Francois
    et al.
    Schneider Electric.
    Bony, Bernard
    Schneider Electric.
    Nappey, Philippe
    Schneider Electric.
    Colombo, Armando Walter
    University of Applied Sciences, Emden and Schneider Electric.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP Research.
    Stluka, Petr
    Honeywell, Prague.
    TIlly, Marcel
    Microsoft.
    Technologies for SOA-based distributed large scale process monitoring and control systems2012Ingår i: Proceeding IEE IECON 2012: 38th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Montreal: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 5803-5808Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a SOA-based system the applications are organized in a manner such that interoperable services can be used from different domains. In a process industry context, different domains can refer to, for example, process instrumentation and monitoring, execution of process control, data acquisition, etc. Large process industry systems are a complex and potentially very large sets of multi-disciplinary, heterogeneous, networked distributed systems. Current industrial process control systems are typically vendor specific; in addition the different domains are associated with different layers, different standards and different technologies. In the paper the authors report about the investigations and assessments performed to find answers for four major critical questions that arise as key when technologies have to be selected and used in a true Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) based distributed large scale Process Monitoring and Control system: (1) Real-time SOA (what are the limits of bringing SOA into high performance control loops?); (2) Management of large scale industrial distributed control systems (is it feasible to manage up to tens of thousands of service-oriented devices?); (3) Distributed event-based systems are asynchronous (what are the limits compared to traditional periodic scanning systems?) and (4) Service specification (which semantics are the most suitable for specifying process control and monitoring services?).

  • 10.
    Jammes, François
    et al.
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Karnouskos, Stamatis
    SAP Research, Karlsruhe.
    Bony, Bernard
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Nappey, Philippe
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Stluka, Petr
    Honeywell, Prague.
    Tilly, Marcel
    Microsoft, Unterschleißheim.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Promising Technologies for SOA-Based Industrial Automation Systems2014Ingår i: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, s. 89-109Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years service-oriented architectures have been extensively used to enable seamless interaction and integration among the various heterogeneous systems and devices found in modern factories. The emerging Industrial Automation Systems are increasingly utilising them. In the cloud-based vision of IMC-AESOP such technologies take an even more key role as they empower the backbone of the new concepts and approaches under development. Here we report about the investigations and assessments performed to find answers to some of the major questions that arise as key when technologies have to be selected and used in an industrial context utilizing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)-based distributed large-scale process monitoring and control system. Aspects of integration, real-timeness, distributeness, event-based interaction, service-enablement, etc., are approached from different angles and some of the promising technologies are analysed and assessed.

  • 11.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Efficient Web Services for End-To-End Interoperability of Embedded Systems2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of Internet-connected devices rapidly grows, it has become ever more challenging to develop and maintain purpose-made tightly integrated distributed embedded systems. Instead, the Internet of Things (IoT) approach, based on standardized interfaces and open communication protocols, enables support for various applications with the possibility of extension to provide additional services that were not necessarily available at the initial deployment.This thesis presents methods and tools for the development of standard-based Web services for the Internet of Things. Some of the key challenges in using Web services on resource-constrained devices are due to the overhead of the communication protocols, which leads to the need for greater network bandwidth, processing power, and memory usage. A common solution to these problems is to use gateways that translate between the protocols used on one end of the connection (i.e. low-capability devices) and those on the other end (i.e. powerful Web servers). However, this increases the overall complexity of the system. The work presented herein answers the following research questions: 1) Is it feasible to deploy standard Web services on IoT systems without using application layer gateways? 2) What are the trade-offs in using Web services for end-to-end interoperability of resource-constrained embedded systems? 3) What levels of efficiency and functionality can be achieved using binary coding schemes for XML data exchange?The research questions are tested by building and evaluating several prototype IoT systems. These evaluations show that the use of Web services requires more powerful hardware (i.e. CPU and RAM) and a larger form factor in exchange for better interoperability compared to the use of ad hoc application protocols. The main challenge in employing embedded Web services is the large size of the messages, which is due to the use of verbose data formats such as XML. Although it is shown that it is possible to deploy XML-based Web services on low-capability devices without application layer gateways, this approach has severe performance limitations. Using the Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) binary coding scheme overcomes some of these limitations by substantially reducing the size of the XML messages. The main outcome of this thesis is the design and implementation of a software toolkit, called EXIP, for building EXI-based embedded Web services.The trade-offs in the use of embedded Web services are likely to change in the near future as the importance of application layer interoperability increases and IoT devices become faster, more energy efficient, and equipped with more memory. The dominating importance of interoperability can be seen in highly heterogeneous systems such as energy management systems (i.e. smart grids), where embedded Web services are already in use today. With this in mind, future research directions and extensions of this work include the development of performance optimization strategies for the EXIP toolkit to foster the expansion of embedded Web services to an even wider range of IoT applications.

