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  • 1.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mcload, Stuart
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Harrison, Robert
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Mendes, J Marco
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Building System of Systems with SOA Technology: A Smart House Use Case2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 219-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IMC-AESOP architecture has been used to implemente a smart house demonstration. Six different systems has been integrated with local (802.11, 802.15.4) and global (telecom) communication. The six systems integrated are: Car arrival detection system, Garage door opening system, House security system, External house lightning system, External electrical outlet system, House energy control system. The SOA technologies used are CoAP and EXI using SenML to encode the services. Engineering tools have been used to simulate the usage scenario and provide prediction of system behaviour.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Aittamaa, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Real-time for the masses: Step 1: programming API and static priority SRP kernel primitives2013In: 2013 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial and Embedded Systems (SIES 2013): 19-21 June 2013, Porto, Portugal, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 110-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lightweight Real-Time Operating Systems have gained widespread use in implementing embedded software on lightweight nodes. However, bare metal solutions are chosen, e.g., when the reactive (interrupt-driven) paradigm better matches the programmer’s intent, when the OS features are not needed, or when the OS overhead is deemed too large. Moreover, other approaches are used when real-time guarantees are required. Establishing real-time and resource guarantees typically requires expert knowledge in the field, as no turn-key solutions are available to the masses.In this paper we set out to bridge the gap between bare metal solutions and traditional Real-Time OS paradigms. Our goal is to meet the intuition of the programmer and at the same time provide a resource-efficient (w.r.t. CPU and memory) implementation with established properties, such as bounded memory usage and guaranteed response times. We outline a roadmap for Real-Time For the Masses (RTFM) and report on the first step: an intuitive, platform-independent programming API backed by an efficient Stack Resource Policy-based scheduler and a tool for kernel configuration and basic resource and timing analysis.

  • 3.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Formal aspects of component-based design of embedded real-time systems2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric.
    Colombo, Armando
    Schneider Electric.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a legacy plant lubrication system to SOA2013In: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 7440-7445Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Nappey, Philippe
    et al.
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Kaed, Charbel El
    Schneider Electric, Grenoble.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hübner, Christian
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Bangemann, Thomas
    Ifak - Institut für Automation und Kommunikation.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    Midroc Electro AB, Stockholm.
    Migration of a Legacy Plant Lubrication System to SOA2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 167-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMC-AESOP investigations have been articulated around key use cases in order to better capture user needs and corresponding requirements. This particular use case explores how Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) can ease the installation and maintenance of one of the lubrication system of the world’s largest underground iron mine run by LKAB in north Sweden, with a focus on migration aspects. We demonstrate that the loose coupling provided by the SOA approach combined with the eventing capabilities of Event Driven Architecture (EDA) can benefit to both engineering, installation and maintenance of an industrial process control system, with the exception of hard real-time based control loops.

  • 6.
    Sundström, Nils
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Friborg, Johan
    Malå GeoScience AB.
    Modeling and simulation of GPR wave propagation through wet snowpacks: testing the sensitivity of a method for snow water equivalent estimation2012In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 74-75, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow water equivalent (SWE) of a snowpack is an important input to the distributed snow hydrological models used for runoff predictions in areas with annual snowpacks. Since the conventional method of manually measuring SWE is very time-consuming, more automated methods are being adopted, such as using ground penetrating radar operated from a snowmobile with SWE estimated from radar wave two-way travel time. However, this method suffers from significant errors when liquid water is present in the snow.In our previous work, a new method for estimating SWE of wet snowpacks from radar wave travel times and amplitudes was proposed, with both these parameters obtained from a common mid-point survey. Here we present a custom ray-based model of radar wave propagation through wet snowpacks and results of MATLAB simulations conducted to investigate the method's sensitivity to measurement errors and snowpack properties. In particular, for a single-layer snowpack up to 2.1 m deep and with liquid water content up to 4.5% (by volume), the simulations indicate that SWE can be estimated with an error of ± 5% or less if (a) the noise (measurement errors) in the resulting amplitude has a standard deviation less than 15% and(b) the noise in two-way travel time has a standard deviation less than 0.075 ns (22.5% and 0.15 ns for a snowpack less than 1.3 m deep).