  • 12. Kyusakov, Rumen
    Project: Embeddable EXI implementation in C2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Towards application of service oriented architecture in wireless sensor networks2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are a foreseeable source of innovation in many fields and the number of WSN deployments is expected to grow rapidly in the near future. One of the key challenges in designing, implementing, deploying and maintaining complex systems that use WSNs is provisioning and integration of sensor data with existing communication infrastructures. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is considered a promising distributed computing approach for providing a common communication platform that supports interoperability and scalability on the application layer. The work in this thesis investigates the application of SOA in WSNs in terms of different technological solutions, performance requirements and scalability. The focus is on efficient implementation and data representation techniques that are capable of meeting the requirements of resource constrained sensor nodes.To date, research efforts in embedded SOA solutions have been focused mainly on middleware software systems in gateway devices for interacting with the sensor network. The work presented here is directed towards deploying interoperable standard-based web services directly on the sensor nodes instead of using gateways and proprietary protocols. This strategy provides for manageable WSN provisioning and interoperability between heterogeneous sensor nodes. The biggest drawback in this approach is the overhead in network throughput, latency, memory, CPU and power consumption connected to the use of verbose data encoding formats such as extensible markup language (XML). In order to mitigate this overhead, in Paper A we investigate various resource aware implementation techniques deployed on a sensor node. The techniques include the use of application specific XML parser, lightweight TCP/IP stack with split-phase interface, parsing on-the-fly and sleep schedules. The results show that it is possible to use standard SOA implementations for resource constrained wireless sensors. Nevertheless, the use of this approach is limited to applications with low real-time requirements due to increased latency in the message exchange.In order to further lower the SOA overhead, the work in this thesis investigates the use of binary representation of the XML data. Based on an initial investigation, the newly emerged W3C standard - Efficient XML Interchange (EXI), provides the best compression and processing efficiency when it comes to XML structured information. For that reason, in Paper C we study how EXI can be applied to the state of the art SOA middlewares for factory automation in order to verify and analyze the benefits of using EXI in industrial environment. Based on this analysis and the experiments that are carried out, we conclude that EXI is a very beneficial technology for factory automation software that is capable of extending the reach of industrial SOA solutions to wireless sensor nodes.The work presented in this thesis also analyzes the current EXI implementations and shows that they are not designed to meet the high requirements of resource utilization in WSN deployments. In Paper B we also perform an analysis of the EXI specification and how it maps to the industrial requirements for wireless sensor nodes. The result of this work is an innovative software design of a new EXI processor targeted at highly resource constrained devices. Among other things, as a part of this EXI processor design is a proposal for a new Application Programming Interface (API) for working with XML Information Set items. Moreover, this work has developed an open source implementation of the new EXI processor design in order to verify the proposed architectural models. The benefits of the new API when it comes to efficiency are experimentally verified for a small embedded platform. The key aim in this work is the vertical integration between WSN and enterprise level systems. The achieved results show that the use of special implementation design as well as the EXI protocol for XML data representation provide large gains in efficiency in WSN deployments. The next step in this work is to investigate and compare these results with the new RESTful constrained protocols under development by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This analysis would pave the way towards reaching the final aim of creating a common, SOA-based communication architecture for cost-effective, flexible and reliable development of complex systems that use WSN technology.

  • 14.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Cragie, Robert
    Gridmerge Ltd..
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Emerging energy management standards and technologies: challenges and application prospects2012Ingår i: 2012 IEEE 17th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation : (ETFA 2012): September 17-21, 2012 Krakow Poland, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuously rising costs and the environmental impact of energy generation, transmission and consumption are a major concern for governments, industry and society alike. Among research in renewable energy sources as well as in energy efficiency of buildings, electrical appliances, vehicles etc., a considerable amount of attention has been devoted to effective energy management. In this paper, we present a survey on emerging energy management standards with focus on enabling application layer Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) that are a central part of these standards. The presented work includes an analysis on the challenges, future trends, security and application prospects of energy management standards. As part of the survey, the emerging Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) version 2.0 and Smart Energy Profile (SEP) version 2.0 were identified as the most promising and complete solutions. The presented survey provides an important insight on the future developments in the area of energy management protocols and highlights a number of key ICT solutions and challenges.

  • 15.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Efficient structured data processing for web service enabled shop floor devices2011Ingår i: 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2011): Gdansk, Poland, 27 - 30 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 1716-1721Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    State of the art factory automation systems are nowusing Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in order to increaseflexibility and lower complexity of process monitoring andcontrol. However, the service technology has not yet penetratedinto the lower levels of plant-wide automation processes i.e.throughout shop floor devices such as programmable controllers,embedded sensors and actuators. Different techniques to adaptthe web service technology to the specific requirements of embedded systems domain are intensively investigated by researchersand yet real-time properties, limited resources and wirelesslinks are still posing immense challenges. The most promisingsolutions proposed are based on a newly emerging structureddata format - Efficient XML Interchange (EXI). It is designedto compensate for the inefficiency of widely used throughoutservice implementations XML format. This paper investigates thedesign of EXI processor targeted at highly resource constrainedembedded devices found at the shop floor level. The EXIprocessor is proposed as an alternative to the XML parsersand serializers currently used in web service implementations.Among the results presented are a novel low level processorinterface and measurements quantifying the gained efficiencycompared to traditional XML-like interfaces. Reference opensource implementation equipped with the new interface is alsoprovided.

  • 16.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Integration of wireless sensor and actuator nodes with IT infrastructure using service-oriented architecture2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 43-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of potential applications for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN) have yet to be embraced by industry despite high interest amongst academic researchers. This is due to various factors such as unpredictable costs related to development, deployment and maintenance of WSAN, especially when integration with existing IT infrastructure and legacy systems is needed. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is seen as a promising technique to bridge the gap between sensor nodes and enterprise applications such as factory monitoring, control and tracking systems where sensor data is used. To date, research efforts have focused on middleware software systems located in gateway devices that implement standard service technology, such as Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS), for interacting with the sensor network. This paper takes a different approach - deploying interoperable Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)-based web services directly on the nodes and not using gateways. This strategy provides for easy integration with legacy IT systems and supports heterogeneity at the lowest level. Two-fold analysis of the related overhead, which is the main challenge of this solution, is performed; Quantification of resource consumption as well as techniques to mitigate it are presented, along with latency measurements showing the impact of different parts of the system on system performance. A proof-of-concept application using Mulle - a resource-constrained sensor platform - is also presented.

  • 17.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Efficient XML interchange in factory automation systems2012Ingår i: IECON 2011: 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Melbourne, Vic. 7 Nov. - 10 Nov. 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 4478-4483Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in the automation domain has made possible the cross-layer vertical integration of devices, manufacturing systems and business processes. However, the use of standard web service technologies is not always possible in an industrial environment with high real-time requirements and limited hardware resources due to the overhead connected to XML processing. The work presented in this paper analyses the opportunities, advantages and challenges when applying the newly emerged Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) standard for XML encoding to the factory automation systems. The two major SOA-based automation middleware architectures, namely OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) and Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS), were investigated. Furthermore, we present an EXI-based approach for extending the reach of the service technology covering deployments on resource constrained embedded devices.

  • 18.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    EXIP: A Framework for Embedded Web Development2014Ingår i: ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB), ISSN 1559-1131, E-ISSN 1559-114X, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikel-id 23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing and deploying Web applications on networked embedded devicesis often seen as a way to reduce the development cost and time to marketfor new target platforms. However, the sizeof the messages and the processing requirements of today's Web protocols, such as HTTP and XML,are challenging for the most resource-constrained class of devicesthat could also benefit from Web connectivity.New Web protocols using binary representations have been proposedfor addressing this issue. Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)reduces the bandwidth and processing requirementscompared to HTTP while preserving the core concepts of the Web architecture.Similarly, Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) format has been standardizedfor reducing the size and processing time for XML structured information.Nevertheless, the adoption of these technologies is lagging behind due to lack ofsupport from web browsers and current Web development toolkits.Motivated by these problems, this article presents the design and implementationtechniques for the EXIP framework for embedded Web development. The frameworkconsists of a highly efficient EXI processor, a tool for EXI data binding basedon templates, and a CoAP/EXI/XHTML Web page engine.A prototype implementation of the EXI processor is hereinpresented and evaluated. It can be applied to Web browsersor thin server platforms using XHTML and Web servicesfor supporting human-machine interactions with constrained hosts.This article contains four major results: (1) theoretical and practical evaluation of the use of binary protocolsfor embedded Web programming; (2) a novelmethod for generation of EXI grammars based on XML Schema definitions;(3) an algorithm for grammar concatenationthat produces normalized EXI grammars directly, and hence reducesthe number of iterations during grammar generation;(4) an algorithm for efficient representation of possible deviations from theXML schema.

  • 19.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A SOA approach to delay and jitter tolerant distributed real-time complex event processing2013Ingår i: 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2013): Taipei, Taiwan, 28 - 31 May 2013; [proceedings], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) and Complex Event Processing (CEP) is gaining momen- tum for event centric management and processing of informa- tion in complex distributed systems (e.g., business automation). Whereas systems for factory automation have traditionally been deployed using dedicated buses and proprietary (often scan based) protocols, a recent trend in process automation is towards adopting open internet based technologies and event based communication. This trend is driven by the increasing number and capabilities of devices used for monitoring and control, and the increased flexibility, maintainability and price/performance gains expected from IP (potentially SOA/CEP) enabled systems.In this paper we discuss the challenges involved to apply SOA and CEP to the field of factory automation. In particular, real- time aspects are highlighted, both w.r.t. to accurate time-stamping of physical events in a distributed system, as well as end-to-end timing including communication and CEP processing.We approach the challenges by an architecture combining state-of-the-art synchronisation mechanisms for wired and wire- less networks together with real-time communication and dis- tributed query processing based on the notion of time constrained reactions. We discuss the impact of synchronisation inaccuracies and delays introduced by processing and communication, and present a method for implementation of safe potential- and certain matches.