  • 7.
    Sundström, Nils
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Field evaluation of a new method for estimation of liquid water content and snow water equivalent of wet snowpacks with GPR2013In: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 600-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) with ground-penetrating radar can be used to calibrate and validate measurements of SWE over large areas conducted from satellites and aircrafts. However, such radar estimates typically suffer from low accuracy in wet snowpacks due to a built-in assumption of dry snow. To remedy the problem, we suggest determining liquid water content from path-dependent attenuation. We present the results of a field evaluation of this method which demonstrate that, in a wet snowpack between 0.9 and 3 m deep and with about 5 vol% of liquid water, liquid water content is underestimated by about 50% (on average). Nevertheless, the method decreases the mean error in SWE estimates to 16% compared to 34% when the presence of liquid water in snow is ignored and 31% when SWE is determined directly from two-way travel time and calibrated for manually measured snow density.

  • 8.
    van Deventer, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nordlander, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Platform independent system integration2011In: SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition Technical Papers: April 12 - 14, 2011, Detroit, Michigan, USA ; [papers], Warrendale, Pa: Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and demonstrates a paradigm to implement automotive systems based on their specifications in a manner that is platform independent. The advantage is to have the same software used in simulation as on different types of micro-controller in a vehicle as well as to ease the integration of different systems. The paradigm is to model the system’s components as reactive objects and to use the Timber kernel to schedule their (re)actions. The demonstration is done by developing an anti-lock braking system within the simulation software CarSim and Simulink, which is then evaluated on a braking maneuver over a surface with different coefficient of adhesion from side to side (split mu).

  • 9.
    Wiklander, Jimmie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nordlander, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Enabling component-based design for embedded real-time software2009In: Journal of Computers, ISSN 1796-203X, E-ISSN 1796-203X, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 1309-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded software calls for a new, more efficient design approach. A natural choice is to use well-established component-based design; however, its adoption to design of embedded software has been slow and riddled with difficulties. It can be argued that these problems are due to the following peculiarities of embedded systems. Firstly, the tight integration between hardware and software, typical for embedded systems, makes it virtually impossible to model and implement software separately from hardware. Secondly, it is difficult to express timing requirements, an intrinsic part of functionality of many embedded systems, in dataflow abstractions traditionally used in component-based design. We propose to overcome these difficulties by introducing a uniform, consistent modeling of both hardware and software and by integrating timing requirements into the model. We present a modeling framework based on the notions of reactive objects and time-constrained reactions, which enables component-based design of embedded real-time systems. Within this framework, functionality of both hardware and software components is defined in terms of reactions to discrete external events, and timing requirements are specified for each reaction relative to the event that triggered it. We also present a detailed software design methodology for embedded real-time systems based on our modeling framework.

  • 10.
    Wiklander, Jimmie
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nordlander, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Personal alarm device: a case study in component-based design of embedded real-time software2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing software for embedded systems is complicated by such factors as the tight integration between software and hardware, scarceness of available resources, and hard real-time requirements. In our earlier work we proposed a component-based approach based on modeling both hardware and software using reactive objects and time-constrained reactions, which should allow us to overcome these difficulties. We also presented a software design methodology for embedded real-time systems.Here we describe a system developed using this methodology and discuss its advantages. The system is a personal alarm device that should be worn at the waist of a person and that should detect his or her fall and send an alarm signal. The implementation of the system was verified using a Simulink-based simulator. The simulation demonstrated that, even though calculation of acceleration was simplified to allow for an efficient execution on a resource-constrained platform, fall detection remained satisfactory.The case study demonstrates the advantages of the proposed software design methodology, including the fact that functional and timing properties of a system model can be preserved during implementation process by means of a seamless transition between a model and an implementation.

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