  • 20.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric.
    Colombo, Armando
    Schneider Electric.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a legacy plant lubrication system to SOA2013Ingår i: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 7440-7445Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a Legacy Plant Lubrication System to SOA2014Ingår i: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, s. 167-182Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMC-AESOP investigations have been articulated around key use cases in order to better capture user needs and corresponding requirements. This particular use case explores how Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) can ease the installation and maintenance of one of the lubrication system of the world’s largest underground iron mine run by LKAB in north Sweden, with a focus on migration aspects. We demonstrate that the loose coupling provided by the SOA approach combined with the eventing capabilities of Event Driven Architecture (EDA) can benefit to both engineering, installation and maintenance of an industrial process control system, with the exception of hard real-time based control loops.

  • 22.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Roadmap for SOA event processing and service execution in real-time using Timber2011Ingår i: 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2011): Gdansk, Poland, 27 - 30 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 1727-1732Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of Service Oriented Architectures for monitoring and control involves the deployment of SOA onto lightweight devices (e.g., embedded controllers for sensors and actuators). For the use of SOA in applications where timing and dependability are important, it becomes crucial that SOA event processing and service implementations are robust and time bound for a given platform. To this end, formalisms and tools aiding the design is instrumental. In this paper, we present a roadmap for a SOA based on components using the modeling and programming paradigm of Timber. Our vision is to present Timber based software components as services. By using current standards for service descriptions and eventing we will facilitate interoperability with legacy systems. We will develop a compiler tool suit allowing Timber based services to be deployable onto lightweight resource constrained platforms (e.g., sensors and actuators for industrial use). Our goal is to provide design time guarantees on e.g., robustness (safety and liveness), timing properties, and resource utilization for the complete embedded system comprising SOA event communication, event processing together with the service implementations.

  • 23.
    Punal, Pablo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Raayatinezhad, Asma
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Johansson, Mia
    Säktek Tillväxt Skellefteå.
    Enabling cloud-connectivity for mobile internet of things applications2013Ingår i: Proceedings: 2013 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering, SOSE 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 518-526Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of small embedded devices connected to the Internet is increasing. This growth is mostly due to the large number of Internet of Things (IoT) deployments, withapplications such as: industrial monitoring, home automation, and others. One common aspect with the majority of application areas is the lack of mobility. Most IoT devices arestationary and often use IEEE 802.15.4/6LoWPAN solutions. When a high level of mobility is required, the use of IEEE 802.15.4 is not possible without adding additional hardware for the user to carry.In this article, a holistic network architecture consisting of heterogeneous devices is presented. The architecture is composed of Embedded Internet Systems (EIS) and uses standard communication protocols. One important feature is the use of the Service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm. The use of SOA, by utilization of the CoAP protocol and standard services, enables the proposed architecture to exchange sensor-and actuator data with an Internet-based cloud as well as a user’s local cloud consisting of sensor IoT devices, smart phones and laptops. Another component of the architecture is a web-based human-machine interface for configuration, monitoring and visualization of sensor and actuator data using emerging web technologies for structured data processing.Results from experiments and real-world tests show that the proposed architecture can support sample rates of up to several kHz while enabling sensor data to be transmitted to SOA services in real time. This proves that the use of SOA, and RESTful web services in particular, is feasible on resource-constrained platforms while supporting true mobility.

  • 24.
    Zhong, Chen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Evaluation of a heterogeneous sensor network architecture for highly mobile users2011Ingår i: Communications and Network, ISSN 1949-2421, E-ISSN 1947-3826, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 57-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experimental results of a heterogeneous sensor network architecture, which is a combi-nation of a wireless sensor network and a personal area network. The proposed architecture uses the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to transmit sensor data to a sensor node which in turn forwards the data using TCP/IP to a database on the Internet via a Bluetooth-equipped mobile phone and the mobile telephone access network. The performance of the entire communication chain is evaluated. First, a 3G network's performance is evalu-ated by measuring its round trip time for packet transmission. Second, the real-world end-to-end delay be-tween a sensor node and a database server on the Internet is measured using two different experimental set-ups: single-hop transmission and two hops transmission. Finally, the proposed architecture's scalability is estimated in a Matlab simulation using the results of the experiments as a base. The results show that the proposed architecture is applicable for small-scale sensor networks used by highly mobile users.

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